Science links

Allah says in the Quran

Verily! In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of night and day, and the ships which sail through the sea with that which is of use to mankind, and the water (rain) which Allah sends down from the sky and makes the earth alive therewith after its death, and the moving (living) creatures of all kinds that He has scattered therein, and in the veering of winds and clouds which are held between the sky and the earth, are indeed Ayat (proofs, evidences, signs, etc.) for people of understanding. [Quran – Al-Baqara 2:164]

The Quran also states:

Those who remember Allah (always, and in prayers) standing, sitting, and lying down on their sides, and think deeply about the creation of the heavens and the earth, (saying): “Our Lord! You have not created (all) this without purpose, glory to You! (Exalted be You above all that they associate with You as partners). Give us salvation from the torment of the Fire. [Quran – Al-Ímran 3:190]

The second way of knowing Allah is to ponder over the verses of the Quran. The Quran states:

(This is) a Book (the Quran) which We have sent down to you, full of blessings that they may ponder over its Verses, and that men of understanding may remember. [Quran – Saad 38:29]


5. Iyyaka naAAbudu wa-iyyaka nastaAAeenu


5. You (Alone) we worship, and You (Alone) we ask for help (for each and everything). 

Ibn al Haytham - The First Scientist - Alhazen

Known in the West as Alhazen, Alhacen, or Alhazeni,Abu Ali al-Hasan ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham was the first person to test hypotheses with verifiable experiments, developing the scientific method more than 200 years before European scholars learned of it—by reading his books.

Born in Basra in 965, Ibn al-Haitham first studied theology, trying unsuccessfully to resolve the differences between the Shi'ah and Sunnah sects. Ibn al-Haitham then turned his attention to the works of the ancient Greek philosophers and mathematicians, including Euclid and Archimedes. He completed the fragmentary Conicsby Apollonius of Perga. Ibn al-Haitham was the first person to apply algebra to geometry, founding the branch of mathematics known as analytic geometry.

A devout Muslim, Ibn al-Haitham believed that human beings are flawed and only God is perfect. To discover the truth about nature, Ibn a-Haitham reasoned, one had to eliminate human opinion and allow the universe to speak for itself through physical experiments. "The seeker after truth is not one who studies the writings of the ancients and, following his natural disposition, puts his trust in them," the first scientist wrote, "but rather the one who suspects his faith in them and questions what he gathers from them, the one who submits to argument and demonstration."

In his massive study of light and vision, Kitâb al-Manâzir (Book of Optics ), Ibn al-Haytham submitted every hypothesis to a physical test or mathematical proof. To test his hypothesis that "lights and colors do not blend in the air," for example, Ibn al-Haytham devised the world's first camera obscura, observed what happened when light rays intersected at its aperture, and recorded the results. Throughout his investigations, Ibn al-Haytham followed all the steps of the scientific method.

Kitab al-Manazir was translated into Latin as De aspectibus and attributed to Alhazen in the late thirteenth century in Spain. Copies of the book circulated throughout Europe. Roger Bacon, who sometimes is credited as the first scientist, wrote a summary of Kitab al-Manazir entitled Perspectiva (Optics) some two hundred years after the death of the scholar known as Alhazen.

Ibn al-Haytham conducted many of his experiments investigating the properties of light during a ten-year period when he was stripped of his possessions and imprisoned as a madman in Cairo. How Ibn al-Haytham came to be in Egypt, why he was judged insane, and how his discoveries launched the scientific revolution are just some of the questions Bradley Steffens answers in Ibn al-Haytham: First Scientist, the world's first biography of the Muslim polymath.

Midwest Book Review calls Ibn al-Haytham: First Scientist a "fine blend of history and science biography." Booklistconcurs, praising Ibn al-Haytham: First Scientist as a "clearly written introduction to Ibn al-Haytham, his society, and his contributions." Kirkus Reviews touts Ibn al-Haytham: First Scientist as "an illuminating narrative...of a devout, brilliant polymath." Children's Literature adds, "Steffens deftly weaves an overview of Islamic history into this biography. Writing for The Fountain, Dr. Ertan Salik adds: "I congratulate Bradley Steffens for his beautiful work about Ibn al-Haythamand his advancement of experimental science." 

Critics are not the only ones praising Ibn al-Haytham: First Scientist; casual readers are lauding it as well. Abdul Jabbar Al-Shammari, the director of the Ibn al-Haitham Center for Science and Technology in Amman, Jordan, writes: "I enjoyed reading about the events in the life of the first scientist, Ibn al-Haitham. I congratulate Bradley Steffens on writing a fantastic and accurate book.” A. Nor of Ohio adds, "I find the book interesting, for it accords and recognizes a Muslim scientist his proper place as the first scientist who is responsible for advocating experimental work in verifying conceived scientific ideas (hypotheses)." And Reformistan blogger Usman Mirza, of Karachi, Pakistan, writes, "As Muslims, we are subject of taunts for our ‘backwardness’ and lack of secular, scientific achievements. I encourage readers to read a book on the 'first scientist', a Muslim in Islam’s golden age. It is a nicely written biography of Ibn al-Haytham by a westerner, Bradley Steffens. He has written about a neglected subject that needs to be read by all."



Prof. Jim Al-Khalili Science & Islam Part 2 Empire of Reason Muslim Heritage

The Qur’an calls upon Muslims to look around them and study the physical world, so that they might appreciate the majesty of Allah’s creation.  “Behold! in the creation of the heavens and the earth; in the alternation of the night and the day; in the sailing of the ships through the ocean for the benefit of mankind; in the rain which Allah Sends down from the skies, and the life which He gives therewith to an earth that is dead; in the beasts of all kinds that He scatters through the earth; in the change of the winds, and the clouds which they trail like their slaves between the sky and the earth — (Here) indeed are Signs for a people that are wise.” (Surah Al-Baqarah 2:164)

And the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) told Muslims to “seek knowledge, even if it be in China.”  (Meaning ’seek knowledge wherever it may be found.‘)


Throughout Islamic history, that is exactly what Muslims have done.   Particularly in the 7th-13th centuries C.E., the Islamic world was in the midst of its “Golden Age,” paving the way for the growth of modern sciences.  Rather than stifling science, the religion of Islam encouraged its study.  Scientific inquiry was widespread, and some of the greatest scholars and scientists of the world made wondrous discoveries and inventions.  Muslims led the world in the study of medicine, astronomy, mathematics, geography, chemistry, botany, and physics.  They transmitted their studies to the West, where their work was built upon and further disseminated.

For Further Study:

Contributions of Islam to Medicine - excellent article by Ezzat Abouleish , M. D.

How Islam Influenced Science - overview from the Islamic Herald

Islam in Medieval History - links from’s Medieval History Guide

Islamic Medicine - overview of Muslim contributions to the field of medicine

Medieval Science - another resource from’s Guide to Medieval History

Muslim Scientists and Scholars - biographies of the well-known and lesser-known

Science and Islam - overview of the many fields Muslims studied

Scientific Contributions of Muslims - in English and Arabic.

Setting the Record Straight - Westerners take credit for many discoveries that were actually made by Muslim scientists.

Sci-Tech Encyclopedia:



Home > Library > Science > Sci-Tech Encyclopedia

In common usage the word science is applied to a variety of disciplines or intellectual activities which have certain features in common. Usually a science is characterized by the possibility of making precise statements which are susceptible of some sort of check or proof. This often implies that the situations with which the special science is concerned can be made to recur in order to submit themselves to check, although this is by no means always the case. There are observational sciences such as astronomy or geology in which repetition of a situation at will is intrinsically impossible, and the possible precision is limited to precision of description.

A common method of classifying sciences is to refer to them as either exact sciences or descriptive sciences. Examples of the former are physics and, to a lesser degree, chemistry; and of the latter, taxonomical botany orzoology. The exact sciences are in general characterized by the possibility of exact measurement. One of the most important tasks of a descriptive science is to develop a method of description or classification that will permit precision of reference to the subject matter. See also Physical science.

The cult of scientism

The cults of skepticism, presentism, scientism, and anti-intellectualism will lead us to despair, not merely of education, but also of society.

Scientism divides all thought into two categories: scientific thought and nonsense.” The cult of scientism

scientific method are never certain, science is never complete, and scientists can never legitimately claim absolute knowledge.

Cosmology is the study of the universe and humanity’s place in it. In the last few hundred years, cosmology has been dominated by physics and astrophysics, primarily being based on religion prior to that. Seeking to give humanity answers to “Big Questions,” religion and mythology have offered various answers to the origin of the universe and its arrangement since prehistory, but these explanations are replaced by contemporary scientific observations and theories.

However, one should not assume that the current scientific conception of cosmology is correct. Although the general picture has remained the same since the 1920s, the specifics are often revised based on new observations and theories. Most notably in the history of cosmology, in 1964 the cosmic microwavebackground radiation was detected.


