Classification v.1


Appendix 2 from Betancur et al 2013
Revised Classification for Bony Fishes (v.1)      


Version Date: 18 April 2013 -- this version has been superseded by version 2 and then by version 3 on 31 July 2014

The nomenclatural arrangement presented here builds on the existing classification by Wiley and Johnson [1] and intends to preserve names and taxonomic composition of groups whenever possible. However, adjustments are made to recognize new well-supported molecular clades, many of which also have been obtained by previous molecular studies (several examples discussed below). Order-level or supraordinal taxa are erected (new) or resurrected on the basis of well-supported clades only (>90% bootstrap values). Current taxon names supported by previous molecular or morphological studies are retained if congruent with our results, even if bootstrap support is low (e.g., Osteoglossocephalai sensu Arratia [2] with only 38% bootstrap). In some cases, ordinal or subordinal taxa that were not monophyletic in our analysis are also validated, as long as the incongruence is not supported by strong bootstrap values. Examples include the suborder Blennioidei (not monophyletic here but monophyletic in Wainwright et al. [3]) and the order Pleuronectiformes (not monophyletic here but monophyletic in Betancur-R. et al. [4]).

Family names for bony fishes are based on Eschmeyer and Fong [5] and van der Laan et al. [6], with minor modifications. Consult  van der Laan et al. [6] for authorship of family names and Wiley and Johnson [10] for authorship of ordinal and subordinal names. Our list is not intended as a comprehensive revision of valid family names; instead, it is simply an adaptation of their list based on published studies that we know validate or synonymize family groups using explicit phylogenetic evidence. Unlike Eschmeyer and Fong [5] and van der Laan et al. [6], we do not recognize the family status of Anotopteridae, Omosudidae (synonyms of Alepisauridae [7]) or Latidae (synonym of Centropomidae [8,9]). Also, we recognize the following families, listed in Eschmeyer and Fong [5] and van der Laan et al. [6] as synonyms or subfamilies of other families: Botiidae (following [10]), Diplophidae (following Nelson [11]; apparently omitted by Eschmeyer and Fong [5]), Horabagridae (following Sullivan et al. [12]), Sinipercidae (following Li et al. [13]), Steindachneriidae (following Roa-Varon and Orti [14]), Zanclorhynchidae, the aulopiform Bathysauropsidae and Sudidae (following Davis [7]), and the pleuronectiform Paralichthodidae, Poecilopsettidae, and Rhombosoleidae (following Chapleau [15], Munroe [16]). A total of 502 families are recognized here, of which 369 (73.5%) were examined. Of these, 146 families included only one representative (39.6%) and 40 (17.9%) of the remaining 223 were rendered non-monophyletic in our analysis (non-monophyletic families are indicated below). For each order/suborder we list all families examined as well as the unexamined families whose taxonomic affinity is expected on the basis of traditional taxonomy or phylogenetic evidence. The list of unexamined families is also intended as a resource that may help fish systematists to direct future sequencing efforts.

A total of 66 orders are classified, three of which are new (Holocentriformes, Istiophoriformes, and Pempheriformes), and 15 are resurrected or validated under a new circumscription. Some ordinal or subordinal names may appear to be new, but most can be found in the literature at various hierarchical levels. As examples, Spariformes is a Bleeker name and Centrarchiformes is a Webber and de Beaufort name. As priority is not applied to names above the family level, we have not made a thorough attempt to establish first use. Only those three for which no reference could be found are listed as “new.” New infraorders are named in Suborder Cottioidei to circumscribe well-corroborated clades and may conserve the rank of superfamily in subsequent revisions. The ordinal status of 50 percomorph families examined (as well as many others unexamined) belonging to Carangimorphariae, Ovalentariae, and Percomorpharia remains uncertain (i.e., incertae sedis) due to poor phylogenetic resolution. Percentages in parentheses following names indicate bootstrap support (no bootstrap values shown for redundant groups or monotypic taxa). The complete phylogenetic tree with annotated classification is illustrated in Fig. S1. The new classification scheme presented here should be considered a work in progress (version 1), as any other hypothesis. It is likely to include involuntary errors and omissions in addition to the many unexamined, sedis mutabilis, and incertae sedis taxa. Updates should be forthcoming as new evidence become available and feedback from experts help refine it. For the most updated version visit DeepFin.

