Commodore‎ > ‎BASIC‎ > ‎Keywords‎ > ‎


Keyword Abbreviation Token (hex) Version(s) Classification
TRAP T{Shift+R} D7 3.5, 7.0 Statement
CATALOG C{Shift+A}  D7  4.x  Command and Statement 
TRAP T{Shift+R} E2 4.x Statement
CIRCLE C{Shift+I}  E2  3.5, 7.0  Command and Statement 

TRAP lineNumber ]
Parameters Type Legal Value(s) Default Value Note(s)
lineNumber Unsigned Integer 0 ~ 63999 If used, the program line must exist.
Program error control; set (or forget) a subroutine to be called when an error occurs in a program.

TRAP without a lineNumber disables error trapping in the current program (this is also done by CLR).  If lineNumber is given, it is saved as a Secret Variable ("Trap Line") and enables a special subroutine, called an error trap (described below), that is called when an error occurs in a program.
Unlike GOSUB and GOTO, the lineNumber does not need to be a literal value; it can be any numeric expression.  However, using a non-literal value will usually cause a silent error with RENUMBER which only updates line numbers written as a literal number.
If the lineNumber is given, it must exist or an UNDEF'D STATMENT ERROR occurs as soon as TRAP is executed (not later when another error occurs).  If lineNumber is not numeric, a TYPE MISMATCH ERROR occurs.  If a numeric expression is used but is not valid, SYNTAX ERROR occurs as soon as TRAP is executed.  If the lineNumber is not a legal value, an ILLEGAL QUANTITY ERROR is generated as soon as TRAP is executed.
Attempting to use TRAP in direct mode generates ILLEGAL DIRECT ERROR.  An error that occurs in direct mode never calls a trap routine.
Now lets assume an error trap has been successfully set.  If an error occurs later in the program, the reserved variables EL, ER, and ERR$ will be set (along with another secret variable "Trap Address"), error trapping will temporarily be disabled, and BASIC will effectively do a GOSUB to the lineNumber specified in the most recent TRAP statement (secret variable, "Trap Line").  There are two main differences from a normal GOSUB.  First the 'return' location is initially set to the statment that caused the error (and not the following statement, as with GOSUB).  Second, the special RESUME keyword should be used to exit the error trap routine (instead of RETURN used with GOSUB); the reason for this is so error trapping can be re-enabled after the current error has been handled.
This method means an error that occurs in the trap routine will halt the program and return to direct mode.  This is mainly because (without some new hypothetical keywords) BASIC would get stuck in an infinite loop if an error occured in the trap routine.  In other words, nested error traps (sometimes called a double-fault) are not directly possible to handle.  (It might be possible with some tricks.)
Although probably not useful in a finished program, you can use the HELP keyword in a trap routine to show, on the text screen, the statement in a program line where the error occured.  This is the statement that will be re-executed by RESUME (without any arguments); RESUME NEXT would continue execution at the first colon (:) past the highlighted error (or the next line if none).  BASIC only gives you the line number (EL) and not the exact position of the error (stored in secret variable "Trap Address"), so the use of HELP can be quite valuable.
Although an error can't be (effectively) trapped while in a trap routine, the TRAP keyword may be used.  For example, to set a new trap routine or disable error trapping in the future.  This will not affect how RESUME works, unless an error occurs before RESUME is executed.  In this case, the new TRAP line would be called (assuming a new routine was set, as opposed to completely disabling error traps).  Assuming the new trap routine RESUME'd this current error trap routine, then this error trap routine would generate a CAN'T RESUME ERROR (or in some versions, UNABLE TO RESUME ERROR) when the current trap routine later executes RESUME (assuming of course this error trap routine does execute RESUME)... if that were to happen, the newly-set TRAP routine would be called again... this might result in an infinite loop, depending on how the newly-set error trap routine is written.
Sorry if that last paragraph if confusing.  The short version is so-called "double-faults" are often "fatal" because they will halt the program despite TRAP or result in an infinite loop (or other strange behavior).
Note that like GOSUB, calling the trap routine requires 5 bytes of the BASIC stack; an OUT OF MEMORY ERROR occurs if this is not available.
The error trap routine (that a BASIC programmer writes) will normally examine the variables EL and ER and decide upon some action to take (based on the type and location of the error).  The action may include setting some variables which are needed in the current (or soon-to-occur) statment so they will work properly.  A good example would be DIVISON BY ZERO error, where the trap routine might want to set some default value (like plus or minus 90 degrees).
The error trap should end with RESUME.  This pops the entry from the BASIC stack that was pushed when the error occured and re-enables error trapping for any future error.
Note that some errors will not invoke your trap routine!  For some errors with INPUT, BASIC will do its normal thing.  For some I/O errors (which really need error trapping) the computer will exit to immediate mode and print an error message... gee thanks for nothing!  Also be sure to the page on ERR$ which lists the errorNumbers and associated string message because the errorNumbers (the ER value) vary between different versions of BASIC.

10 TRAP 100
40 PRINT SQR(X*X + Y*Y) ",";
50 A = 180/π * ATN(Y/X)
70 GOTO 20
110 A = 90*SGN(Y)
RECTANGULAR X,Y? CAT (user input)
?REDO FROM START                 note BASIC did not call trap routine
RECTANGULAR X,Y? 5 (user input)
?? 5 (user input)                note BASIC did not call trap routine
POLAR M,A 7.07106781, 45

RECTANGULAR X,Y? 3,4 (user input)
POLAR M,A 7.07106781, 45         note there was no error

RECTANGULAR X,Y? 0,4 (user input)
POLAR M,A 4, 90                  note BASIC called the trap routine (not obvious)

Compare With  
Contrast With  
See Also  

© H2Obsession, 2014