What has all this to do with the so-called management sciences - by which I mean all sorts of disciplines, including scientific management, operational research, systems theory, socio-technical systems theory, group relations work and more? It means that their claims to objectivity or scientificity are ersatz - a thin fig-leaf consisting of concepts like efficiency, optimization, quality circles, functionalism, 'one best way'. These concepts obscure a set of exploitative, alienated power relations of formal and real subordination. But they do so in such a way as to make the real relations of power and exploitation obscure and (this is a real plus) not amenable to debate or contestation. In the precise Gramscian sense, science be


Here are facts you will not read in the newspapers and magazines. Scientists know that the Big Bang did not, and could not, occur.   In professional books and 

journals they tell why the theory is unworkable. Evolutionary theory is a myth. Nothing else can explain the mountain of evidence. This is science vs. evolution —a Creation-Evolution Encyclopedia, brought to you by Creation Science Facts.

CONTENT: Scientists Speak about the Origin of Matter -

Over 3,000 scientific facts which annihilate evolutionary theory
This book is based on extensive research and is highly recommended by scientists and educators



Intelligent Design VS. Darwinism: Unlock...57:47 - 2 years ago

Darwin's Theory of Evolution - A Theory In Crisis

Darwin's Theory of Evolution is a theory in crisis in light of the tremendous advances we've made in molecular biology, biochemistry and genetics over the past fifty years. We now know that there are in fact tens of thousands of irreducibly complex systems on the cellular level. Specified complexity pervades the microscopic biological world. Molecular biologist Michael Denton wrote, "Although the tiniest bacterial cells are incredibly small, weighing less than 10-12 grams, each is in effect a veritable micro-miniaturized factory 

mes an important part of hegemony in that a rationalization is offered so that the real relations of power are obscured and internalized in people's consciousness, thereby enforcing the existing order of society without the use of physical coercion.

How to Disprove Evolution Using Science

Here a problem arises in the theory of evolution.

Read more: How to Disprove Evolution Using Science |


Newton vs. Einstein:'w+Law+Vs+Einstein's+&pid=2140661&
Battling the challenges from Atheism, Darwinism, Evolutionism, Materialism and using scientific research to prove Islam and destroying the baseless theories that support Atheism. This web site has convincingly defeated Atheism etc... Moreover the web site is very comprehensive and covers many topics besides these... All books (pdf/text), videos, audios, presentations are free for download. Highly recommended videos include: The truth of life of this world, The secret of the test, never forget, signs of the last day, answers from the Qur'an 1,2,3, Names of ALLAH and many more...Some other web sites by him to prove Islam and defeat atheism , , , , , , , Evolution, Atheism)

Between early 2001 and the present day there have been a number of very interesting and important developments in the world of science. The advances made in such different scientific fields as palaeontology, molecular biology, anatomy and genetics have once again revealed the terrible scientific dilemma the theory of evolution finds itself in. The theory of evolution was proposed in its present form in the mid-19th century by Charles Darwin and at that time provided enormous support for materialism. Such was that support that the present collapse of the theory is also resulting in the collapse of materialism itself. Materialism is a most dangerous philosophy, which denies the existence of God, religion and the spiritual life and which regards matter as the only absolute and supports a selfish world view. The selfish, self-interested, combative and ruthless moral view which is still widespread in the world is the product of a materialist-Darwinist viewpoint.


Click for All Books


Harun Yahya (convincingly defeating Atheism)


Sheikh Yusuf Estes is official website which contains free articles, books  audios, videos, software, convert stories including Sheikh Yusuf Estes's conversion to Islam. Free audio and video lectures also available at and

Bible compared to The Qur'an:  

What Scholars of Bible Say About Their Book +more...  

Why Are So Many People Entering Islam? Good question...visit 


Love:        it is basic and natural requirement in order to obtain fulfillment in life.

Example; - if a mother has not given love to her children, think what will


Peace of mind: it is a fulfillment of soul.

Soul:                           our Intel and physical search does not have full knowledge of soul.

So now if we want to real peace of mind we must have knowledge of real pleaser satisfaction of soul. And that only come from almighty one GOD (ALLAH}.

WE must know first ours creator and his power on of his creation. And that only come from GOD {ALLAH}.

From Adam, Nooh, Ibrahim, Jacob, Musa.Jissas (asw) and Last prophet Muhammad (saw) all are Almighty GOD Massagers and they have one massage. If you want to success in this world and after death. You must worship ONE almighty GOD. No another gods like your arrogant. Selfish desire act.

Your Intel without GOD leads you in darkness. Fact is fact and just guessing is illusion.

Human has thousand of year writing document of morality, fareness, and Justice natural rule act. They all indicate that your and what ever exceed are Almighty GOD creation. all totally depends on Almighty one GOD. There is no Power except almighty GOD. We experience every day but we ignore realty. So please study all Prophets and last Book Quran.

1400 hundreds years without no change. QURAN You Must read for you good.

An-Nisa (The Women)

4:1 O manKIND! Be conscious of your Sustainer, who has created you out ofone living entity, and out of it created its mate, and out of the two spread abroad a multitude of men and women. [1] and remain conscious of God, in whose name you demand [your rights] from one another, and of these ties of kinship. Verily, God is ever watchful over you!

An-Nisa (The Women)

4:110 If any one does evil or wrongs his own soul but afterwards seeks Allah's forgiveness, he will find Allah Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful. -English

Al-Imran (The Family of Imran)

3:117 What they spend in the life of this (material) world May be likened to a wind which brings a nipping frost: It strikes and destroys the harvest of men who have wronged their own souls: it is not Allah that hath wronged them, but they wrong themselves. - English

Al-Fath (The Victory)

48:4 It is He who from on high has bestowed inner peace upon the hearts ofthe believers, [4] so that - seeing that God’s are all the forces of the heavens and the earth, and that God is all-knowing, truly wise - they might grow yet more firm in their faith; [5]

And guard yourselves against a day when no soul will in aught avail another, nor will intercession be accepted from it, nor will compensation be received from it, nor will they be helped.  
(  سورة البقرة  , Al-Baqara, Chapter #2, Verse #48)

Evil is that for which they sell their souls: that they should disbelieve in that which Allah hath revealed, grudging that Allah should reveal of His bounty unto whom He will of His slaves. They have incurred anger upon anger. For disbelievers is a shameful doom.  
(  سورة البقرة  , Al-Baqara, Chapter #2, Verse #90)

And guard yourselves against a day in which ye will be brought back to Allah. Then every soul will be paid in full that which it hath earned, and they will not be wronged.  
(  سورة البقرة  , Al-Baqara, Chapter #2, Verse #281)



The Disasters Darwinism Brought to Humanity (Part 1 of 5)


Scientific Racism: The Eugenics of Social Darwinism











SCIENCE & ISLAM - BBC - Professor Jim Al-Khalili 

















































































































































































































































































Origins - The Fossil Record with Dr. Jerry Bergman

Illuminati - Darwinism & Evolution Exposed !

From Darwin to Hitler

Shaykh Yusuf Estes on Darwinism and Evolution Theory

Here a problem arises in the theory of evolution

Evolution is history's greatest hoax - Darwin theory is wrong

helen thomas- an american hero 911 truth exposed
















































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Piltdown man is one of the most famous frauds in the history of science. In 1912 Charles Dawson discovered the first of two skulls found in the Piltdown quarry in Sussex, England, skulls of an apparently primitive hominid, an ancestor of man. Piltdown man, or Eoanthropus dawsoni to use his scientific name, was a sensation. He was the expected "missing link" a mixture of human and ape with the noble brow of Homo sapiens and a primitive jaw. Best of all, he was British!


Pathological science »

O ne of the most interesting challenges a practicing scientist faces is explaining to a non-scientist how science works. Though science is one of many "ways of knowing," and not a perfect one, it seem...


Illuminati - Darwinism & Evolution Exposed !


Darwinism is an Illuminati Scam……0.0…,_Hoaxes_and_Speculation

The Limits of Science

Lambert Dolphin


 One prominent professor of physics and astronomy has rightly said, "Science is in the business of discovering what the laws of physics are, not why those laws were passed. The latter is the realm of theology."

 we were not present at the creation as observers, nor during the early history of the earth, and little data has been passed down to us from ancient times. Taking scientific data for 50 or 100 years and extrapolating our findings hundreds, thousands, millions or billions of years into the past is speculation. This does not mean that all such speculation is meaningless, but it does mean that we must be careful not to call scientific models and theories "established fact."

Most scientists are pragmatic at times and will on occasion seize upon a formula or a new discovery and begin to apply it according to the unwritten law "If it works use it. Never mind why. We'll figure that out later."