 

Megaclass Osteichthyes (=Euteleostomi, =Euosteichthyes)

Superclass Actinopterygii (100%)

Class Cladistia (100%)

Order Polypteriformes

      Polypteridae

Class Actinopteri (100%)

Subclass Chondrostei (100%)

Order Acipenseriformes

Acipenseridae

Polyodontidae

Subclass Neopterygii (100%)

Infraclass Holostei (100%)

Order Amiiformes

      Amiidae

Order Lepisosteiformes (100%)     

      Lepisosteidae

Infraclass Teleostei (100%)

Megacohort Elopocephalai sensu Arratia [2] (100%)

Supercohort Elopocephala (100%)

Cohort Elopomorpha (100%)

Order Elopiformes (100%)

Elopidae

Megalopidae

Order Albuliformes (100%)

Albulidae

Order Notacanthiformes (100%)

Halosauridae

Notacanthidae

Order Anguilliformes (100%)

Anguillidae

Congridae

Eurypharyngidae

Muraenesocidae

Muraenidae

Nemichthyidae

Ophichthidae

Saccopharyngidae

Serrivomeridae

Not examined: Chlopsidae, Colocongridae, Cyematidae, Derichthyidae, Heterenchelyidae, Monognathidae, Moringuidae, Myrocongridae, Nettastomatidae, Protanguillidae, Synaphobranchidae.

Comment: Suborders recognized in Wiley and Johnson [1]  based on previous work cited therein are significantly incongruent with the clades obtained in this analysis; thus, no subordinal classification is proposed.

Megacohort Osteoglossocephalai sensu Arratia [2] (38%)

Supercohort Osteoglossocephala sensu Arratia [2] (99%)

Cohort Osteoglossomorpha

Order Hiodontiformes (100%)

Hiodontidae

Order Osteoglossiformes (100%)

Arapaimidae

Gymnarchidae

Mormyridae

Notopteridae

Osteoglossidae

Pantodontidae

Supercohort Clupeocephala sensu Arratia [17] (100%)

Cohort Otomorpha, new circumscription (=Otocephala, Ostarioclupeomorpha) (100%)

Subcohort Clupei (87%)

Order Clupeiformes

Suborder Denticipitoidei

Denticipitidae

Suborder Clupeoidei (100%)

Chirocentridae

Clupeidae (not monophyletic)

Engraulidae

Pristigasteridae

Not examined: Dussumieriidae, Sundasalangidae.

Subcohort Alepocephali (100%)

Order Alepocephaliformes

Alepocephalidae (not monophyletic)

Platytroctidae

Not examined: Leptochilichthyidae.

Subcohort Ostariophysi (100%)

Section Anotophysa (97%)

Order Gonorynchiformes

Suborder Gonorynchoidei

Gonorynchidae

Not examined: Phractolaemidae.

Suborder Chanoidei

Chanidae

Suborder Knerioidei (100%)

Kneriidae

Section Otophysa (100%)

Superorder Cyprinae (100%)

Order Cypriniformes

Botiidae

Catostomidae

Cobitidae

Cyprinidae

Gyrinocheilidae

Nemacheilidae

Not examined: Balitoridae, Barbuccidae, Ellopostomatidae, Psilorhynchidae, Serpenticobitidae, Vaillantellidae.

Superorder Characiphysae (100%)

Order Gymnotiformes (100%)

Suborder Gymnotoidei (not monophyletic)

Gymnotidae (not monophyletic)

Suborder Sternopygoidei (not monophyletic)

Apteronotidae

Rhamphichthyidae

Sternopygidae (not monophyletic)

Not examined: Hypopomidae.

Comment: Although not monophyletic here, the monophyly gymnotiform suborders was corroborated by Albert and Crampton [18].