All scientific theories are built upon assumptions, as mentioned above. These foundational premises ought to be reexamined every once and awhile---since many times in the past tall palaces of speculation have been built on questionable and unproven assumptions. Scientific "advances" are built on the pioneering work of those who have gone before. If the pioneers made mistakes, or were short-sighted, their errors can easily be perpetuated for several generations. After a generation or two, the current scientific workers in a given field usually have "forgotten" or not taken the trouble to find out what assumptions went into the original work. Some have not bothered to ask whether or not the data base has changed or checked to see if the original assumptions are now suspect or erroneous. The problem is, yesterday's speculation becomes today's scientific dogma in many instances.

 One has only to compare college science text books of today with those published a decade or two ago to see how quickly science changes its models, buries its mistakes, and quickly popularizes new theories as if they were well-established immutable facts.

"Science is the only self-correcting human institution, but it is also a process that progresses only by showing itself to be wrong."--Astronomer Allan Sandage.


Theoretical and Experimental Branches in Science

Some scientific discoveries have been the result of purely theoretical studies conducted by mathematicians. Experimental testing of such theories has in many instances led to valid new knowledge. In fact, science divides broadly into classes of theoreticians and groups of experimentalists (who need each other if only to stay honest and realistic in what they undertake). Theoretical studies, such as mathematical models of the universe, allow for many more dimensions and variables than may actually exist in the known universe, yet some scientific discoveries have been made purely because some mathematician suggested that something in one of his equations might help us understand a previously poorly understood area of science. Upon investigation, the suggested phenomenon (a new atomic particle, for example) has often been found to exist.

Researchers, that is, experimentalists, frequently find discrepancies in their measurements that lead to new or better theories. Or, by accident, they may stumble on to some previously unexplained phenomenon. When this happens, they call in the theoreticians, who must go back and do more homework. Though each of these two groups claims to have the superior point of view, it is obvious that a synergy between them exists, and their interaction with each other from differing points of view is most valuable to us all.

it will be immediately obvious that science knows most about the physical, inanimate world, and least about the world of spirit:


Physical World

Emotional World

Inner Man

External to Man

Life Processes

Mind. Emotions, Will (the Soul)

Realm of the heart (the Spirit)




Extra Sensory Perception (ESP)










Organic Chemistry

Social Sciences

Occult Sciences



Behavorial Sciences














Decreasing Scientific Reliability --------------->


One conclusion to be drawn from such a table is that those sciences that attempt to deal with the spiritual realm (that zone closest to the innermost recesses of man) have not proven very successful in spite of valiant attempts to make them so. The latter are frequently discredited by conservative scientists---they are considered "pseudosciences." No one argues very strenuously with the findings of the astronomer or the geologist in comparison. In these two fields we rest on empty space or solid ground respectively! When measuring and studying the physical, material world, our instruments are more reliable; our results are more easily reproducible; and our findings tend to better stand the test of time.


Science is only just beginning to understand the workings of the brain (let alone the mind), and attempts to explain man's innermost workings on the basis of physics, chemistry, and electricity make us seem like extensions of the material world. Few of us want to have our souls stolen from us so that we lose a love of life or caring for others, or cease to be vulnerable to learning, growth and change. Life is bleak when we lose a sense of beauty, art, music, or culture. These are all more important than mere scientific facts. I myself believe we are best off when we believe that we are living in a universe full of mystery, with room for endless discoveries as well as endless delights. In the long run, science really only helps us in the physical world and in the biological world, that is in the world of externals, the things of the material half of creation. We get no real help from science on metaphysical matters. And even concerning the material world, science knows very little indeed.





Impossible Army Machines - Ancient Discoveries (History Docume


Piltdown Man

This is the home page for Piltdown man, a paleontological "man who never was". In April of 1996 there was an extended discussion in the news group about the Piltdown man hoax. During the discussion I checked the web and discovered that Piltdown man did not have a home page. I resolved to eliminate this deficiency in the scholarly resources of the world wide web; here, for your delectation, is Piltdown man's home page. Corrections and suggestions for improvement are welcome.

This page has been laid out so that it can be read sequentially or so that you can skip around in it using links. It is broken up into sections and subsections. Each section is headed by a list of links to the other sections. Each subsection has links back to the list of sub sections. There are brief biographies and a bibliography with internal links to them through out the text. This page is a self contained, text only, document. However there are links to supporting documents and pictures.

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A Definitive Reply To Evolutionist Propaganda


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A scientific paradigm, in the most basic sense of the word, is a framework containing all of the commonly accepted views about a subject, a structure of what direction research should take and how it should be performed.

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The philosopher, Thomas Kuhn was the first to use the term for science, suggesting that scientific research does not progress towards truths, but is subject to dogma and clinging to old theories. The word, like many scientific terms, comes from Greek, and means example.

He came up with four basic ways in which a paradigm indirectly influences the scientific process. A paradigm dictates:

  • What is studied and researched.
  • The type of questions that are asked.
  • The exact structure and nature of the questions.
  • How the results of any research are interpreted.

Kuhn believed that science had periods of patiently gathering data, in a paradigm, and then revolution occurred as the paradigm matured.

A paradigm can absorb some errors but they eventually become insurmountable, like Ptolemy’s epicycles, and result in a paradigm shift.

The new paradigm is not necessarily any better than the old, just different. For example, most psychologists weep at the mention of the Freudian paradigm.


Normal science is the step-by-step scientific process, which builds patiently upon previous research.

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 "We should try to make students understand . . . why a scientist can never be sure that he or she has the final answer to anything." (Our highlights.)  Mr. Alberts clearly has a deep understanding of the limits of the science method.

There is strong logic to what Mr. Alberts says even for basic science.  It is even more true (much more true) of medical science.  A basic science experiment almost always has few variables and even in that situation there is always some inherent doubt in the understanding of the science apparent finding.  In medical the variables are vast compared to what is trying to be understood.  The doubts about the fundamental meaning of medical science experiments can be very large and even misleading if not very carefully evaluated.

Introduction to scientific method

Since Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen, 965–1039), one of the key figures in the development of scientific method, the emphasis has been on seeking truth:

Truth is sought for its own sake. And those who are engaged upon the quest for anything for its own sake are not interested in other things. Finding the truth is difficult, and the road to it is rough.[6]
"Light travels through transparent bodies in straight lines only" — Alhazen in Book of Optics (1021 ArabicKitāb al-Manāẓir‎) as shown in a Basle 1572 Latin translation,Friedrich Risner, ed., Opticae Thesaurus Alhazeni Arabis,[7] frontispiece showing optical phenomena: transmission of light through the atmosphere, reflection of light rays from parabolic mirrors during the defense of Syracuse by Archimedesagainst ships of the Roman Republic, refraction of light rays by water, and the production of colors in a rainbow.
How does light travel through transparent bodies? Light travels through transparent bodies in straight lines only.... We have explained this exhaustively in our Book of Optics. But let us now mention something to prove this convincingly: the fact that light travels in straight lines is clearly observed in the lights which enter into dark rooms through holes.... [T]he entering light will be clearly observable in the dust which fills the air.[8]

The conjecture that "light travels through transparent bodies in straight lines only" was corroborated by Alhazen only after years of effort. His demonstration of the conjecture was to place a straight stick or a taut thread next to the light beam,[9] to prove that light travels in a straight line.

Scientific methodology has been practiced in some form for at least one thousand years.[10] There are difficulties in a formulaic statement of method, however. As William Whewell (1794–1866) noted in his History of Inductive Science (1837) and in Philosophy of Inductive Science (1840), "invention, sagacity, genius" are required at every step in scientific method. It is not enough to base scientific method on experience alone;[11] multiple steps are needed in scientific method, ranging from our experience to our imagination, back and forth.

In the 20th century, a hypothetico-deductive model[12] for scientific method was formulated (for a more formal discussion, see below):

1Use your experience: Consider the problem and try to make sense of it. Look for previous explanations. If this is a new problem to you, then move to step 2.
2Form a conjecture: When nothing else is yet known, try to state an explanation, to someone else, or to your notebook.
3Deduce a prediction from that explanation: If you assume 2 is true, what consequences follow?
4Test: Look for the opposite of each consequence in order to disprove 2. It is a logical error to seek 3directly as proof of 2. This error is called affirming the consequent.[13]

This model underlies the scientific revolution. One thousand years ago, Alhazen demonstrated the importance of steps 1 and 4.[14] Galileo 1638 also showed the importance of step 4 (also called Experiment) in Two New Sciences.[15] One possible sequence in this model would be 1234. If the outcome of 4 holds, and 3 is not yet disproven, you may continue with 341, and so forth; but if the outcome of 4 shows 3 to be false, you will have to go back to 2 and try to invent a new 2, deduce a new 3, look for 4, and so forth.