Order Characiformes (100%)

Suborder Citharinoidei (not monophyletic)

Citharinidae

Distichodontidae

Suborder Characoidei (not monophyletic)

Acestrorhynchidae

Alestidae

Bryconidae

Chalceidae

Characidae

Chilodontidae

Crenuchidae

Ctenoluciidae

Cynodontidae

Erythrinidae

Gasteropelecidae

Hemiodontidae

Hepsetidae

Lebiasinidae

Parodontidae

Prochilodontidae

Serrasalmidae

Triportheidae

Not examined: Anostomidae, Curimatidae, Iguanodectidae.

Comment: Although not monophyletic in this analysis, the monophyly of characiform suborders has been corroborated by other molecular studies (e.g., [19]).

Order Siluriformes (100%)

Suborder Loricaroidei (93%)

Astroblepidae

Callichthyidae

Loricariidae

Nematogenyidae

Trichomycteridae

Suborder Diplomystoidei

Diplomystidae

Suborder Siluroidei (100%)

Akysidae

Amblycipitidae

Amphiliidae

Anchariidae

Ariidae

Auchenipteridae

Bagridae

Cetopsidae

Chacidae

Clariidae

Claroteidae

Cranoglanididae

Doradidae

Heptapteridae

Heteropneustidae

Horabagridae

Ictaluridae

Malapteruridae

Mochokidae

Pangasiidae

Pimelodidae

Plotosidae

Pseudopimelodidae

Schilbeidae

Siluridae

Sisoridae

Not examined: Aspredinidae, Austroglanididae, Erethistidae, Lacantuniidae, Olyridae, Scoloplacidae. 

Supercohort Clupeocephala (cont.)

Cohort Euteleosteomorpha (100%)

Subcohort Lepidogalaxii

Order Lepidogalaxiiformes

Lepidogalaxiidae

Subcohort Protacanthopterygii sedis mutabilis (37%)

Order Galaxiiformes, new circumscription (100%)

Galaxiidae

Order Argentiniformes, new circumscription (100%)

Argentinidae

Bathylagidae

Microstomatidae

Opisthoproctidae

Order Salmoniformes (100%)

Salmonidae

Order Esociformes (100%)

Esocidae

Umbridae

Subcohort Stomiatii, new circumscription (73%)

Order Stomiatiformes (=Stomiiformes) (100%)

Diplophidae

Gonostomatidae

Phosichthyidae (not monophyletic)

Sternoptychidae

Stomiidae (not monophyletic)

Order Osmeriformes, new circumscription (100%)

Osmeridae

Plecoglossidae

Retropinnidae

Salangidae

Subcohort Neoteleostei, new circumscription (100%)

Infracohort Ateleopodia (100%)

Order Ateleopodiformes

Ateleopodidae

Infracohort Eurypterygia (96%)

Section Aulopa (100%)

Order Aulopiformes

                                                Suborder Aulopoidei (not monophyletic)

Aulopidae

Pseudotrichonotidae

Synodontidae (not monophyletic)

                                                Suborder Paraulopoidei

Paraulopidae

                                                Suborder Alepisauroidei (not monophyletic)

Alepisauridae

Bathysauridae

Chlorophthalmidae (not monophyletic)

Evermannellidae

Giganturidae

Ipnopidae

Notosudidae

Paralepididae (not monophyletic)

Scopelarchidae (not monophyletic)

Sudidae

Not examined: Bathysauroididae, Bathysauropsidae.

Comment: Suborders and families listed are as in Davis [7]. Although not monophyletic herein, the monophyly aulopiform suborders was supported by Davis [7].

Section Ctenosquamata (97%)

Subsection Myctophata (100%)

Order Myctophiformes

Myctophidae

Neoscopelidae

Subsection Acanthomorphata (97%)

Division Lampridacea (100%)

Order Lampridiformes, new circumscription

Lamprididae

Lophotidae

Regalecidae

Trachipteridae

Not examined: Radiicephalidae, Veliferidae.