Note that this method can never absolutely verify (prove the truth of) 2. It can only falsify 2.[16] (This is what Einstein meant when he said, "No amount of experimentation can ever prove me right; a single experiment can prove me wrong."[17]) However, as pointed out by Carl Hempel (1905–1997) this simple view of scientific method is incomplete; the formulation of the conjecture might itself be the result of inductive reasoning. Thus the likelihood of the prior observation being true is statistical in nature[18] and would strictly require a Bayesiananalysis. To overcome this uncertainty, experimental scientists must formulate a crucial experiment,[19] in order for it to corroborate a more likely hypothesis.

In the 20th century, Ludwik Fleck (1896–1961) and others argued that scientists need to consider their experiences more carefully, because their experience may be biased, and that they need to be more exact when describing their experiences.[20]

Certainty and myth

Any scientific theory is closed tied to empirical findings, and always remains subject to falsification if new experimental observation incompatible with it is found. That is, no theory can ever be seriously considered certain as new evidence falsifying it can be discovered. Most scientific theories don't result in large changes in human understanding. Improvements in theoretical scientific understanding is usually the result of a gradual synthesis of the results of different experiments, by various researchers, across different domains of science.[29] Theories vary in the extent to which they have been experimentally tested and for how long, and in their acceptance in the scientific community.

In contrast to the always-provisional status of scientific theory, a myth can be believed and acted upon, or depended upon, irrespective of its truth.[30] Imre Lakatos has noted that once a narrative is constructed its elements become easier to believe (this is called the narrative fallacy).[31][32] That is, theories become accepted by a scientific community as evidence for the theory is presented, and as presumptions that are inconsistent with the evidence are falsified. -- The difference between a theory and a myth reflects a preference for a posteriori versusa priori knowledge. --[citation needed]

Thomas Brody notes that confirmed theories are subject to subsumption by other theories, as special cases of a more general theory. For example, thousands of years of scientific observations of the planets were explained by Newton's laws. Thus the body of independent, unconnected, scientific observation can diminish.[33] Yet there is a preference in the scientific community for new, surprising statements, and the search for evidence that the new is true.[1] Goldhaber & Nieto 2010, p. 941 additionally state that "If many closely neighboring subjects are described by connecting theoretical concepts, then a theoretical structure acquires a robustness which makes it increasingly hard —though certainly never impossible— to overturn."

Elements of scientific method

There are different ways of outlining the basic method used for scientific inquiry. The scientific community and philosophers of sciencegenerally agree on the following classification of method components. These methodological elements and organization of procedures tend to be more characteristic of natural sciences than social sciences. Nonetheless, the cycle of formulating hypotheses, testing and analyzing the results, and formulating new hypotheses, will resemble the cycle described below.

Four essential elements[34][35][36] of a scientific method[37] are iterations,[38][39] recursions,[40] interleavings, or orderings of the following:

Each element of a scientific method is subject to peer review for possible mistakes. These activities do not describe all that scientists do (see below) but apply mostly to experimental sciences (e.g., physics, chemistry, and biology). The elements above are often taught in the educational system as "the scientific method".[47]

The scientific method is not a single recipe: it requires intelligence, imagination, and creativity.[48] In this sense, it is not a mindless set of standards and procedures to follow, but is rather an ongoing cycle, constantly developing more useful, accurate and comprehensive models and methods. For example, when Einstein developed the Special and General Theories of Relativity, he did not in any way refute or discount Newton's Principia. On the contrary, if the astronomically large, the vanishingly small, and the extremely fast are removed from Einstein's theories — all phenomena Newton could not have observed — Newton's equations are what remain. Einstein's theories are expansions and refinements of Newton's theories and, thus, increase our confidence in Newton's work.

A linearized, pragmatic scheme of the four points above is sometimes offered as a guideline for proceeding:[49]

  1. Define a question
  2. Gather information and resources (observe)
  3. Form an explanatory hypothesis
  4. Perform an experiment and collect data, testing the hypothesis
  5. Analyze the data
  6. Interpret the data and draw conclusions that serve as a starting point for new hypothesis
  7. Publish results
  8. Retest (frequently done by other scientists)

The iterative cycle inherent in this step-by-step methodology goes from point 3 to 6 back to 3 again.

While this schema outlines a typical hypothesis/testing method,[50] it should also be noted that a number of philosophers, historians and sociologists of science (perhaps most notably Paul Feyerabend) claim that such descriptions of scientific method have little relation to the ways science is actually practiced.

The "operational" paradigm combines the concepts of operational definitioninstrumentalism, and utility:

The essential elements of a scientific method are operationsobservationsmodels, and a utility function for evaluating models.[51][not in citation given]


Scientific method depends upon increasingly sophisticated characterizations of the subjects of investigation. (The subjects can also be calledunsolved problems or the unknowns.) For example, Benjamin Franklin conjectured, correctly, that St. Elmo's fire was electrical in nature, but it has taken a long series of experiments and theoretical changes to establish this. While seeking the pertinent properties of the subjects, careful thought may also entail some definitions and observations; the observations often demand careful measurements and/or counting.

The systematic, careful collection of measurements or counts of relevant quantities is often the critical difference between pseudo-sciences, such as alchemy, and science, such as chemistry or biology. Scientific measurements are usually tabulated, graphed, or mapped, and statistical manipulations, such as correlation and regression, performed on them. The measurements might be made in a controlled setting, such as a laboratory, or made on more or less inaccessible or unmanipulatable objects such as stars or human populations. The measurements often require specialized scientific instruments such as thermometers, spectroscopes, particle accelerators, or voltmeters, and the progress of a scientific field is usually intimately tied to their invention and improvement.

"I am not accustomed to saying anything with certainty after only one or two observations."—Andreas Vesalius (1546) [52]


Measurements in scientific work are also usually accompanied by estimates of their uncertainty. The uncertainty is often estimated by making repeated measurements of the desired quantity. Uncertainties may also be calculated by consideration of the uncertainties of the individual underlying quantities used. Counts of things, such as the number of people in a nation at a particular time, may also have an uncertainty due to data collection limitations. Or counts may represent a sample of desired quantities, with an uncertainty that depends upon the sampling method used and the number of samples taken.


Measurements demand the use of operational definitions of relevant quantities. That is, a scientific quantity is described or defined by how it is measured, as opposed to some more vague, inexact or "idealized" definition. For example, electrical current, measured in amperes, may be operationally defined in terms of the mass of silver deposited in a certain time on an electrode in an electrochemical device that is described in some detail. The operational definition of a thing often relies on comparisons with standards: the operational definition of "mass" ultimately relies on the use of an artifact, such as a particular kilogram of platinum-iridium kept in a laboratory in France.

The scientific definition of a term sometimes differs substantially from its natural language usage. For example, mass and weight overlap in meaning in common discourse, but have distinct meanings in mechanics. Scientific quantities are often characterized by their units of measure which can later be described in terms of conventional physical units when communicating the work.

New theories are sometimes after realizing certain terms had not previously been sufficiently clearly defined. For example, Albert Einstein'sfirst paper on relativity begins by defining simultaneity and the means for determining length. These ideas were skipped over by Isaac Newtonwith, "I do not define time, space, place and motion, as being well known to all." Einstein's paper then demonstrates that they (viz., absolute time and length independent of motion) were approximations. Francis Crick cautions us that when characterizing a subject, however, it can be premature to define something when it remains ill-understood.[53] In Crick's study of consciousness, he actually found it easier to studyawareness in the visual system, rather than to study free will, for example. His cautionary example was the gene; the gene was much more poorly understood before Watson and Crick's pioneering discovery of the structure of DNA; it would have been counterproductive to spend much time on the definition of the gene, before them.

Models of scientific inquiry

Classical model

The classical model of scientific inquiry derives from Aristotle,[70] who distinguished the forms of approximate and exact reasoning, set out the threefold scheme of abductivedeductive, and inductive inference, and also treated the compound forms such as reasoning by analogy.

Pragmatic model

In 1877,[71] Charles Sanders Peirce (play /ˈpɜrs/ like "purse"; 1839–1914) characterized inquiry in general not as the pursuit of truth per se but as the struggle to move from irritating, inhibitory doubts born of surprises, disagreements, and the like, and to reach a secure belief, belief being that on which one is prepared to act. He framed scientific inquiry as part of a broader spectrum and as spurred, like inquiry generally, by actual doubt, not mere verbal or hyperbolic doubt, which he held to be fruitless.[72] He outlined four methods of settling opinion, ordered from least to most successful:

  1. The method of tenacity (policy of sticking to initial belief) — which brings comforts and decisiveness but leads to trying to ignore contrary information and others' views as if truth were intrinsically private, not public. It goes against the social impulse and easily falters since one may well notice when another's opinion is as good as one's own initial opinion. Its successes can shine but tend to be transitory.
  2. The method of authority — which overcomes disagreements but sometimes brutally. Its successes can be majestic and long-lived, but it cannot operate thoroughly enough to suppress doubts indefinitely, especially when people learn of other societies present and past.
  3. The method of congruity or the a priori or the dilettante or "what is agreeable to reason" — which promotes conformity less brutally but depends on taste and fashion in paradigms and can go in circles over time, along with barren disputation. It is more intellectual and respectable but, like the first two methods, sustains accidental and capricious beliefs, destining some minds to doubts.
  4. The scientific method — the method wherein inquiry regards itself as fallible and purposely tests itself and criticizes, corrects, and improves itself.

Peirce held that slow, stumbling ratiocination can be dangerously inferior to instinct and traditional sentiment in practical matters, and that the scientific method is best suited to theoretical research,[73] which in turn should not be trammeled by the other methods and practical ends; reason's "first rule" is that, in order to learn, one must desire to learn and, as a corollary, must not block the way of inquiry.[74] The scientific method excels the others by being deliberately designed to arrive — eventually — at the most secure beliefs, upon which the most successful practices can be based. Starting from the idea that people seek not truth per se but instead to subdue irritating, inhibitory doubt, Peirce showed how, through the struggle, some can come to submit to truth for the sake of belief's integrity, seek as truth the guidance of potential practice correctly to its given goal, and wed themselves to the scientific method.[71][75]

For Peirce, rational inquiry implies presuppositions about truth and the real; to reason is to presuppose (and at least to hope), as a principle of the reasoner's self-regulation, that the real is discoverable and independent of our vagaries of opinion. In that vein he defined truth as the correspondence of a sign (in particular, a proposition) to its object and, pragmatically, not as actual consensus of some definite, finite community (such that to inquire would be to poll the experts), but instead as that final opinion which all investigators would reach sooner or later but still inevitably, if they were to push investigation far enough, even when they start from different points.[76] In tandem he defined the real as a true sign's object (be that object a possibility or quality, or an actuality or brute fact, or a necessity or norm or law), which is what it is independently of any finite community's opinion and, pragmatically, depends only on the final opinion destined in a sufficient investigation. That is a destination as far, or near, as the truth itself to you or me or the given finite community. Thus his theory of inquiry boils down to "Do the science." Those conceptions of truth and the real involve the idea of a community both without definite limits (and thus potentially self-correcting as far as needed) and capable of definite increase of knowledge.[77] As inference, "logic is rooted in the social principle" since it depends on a standpoint that is, in a sense, unlimited.[78]

Paying special attention to the generation of explanations, Peirce outlined scientific method as a coordination of three kinds of inference in a purposeful cycle aimed at settling doubts, as follows (in §III–IV in "A Neglected Argument"[79] except as otherwise noted):

1. Abduction (or retroduction). Guessing, inference to explanatory hypotheses for selection of those best worth trying. From abduction, Peirce distinguishes induction as inferring, on the basis of tests, the proportion of truth in the hypothesis. Every inquiry, whether into ideas, brute facts, or norms and laws, arises from surprising observations in one or more of those realms (and for example at any stage of an inquiry already underway). All explanatory content of theories comes from abduction, which guesses a new or outside idea so as to account in a simple, economical way for a surprising or complicative phenomenon. Oftenest, even a well-prepared mind guesses wrong. But the modicum of success of our guesses far exceeds that of sheer luck and seems born of attunement to nature by instincts developed or inherent, especially insofar as best guesses are optimally plausible and simple in the sense, said Peirce, of the "facile and natural", as by Galileo's natural light of reason and as distinct from "logical simplicity". Abduction is the most fertile but least secure mode of inference. Its general rationale is inductive: it succeeds often enough and, without it, there is no hope of sufficiently expediting inquiry (often multi-generational) toward new truths.[80] Coordinative method leads from abducing a plausible hypothesis to judging it for its testability[81] and for how its trial would economize inquiry itself.[82] Peirce calls his pragmatism "the logic of abduction".[83] His pragmatic maxim is: "Consider what effects that might conceivably have practical bearings you conceive the objects of your conception to have. Then, your conception of those effects is the whole of your conception of the object".[76] His pragmatism is a method of reducing conceptual confusions fruitfully by equating the meaning of any conception with the conceivable practical implications of its object's conceived effects — a method of experimentational mental reflection hospitable to forming hypotheses and conducive to testing them. It favors efficiency. The hypothesis, being insecure, needs to have practical implications leading at least to mental tests and, in science, lending themselves to scientific tests. A simple but unlikely guess, if uncostly to test for falsity, may belong first in line for testing. A guess is intrinsically worth testing if it has instinctive plausibility or reasoned objective probability, while subjective likelihood, though reasoned, can be misleadingly seductive. Guesses can be chosen for trial strategically, for their caution (for which Peirce gave as example the game of Twenty Questions), breadth, and incomplexity.[84] One can hope to discover only that which time would reveal through a learner's sufficient experience anyway, so the point is to expedite it; the economy of research is what demands the "leap" of abduction and governs its art.[82]

2. Deduction. Two stages:

i. Explication. Unclearly premissed, but deductive, analysis of the hypothesis in order to render its parts as clear as possible.
ii. Demonstration: Deductive Argumentation, Euclidean in procedure. Explicit deduction of hypothesis's consequences as predictions, for induction to test, about evidence to be found. Corollarial or, if needed, Theorematic.

3. Induction. The long-run validity of the rule of induction is deducible from the principle (presuppositional to reasoning in general[76]) that the real is only the object of the final opinion to which adequate investigation would lead;[85] anything to which no such process would ever lead would not be real. Induction involving ongoing tests or observations follows a method which, sufficiently persisted in, will diminish its error below any predesignate degree. Three stages:

i. Classification. Unclearly premissed, but inductive, classing of objects of experience under general ideas.
ii. Probation: direct (and explicit) Inductive Argumentation. Crude (the enumeration of instances) or Gradual (new estimate of proportion of truth in the hypothesis after each test). Gradual Induction is Qualitative or Quantitative; if Qualitative, then dependent on weightings of qualities or characters;[86] if Quantitative, then dependent on measurements, or on statistics, or on countings.
iii. Sentential Induction. "...which, by Inductive reasonings, appraises the different Probations singly, then their combinations, then makes self-appraisal of these very appraisals themselves, and passes final judgment on the whole result".

Computational approaches

Many subspecialties of applied logic and computer science, such as artificial intelligencemachine learningcomputational learning theory,inferential statistics, and knowledge representation, are concerned with setting out computational, logical, and statistical frameworks for the various types of inference involved in scientific inquiry. In particular, they contribute hypothesis formationlogical deduction, and empirical testing. Some of these applications draw on measures of complexity from algorithmic information theory to guide the making of predictions from prior distributions of experience, for example, see the complexity measure called the speed prior from which a computable strategy for optimal inductive reasoning can be derived.

Communication and community

Frequently a scientific method is employed not only by a single person, but also by several people cooperating directly or indirectly. Such cooperation can be regarded as one of the defining elements of a scientific community. Various techniques have been developed to ensure the integrity of that scientific method within such an environment.

How Muslim inventors changed the world

 Attached Files

Bringing life to Muslim Heritage

Discover 1000 years of missing history and explore the fascinating Muslim contribution to present day Science, Technology, Arts and Civilisation.

Contributions of Ibn al-Nafis to the Progress of Medicine and Urology

Professor Rabie E. Abdel-Halim

This primary-source study of four medical works of the 13th century Muslim scholar Ibn al-Nafis confirmed that his Kitab al-Mûjaz fi al-Tibb was authored as an independent book. It was meant as a handbook for medical students and practitioners not as an epitome of Kitab al-Qanun of Ibn Sina as thought by recent historians. Ibn al-Nafis' huge medical encyclopedia Al-Shamilrepresents a wave of intense scientific activity that spread among the scholars of Cairo and Damascus in the 13th century. Like his predecessors in the Islamic Era, Ibn al-Nafis critically appraised the views of scholars before him in the light of his own experimentation and direct observations. Accordingly, we find in his books the first description of the coronary vessels and the true concept of the blood supply of the heart as well as the correct description of the pulmonary circulation and the beginnings of the proper understanding of the systemic circulation. Those discoveries, spreading from East to West, were translated into Latin by Andreas Alpagus and appeared in the works of European scholars from Servetus to Harvey. Furthermore, this study documented several other contributions of Ibn al-Nafis to the progress of human functional anatomy and to advances in medical and surgical practice.

The Missing Link in the History of Urology: A Call for More Efforts to Bridge the Gap
Evolution of Attitudes Towards Human Experimentation in Ottoman Turkish Medicine
The 15th Century Turkish Physician Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu Author ofCerrahiyetu ‘l-Haniyye
Insights into Neurologic Localization by Al-Razi (Rhazes), a Medieval Islamic Physician
Pioneer Physicians

Ibn al-Haytham: An Introduction

Nader El-Bizri

This presentation focused on the historical and epistemic bearings of the scientific legacy of the celebrated polymath al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham (known in Latin as Alhazen). A particular emphasis was placed on his remarkable revolution in optics, while situating his research in the broader context of his ingenuous investigations in geometry, his development of the methodological rudiments of scientific experimentation, and his mathematization of the principal notions of classical physics and natural philosophy. This line of inquiry accounted for the channels of transmission, adaptation, and expansion of his research in optics, within the European intellectual milieu, and up till the seventeenth century, while also revealing the multilayered nature of his tradition in underpinning the scientific investigations of Franciscan mediaeval opticians, and of guiding the theoretical debates of Renaissance artists and architects over the best methods of constructing pictorial perspective.

Taqi al-Din Ibn Ma’ruf: A Bio-Bibliographical Essay
Taqi al-Din ibn Ma‘ruf and the Science of Optics: The Nature of Light and the Mechanism of Vision
Reflections on the Optics of Time
Ibn al-Haytham and Psychophysics

Ibn al-Haytham and Psychophysics

Dr. Craig Aaen-Stockdale

The famous scientist Ibn al-Haytham (‘Alhazen') has rightly been credited with many advances in optics and vision science, but recent spurious claims that he is the ‘founder of psychophysics' rest upon unsupported assertions, a conflation of psychophysics with the wider discipline of psychology, and semantic arguments over what it is to ‘found' a school of thought.

Taqi al-Din ibn Ma‘ruf and the Science of Optics: The Nature of Light and the Mechanism of Vision
Book review: Ibn al-Haytham and the New Optics
Reflections on the Optics of Time
Ibn al-Haytham: An Introduction

The Muslim Heritage Awareness Group Meeting

The Editorial Board

The Muslim Heritage Awareness Group (MHAG), a network of supporters and key associates of the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC) met on 30 March 2011 at the Royal Society in London. In the following short article, we report on the meeting and provide resumes of the presentations on the theme debated in this meeting: Marking the 1000 Years of Ibn Al-Haytham's Kitab al-Manazir (The Book of Optics).

The Muslim Heritage Awareness Group Meeting (24 March 2009, Royal Society, London)
MHAG Meeting at the Royal Society, London
Environment and the Muslim Heritage
Academic Conference: '1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World'
Muslim Heritage Awareness Network Turkey is Established
In Memoriam: Peter Raymond MBE
“We are the source of world’s many inventions”: Meeting of MHANT in Marmara University

Reflections on the Optics of Time

Dr. Charles M. Savage

Based on the outstanding achievement of Ibn al-Haytham's work in optics, which paved the way for the "Optics of Space," Dr. Charles M. Savage develops in this stimulating article a vibrant plea for the need for a complementary understanding of the "Optics of Time." The reflection argues that time is ripe for a mature and open appreciation of the gift of life on this planet, otherwise we stand the risk of abusing one another and the richness of the resources nature has stored up for us. In so doing, we can implement a vision of a "sustainable history," an important concept introduced by Prof. Nayef al-Rodham. This will require our reflective abilities to co-create a "sustainable future" as well.

The Observation Well
The Instruments of Istanbul Observatory
Taqi al-Din Ibn Ma’ruf: Survey on his Works and Scientific Method

“We are the source of world’s many inventions”: Meeting of MHANT in Marmara University

The Editorial Board

"Muslim Heritage Awareness Network of Turkey's (MHANT) second meeting, which was organized by the Foundation of Science Technology and Civilisation (FSTC) has been held in Marmara University's chancellery building in Istanbul on 20th April 2011.

1001 Inventions: Manchester Success Story Travels to Istanbul and Beyond
Grand Opening for '1001 Inventions' in Istanbul
Uncovering A Thousand Years of Science and Technology
Istanbul Hands Over '1001 Inventions' Exhibition to New York City
The European Muslim Heritage and its Role in the Development of Europe
Muslim Heritage Awareness Network Turkey is Established
'1001 Inventions' Exhibition in New York

Book Review of Dr. Toygar Akman's “Cybernetics”

Cem Nizamoglu

"Cybernetics: Past, Present, Future" published by Toygar Akman, a renowned expert in the field, retraces for the Turkish readers the history of cybernetics and presents the state of the art in this revolutionary scientific field. The author, an admirer of al-Jazari, the Muslim engineer of the early 13th century, devotes a section to describing his outstanding, early contribution to the history of robotics

Al-Jazari: The Mechanical Genius
The Machines of Al-Jazari and Taqi Al-Din
800 Years Later: In Memory of Al-Jazari, A Genius Mechanical Engineer
An 800 Years Old Ancestor: Today’s Science of Robotics and al-Jazari
Al-Jazari’s Castle Water Clock: Analysis of its Components and Functioning
Islamic Automation: Al-Jazari’s Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices

Bringing Back Golden Age of Science and Innovation

Zakri Abdul Hamid

Mr Zakri Abdul Hamid reflects in this article the thoughts that occurred to him after visiting the exhibition "1001 Inventions" in New York Hall of Science. He concludes it by formulating a wish that the Science, Technology and Innovation Ministry in Malaysia may consider to bring the exhibition "1001 Inventions" to Malaysia to coincide with the "Year of Science" in 2012 that the ministry will organise.

Scientific Contacts and Influences Between the Islamic World and Europe: The Case of Astronomy
Remembering the Language of History and Science: When the World Spoke Arabic
It's Time to Herald the Arabic Science That Prefigured Darwin and Newton
A Plea for the Recovery of the Forgotten History of Muslim Heritage
The Origins of Islamic Science

Book Review of 'Islamic Gardens and Landscapes' by D. Fairchild Ruggles

Margaret Morris

Ranging across poetry, court documents, agronomy manuals, and early garden representations and richly illustrated with pictures and site plans, Islamic Gardens and Landscapes by Dr Fairchild Ruggles is a book of impressive scope sure to interest scholars and enthusiasts alike.

Gardens, Nature and Conservation in Islam
Abbasid Gardens in Baghdad and Samarra
Islamic Aesthetics, Gardens and Nature
Environment and the Muslim Heritage
1000 Years Amnesia: Environment Tradition in Muslim Heritage

Cairo: A Millennial

Irene Beeson

In this article, published originally in Saudi Aramco World in 1969, focus is laid on the history of Cairo, the capital city of Egypt, founded in 969 by General Gawhar, in the name of the Fatimid Caliph. Written on the occasion of the millemium of Cairo, The author describes the splendours of the city, especially under the Fatimids and the Mamluks, and quotes the testimonies of travellers who visited it in pre-modern times.

Ottoman Contributions to Science and Technology: Examples from Geography and Astronomy
The Islamic Heritage in China: A General Survey
Gaza at the Crossroad of Civilisations: Two Contemporary Views
History, Culture and Science in Morocco: 11th-14th Centuries
Kairouan Capital of Political Power and Learning in the Ifriqiya

Pioneer Physicians

David W. Tschanz

During the classical Muslim civilisation, big scientific advances in medicine were made. Muslim doctors began by collecting all the medical observations and theories of their predecessors, especially Hippocrates and Galen, and built an original and influential tradition of medical knowledge. This article presents selected episodes from this tradition, thus proving its richness and wide scope. Beginning by briefly setting the historical context, the author then then to Al-Zahrawi, the "Father of Surgery", Ibn Zuhr, the Doctor of Seville, Ibn Rushd, Doctor and Philosopher, Ibn Maymun, a doctor in exile, and finally the discoverer of the "secrets of the heart", Ibn al-Nafis al-Dimashqi.

Abu al-Qasim Al-Zahrawi the Great Surgeon
Beauty, Hair and Body Care in the Canon of Ibn Sina
Al-Razi on Smallpox and Measles
Islam’s Forgotten Contributions to Medical Science
Medical Sciences in the Islamic Civilization: Scholars, Fields of Expertise and Institutions

Al-Azhar University - 1000 years of Scholarship

FSTC Research Team

Al-Azhar Mosque in Cairo in Egypt is a fundamental Islamic monument with many dimensions. Constructed by the Caliph Al-Mu'izz li-Din Allah for the newly established capital city in 970, it was the first mosque established in Cairo, a city that has since gained the nickname "the city of a thousand minarets. In this article, we present a short history of the Al-Azhar mosque and its progressive transformation into one of the most influential centres of Islamic learning for more than a millennium.

Ibn Sina on Education
Al-Farabi's Doctrine of Education: Between Philosophy and Sociological Theory
Al-Ghazali's Theory of Education: Its Philosophy and Its Impact
Ibn Khaldun's Concept of Education in the ‘Muqaddima’
Kairouan Capital of Political Power and Learning in the Ifriqiya

'1001 Inventions' Exhibition in New York

The Editorial Board

The exhibition 1001 Inventions opened in early December 2010 in New York Hall of Science (NYSCI) and has already attracted several thousand visitors on its US debut. The exhibition's US premiere was highly anticipated after it enjoyed blockbuster runs in both London and Istanbul. The1001 Inventions exhibition, which highlights the scientific legacy of Muslim civilization in our modern age, made its United States debut at the NYSCI at a special event attended by local media, academics and philanthropists, including Mohammed Jameel, patron of Abdul Latif Jameel Community Initiatives (ALJCI).

1001 Inventions: Manchester Success Story Travels to Istanbul and Beyond
Istanbul Hands Over '1001 Inventions' Exhibition to New York City
Thousands visit '1001 Inventions' in New York
Muslim Heritage Awareness Network Turkey is Established

Curriculum Enrichment for the Common Era (CE4CE)

The Editorial Board

The CE4CE website is now live at It is designed to provide an easily accessible and welcoming public face for the company, and it makes available all teaching resources and educational materials, and provides access to the company's services. The site is kept fresh with news and events, and we hope to make it stronger as we receive more feedback from users.

Istanbul Hands Over '1001 Inventions' Exhibition to New York City
The European Muslim Heritage and its Role in the Development of Europe
Thousands visit '1001 Inventions' in New York
Rebuttal by the FSTC to Edward Rothstein's Article
Muslim Heritage Awareness Network Turkey is Established
In Memoriam: Peter Raymond MBE

FSTC and Khalifa University to create interactive Science Heritage Centre in UAE

Junaid Abbas Bhati

Khalifa University (KU) and the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC) recently signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) at the KU campus in Abu Dhabi. The MoU aims to promote greater recognition and appreciation of science and invention in Muslim civilisation and its influence in today's fast-paced world. As part of the MoU, the first joint project to be introduced in Abu Dhabi will be an expansion of the Khalifa University Discovery Center by introducing the Muslim Heritage Science and Engineering exhibition, partly based on the 1001 Inventions global initiative developed by FSTC.

In Appreciation of FSTC
Strategic Alliance for a World-wide Roll-out of 1001 Inventions Exhibition
FSTC's Contribution to the Intercultural Dialogue at the General Assembly of the United Nations
FSTC at the House of Lords in London
FSTC in the British Science Festival in Surrey (5-10.09.2009)
FSTC Renews Scientific Contacts with Aleppo University

Kalila wa-Dimna

Paul Lunde

One of the most popular books ever written is the book the Arabs know as Kalila wa-Dimna, a bestseller for almost two thousand years, and a book still read with pleasure all over the world. It has been translated at least 200 times into 50 different languages. In this article, Paul Lunde biefly presentsKalila wa-Dimna origins and characterizes its content.

Literature and Music in Muslim Civilisation
Recognizing a Decisive Tribute: Islam's Contribution to Western Civilization
New Book by Jim Al-Khalili Pathfinders: The Golden Age of Arabic Science

Insights into Neurologic Localization by Al-Razi (Rhazes), a Medieval Islamic Physician

Dr Nizar Souayah, MD; and Dr Jeffrey I. Greenstein, MD

Al-Razi (Rhazes) (born in 864 CE) wrote over 200 scientific treatises, many of which had a major impact on European medicine. His best known manuscript is Liber Continens, a medical encyclopedia in which he described his contributions to neurology, focusing on his description of cranial and spinal cord nerves and his clinical case reports, which illustrate his use of neuroanatomy to localize lesions. In this article, Dr Nizar Souayah and Dr Jeffrey I. Greenstein focus on Al-Razi's description of the cranial and spinal nerves and his relevant clinical case reports, which illustrate his understanding of neuroanatomy and the application of his knowledge to clinical practice.

Ottoman Medical Practice and The Medical Science
Lady Montagu and the Introduction of Smallpox Inoculation to England
Evolution of Attitudes Towards Human Experimentation in Ottoman Turkish Medicine
The 15th Century Turkish Physician Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu Author ofCerrahiyetu ‘l-Haniyye

Obituary of Dr David C. Reisman

The Editorial Board

In this short obituary, we pay a tribute to the memory of Dr David C. Reisman. Dr Reisman was a promising scholar in the field of Islamic studies. He passed away suddenly at the age of 41 in the UK on January 2, 2011. Dr Reisman was an associate Professor of Arabic-Islamic Thought in the Department of Classics and Mediterranean Studies, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, at the University of Illinois, Chicago. David had obtained his BA and MA from Boston University, and his PhD from Yale University.

Contribution of Ibn Sina to the development of Earth Sciences
Muslim Contributions to Philosophy - Ibn Sina, Farabi, Beyruni
Beauty, Hair and Body Care in the Canon of Ibn Sina
Bone Fractures in Ibn Sina's Medicine

The 15th Century Turkish Physician Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu Author of Cerrahiyetu ‘l-Haniyye

Dr. Osman Sabuncuoglu and Dr. Salim Ayduz

The Turkish physician Serafeddin Sabuncuoglu (1385–1470) is the author of a famous treatise of surgery, Cerrahiyetü'l Haniyye (Imperial Surgery), composed in Turkish in 1465. It was the first illustrated surgical atlas and the last major medical encyclopedia from the Islamic world. Though the treatise was largely based on Al-Zahrawi's Al-Tasrif, Sabuncuoglu introduced many innovations of his own, among which the introduction of views in which we see female surgeons illustrated for the first time. In this article, Dr Osman Sabuncuoglu and Dr. Salim Ayduz present the life and works of this original scholar and characterise the contents of his works.

Paediatric Urology 1000 Years Ago
Anaesthesia 1000 Years Ago: A Historical Investigation
Ottoman Medical Practice and The Medical Science
Lady Montagu and the Introduction of Smallpox Inoculation to England
Evolution of Attitudes Towards Human Experimentation in Ottoman Turkish Medicine

The European Muslim Heritage and its Role in the Development of Europe

Professor Salim Al-Hassani

In a keynote lecture pronounced by Professor Salim T S Al-Hassani in September 2003 at the European Parliament in Brussels, he used slides and 3-D animations to outline the impressive heritage which Europe received from the Muslim World which helped trigger the Renaissance. He stressed in particular the need to remember contributions in the development of science and technology in the perspective of building an environment of understanding and mutual appreciation. We publish this text as a vibrant and timely plea for integrating the Muslim dimension into the history of Europe and in particular in the schools' curricula.

1001 Inventions Exhibition begins at National Museum Cardiff
1001 Inventions Touring Exhibition begins at Thinktank, Birmingham
The 1001 Inventions Exhibition launched at the Glasgow Science Centre
1001 Inventions at UK Houses of Parliament
FSTC's Contribution to the Intercultural Dialogue at the General Assembly of the United Nations
1001 Inventions Distinguished in London by the AMSS (UK)
Istanbul Hands Over '1001 Inventions' Exhibition to New York City

Subsequent Thoughts on the '1001 Inventions' Exhibition in Istanbul (August-October 2010)

Dr. Toygar Akman

This article by Professor Toygar Akman presents, as the title indicates, afterthoughts inspired by the '1001 inventions' exhibition. The author particularly focuses on the Turkish phase of the exhibition (1001 Icat Sergisi), which opened in Istanbul on the 18th August 2010 and stayed there until the 5th October. During this period, about 400,000 people visited the exhibition from all around the world. Professor Akman explains why this exhibition was so successful in Istanbul and highlights the work of one of the main scientists celebrated by the exhibition, the master engineer Al-Jazari, whose engineering book was previously the subject of investigations published by Professor Toygar Akman.

Homage to Professor Salim Al-Hassani in Al-Ithinainiya Literary Forum in Jeddah
Okasha El-Daly Lectures at Leeds on Muslim Heritage in Our World
1001 Inventions vs. 1001 nights: Thoughts on the Renaissance of Science in the Modern Arab World
Celebrating an Ottoman Intellectual: 2009 Year of Kâtip Çelebi
1001 Inventions: A Conference to Celebrate the International Launch (25-26 May 2010)

Kamal al-Din Abu al-Hasan (or al-Hasan) al-Farisi

Dr Saira Malik

In this short bio-bibliography of Kamal al-Din al-Farisi, Dr Saira Malik presents succinctly the life and work of one of the most original scientists of the Islamic tradition. The author of Tanqih al-Manazir was indeed a prominent physicist, mathematician, and scientist of the early 14th century, and an original reader and commentator of Ibn al-Haytham's optics.

Ibn Al-Haitham the Muslim Physicist
Kamal Al-Din Al-Farisî (d. 1320)
Latinized Names of Muslim Scholars
Kamal Al-Din Al-Farisi’s Explanation of the Rainbow

Arabic Star Names: A Treasure of Knowledge Shared by the World

FSTC Research Team

Many of the prominent stars known today are of Arabic origin as they bear names given to them during the golden age of Islamic astronomy. A major contribution in this field is that of al-Sufi (10th century). Presenting shortly the historical context of the old nomenclature of Arabic star names, the article contains also a list of 165 stars known by Arabic names.

Modelling the Stars
Al-Sufi (903-986)
Precious Records of Eclipses in Muslim Astronomy and History
Illustrious Names in the Heavens: Arabic and Islamic Names of the Moon Craters
"Three Times Greater than Venus": Ibn Ridhwan's Observation of Supernova 1006

Ibn Khaldun: His Life and Works

Dr Muhammad Hozien

Abd al-Rahman ibn Khaldun, the well known historian and thinker from Muslim 14th-century North Africa, is considered a forerunner of original theories in social sciences and philosophy of history, as well as the author of original views in economics, prefiguring modern contributions. In the following detailed and documented article, Muhammad Hozien outlines the bio-bibliography of Ibn Khaldun and presents insights into his theories, especially by comparing his analysis with that of Thucydides, and by characterizing Ibn Khaldun's view on science and philosophy.

Ibn-Khaldun on Taxes
The Economic Theory of Ibn Khaldun and the Rise and Fall of Nations
Ibn Khaldun’s Theory of Taxation and its Relevance Today
Ibn Khaldun and Adam Smith: Contributions to Theory of Division of Labor and Modern Economic Thought
Ibn Khaldun and the Rise and Fall of Empires
Ibn Khaldun’s Thought in Microeconomics: Dynamics of Labor, Demand-supply and Prices
Ibn Khaldun: Studies on His Contribution in Economy

New Book by Jim Al-Khalili Pathfinders: The Golden Age of Arabic Science

The Editorial Board

For over 700 years the international language of science was Arabic. In this compelling, inspiring book, Jim Al-Khalili celebrates the forgotten pioneers who helped shape our understanding of the world. All scientists have stood on the shoulders of giants. But most historical accounts today suggest that the achievements of the ancient Greeks were not matched until the European Renaissance in the 16th century, a one thousand year period dismissed as the Dark Ages.

Science and Rationalism in 9th Century Baghdad
Remembering the Language of History and Science: When the World Spoke Arabic
It's Time to Herald the Arabic Science That Prefigured Darwin and Newton
Statement of Professor Jim Al-Khalili in the Opening Session

Uncovering A Thousand Years of Science and Technology

WIPO: The World Intellectual Property Organization

The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) published in September 2010 on its website an interesting article (read onlinehere) about the international touring exhibition "1001 Inventions: Discover the Muslim Heritage in our World" which opened in August in Istanbul. The exhibition is described as "a colorful, fascinating and insightful exhibition… This unique overview of the dynamism of Muslim civilization, its ingenuity and diverse scientific and technological achievements, is set to visit 30 major cities across five continents in the next four years". We reproduce this article for the benefit of our readers.

1001 Inventions at UK Houses of Parliament
The Exhibition “1001 Inventions” Opened at the Science Museum on 21 January 2010
1001 Inventions Introduction Film
Grand Opening for '1001 Inventions' in Istanbul
World Media Celebrate '1001 Inventions'

World Media Celebrate '1001 Inventions'

FSTC Research Team

The Associated Press writer Christopher Torchia published on 25 August 2010 an elogious paper "1001 Inventions: Science in Muslim lands" about the opening of "1001 Inventions" exhibition in Istanbul earlier this month. The article was reproduced by several newspapers around the world; it recalls the aim of the exhibition and how it is intended to highlight the overshadowed period of history, a "Golden Age" in which advances in science, medicine, technology and architecture laid groundwork for Western progress from the Renaissance until modern times.

1001 Inventions at UK Houses of Parliament
FSTC's Contribution to the Intercultural Dialogue at the General Assembly of the United Nations
1001 Inventions Distinguished in London by the AMSS (UK)
1001 Inventions Book Continues its Way in the Media: Two Recent Reviews
International Launch of 1001 Inventions Touring Exhibition
Grand Opening for '1001 Inventions' in Istanbul

Evolution of Attitudes Towards Human Experimentation in Ottoman Turkish Medicine

Professor Nil Sari

Attitudes and expectations towards medical knowledge and medical practice standards influence and determine the position of health practitioners and the development of medicine. While describing the basic characteristics of the Ottoman Turkish medicine and medical practice through their scientific approach and standards, the following article by Professor Nil Sari aims at putting forth the priorities of the Ottoman Turkish medicine, by means of primary sources such as archive documents and medical manuscripts.

Medical Sciences in the Islamic Civilization: Scholars, Fields of Expertise and Institutions
Turkish Medical History of the Seljuk Era
Anaesthesia 1000 Years Ago: A Historical Investigation
Anatomy of the Horse in the 15th Century
Ottoman Medical Practice and The Medical Science
Lady Montagu and the Introduction of Smallpox Inoculation to England

The Origins of Islamic Science

Dr. Muhammad Abdul Jabbar Beg

In the following well documented article Dr Muhammad Abdul Jabbar Beg surveys the origins of Islamic science, with a special focus on its interaction with the previous intellectual traditions of the ancient world as well as a survey of the beginnings of scientific activity in Arabic. In this first part, he depicts in details the impact of Islamic principle in shaping the contours of the early scientific activity in the Muslim civilisation. Afterwards, in the second part, the author surveys some key contributions of the scientists of Islam in the fields of astronomy, mathematics, chemistry, and medicine.

Islamic Science, the Scholar and Ethics
The Emergence of Scientific Tradition in Islam
How Islam Inspired Scientific Advance
It's Time to Herald the Arabic Science That Prefigured Darwin and Newton
A Plea for the Recovery of the Forgotten History of Muslim Heritage

Ibn Khaldun and the Rise and Fall of Empires

Caroline Stone

The 14th-century historiographer and historian Abu Zayd ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Khaldun was a brilliant scholar and thinker now viewed as a founder of modern historiography, sociology and economics. Living in one of human kind's most turbulent centuries, he observed at first hand, or participated in, such decisive events as the birth of new states, the disintegration of the Muslim Andalus and the advance of the Christian reconquest, the Hundred Years' War, the expansion of the Ottoman Empire, the decline of Byzantium and the epidemic of the Black Death. Considered by modern critics as the thinker that conceived and created a philosophy of history that was undoubtedly one of the greatests works ever created by a man of intelligence, so groundbreaking were his ideas, and so far ahead of his time, that his writings are taken as a lens through which to view not only his own time but the relations between Europe and the Muslim world in our own time as well.

Ibn-Khaldun on Taxes
The Economic Theory of Ibn Khaldun and the Rise and Fall of Nations
Ibn Khaldun’s Theory of Taxation and its Relevance Today
Ibn Khaldun and Adam Smith: Contributions to Theory of Division of Labor and Modern Economic Thought

One Thousand Years of Missing History

Professor Salim T S Al-Hassani

The following essay aims to alert communities as to the particular significance of the Muslim civilisation and its historical role in contributing to the birth of modern civilisation. The author, Professor Salim Al-Hassani, a specialist of Muslim Heritage and a pioneer of its defense, focuses first on various instances of distorted history in scholarship, school curricula and media culture. He shows how unjustified is the suppression of centuries of history from history books and how the jump from Hellenistic times to Renaissance is rather the manifestation of ignorance and misconceptions. Presenting selected examples, he then proves that this suppressed period, belonging to the classical period of the history of Islam, and which lasted for about a millennium, knew a creative contribution to civilisation by men and women of different faiths. Those knowledge, science and art creators built on ancient knowledge and were the drive of one of the richest periods of history in terms of science, culture, technology and art.

The Arabic Sources of Jordanus de Nemore
Tracing the Impact of Latin Translations of Arabic Texts on European Society
A Bibliography of the Islamic and Chinese Scientific Relationships in Classical Times
Mont Saint-Michel or Toledo: Greek or Arabic Sources for Medieval European Culture?
Shining light upon light

Abu al-Qasim Al-Zahrawi the Great Surgeon

Dr. Ibrahim Shaikh

Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936-1013 CE), also known in the West as Albucasis, was an Andalusian physician. He is considered as the greatest surgeon in the Islamic medical tradition. His comprehensive medical texts, combining Middle Eastern and Greco-Roman classical teachings, shaped European surgical procedures up until the Renaissance. His greatest contribution to history is Kitab al-Tasrif, a thirty-volume collection of medical practice, of which large portions were translated into Latin and in other European languages.

Who Discovered Pulmonary Circulation, Ibn Al-Nafis or Harvey?
Eye Specialists in Islam