Division Paracanthomorphacea sensu Grande et al. [20] (93%)

Series Percopsaria (100%)

Order Percopsiformes

Amblyopsidae

Aphredoderidae

Percopsidae

Series Zeiogadaria (=Zeioigadiformes sensu Li et al. [21]) (98%)

Subseries Zeariae (100%)

Order Zeiformes

Parazenidae

Zeidae

Not examined: Cyttidae, Grammicolepididae, Oreosomatidae, Zenionidae.

Subseries Gadariae (100%)

Order Stylephoriformes (sensu Miya et al. [22])

Stylephoridae

Order Gadiformes (100%)

                                                                                                Suborder Macrouroidei

Macrouridae (not monophyletic)

Steindachneriidae

Suborder Gadoidei (not monophyletic)

Gadidae

Lotidae

Merlucciidae

Moridae

Phycidae

Not examined: Bregmacerotidae, Euclichthyidae, Melanonidae.

Suborder Muraenolepidoidei

Not examined: Muraenolepididae.

Comment: The subordinal classification follows Roa-Varon and Orti [14: fig. 6].

Division Polymixiacea (100%)

Order Polymixiiformes

Polymixiidae

Division Euacanthomorphacea sensu [23] (99%)

Subdivision Berycimorphaceae (87%)

Order Beryciformes, new circumscription (circumscription similar to Trachichthyiformes sensu Moore [24])

Anoplogastridae

Barbourisiidae

Berycidae

Cetomimidae

Diretmidae

Melamphaidae

Monocentridae

Rondeletiidae

Trachichthyidae

Not examined: Anomalopidae, Gibberichthyidae, Hispidoberycidae, Stephanoberycidae (placement expected following Moore [24]).

Subdivision Holocentrimorphaceae (100%)

Order Holocentriformes, new

Holocentridae

Comment: Moore [24], and Stiassny and Moore [25] provide morphological evidence supporting a sister-group relationship between holocentrids and percomorphs, which further guarantees placement of this family in its own order. 

Subdivision Percomorphaceae

Subdivision Percomorphaceae (cont.)

Not examined (9 families traditionally placed in “Perciformes”): Banjosidae, Bathyclupeidae, Dichistiidae, Hapalogenyidae, Lactariidae, Parascorpididae, Perciliidae, Symphysanodontidae, Trichonotidae.

Comment: These “perciform” families are provisionally placed here given the long history of phylogenetic indistinctiveness between Percoidei, Perciformes, and Percomorpha (e.g., [26]).

Series Ophidiimorpharia (100%)

Order Ophidiiformes

Suborder Ophidioidei

Ophidiidae

Not examined: Carapidae

Suborder Bythitoidei

Bythitidae

Not examined: Aphyonidae, Parabrotulidae

Series Batrachoidimorpharia (100%)

Order Batrachoidiformes

Batrachoididae

Series Gobiomorpharia (see also [27,28]) (100%)

Comment: In addition to the well-supported molecular circumscription of this group, kurtids, apogonids and gobioids are characterized by the presence of sensory papillae rows on the head and body [27].

Order Kurtiformes, new circumscription  (98%)

Suborder Kurtoidei

Kurtidae

Suborder Apogonoidei

Apogonidae

Comment: Johnson [29] noted that the configuration of the dorsal gill-arch elements may be homologous in Kurtus and apogonids.

Order Gobiiformes (100%)

Suborder Odontobutoidei (100%)

Odontobutidae

Suborder Eleotroidei (97%)

Eleotridae

Suborder Gobioidei (100%)

Gobiidae (not monophyletic)

Microdesmidae

Not examined: Kraemeriidae, Rhyacichthyidae, Schindleriidae, Thalasseleotrididae, Xenisthmidae.

Series Scombrimorpharia (97%)   

Order Syngnathiformes, new circumscription (97%)

Incertae sedis: Aulostomidae, Centriscidae.

Suborder Syngnathoidei, new circumscription (92%)

Syngnathidae

            Possibly included (examined): Fistulariidae

Suborder Dactylopteroidei (100%)

Dactylopteridae

Suborder Callionymoidei (100%)

Callionymidae

Not examined: Draconettidae, Pegasidae, Solenostomidae, (assumed affinity with Callionymidae).

Suborder Mulloidei, new circumscription (92%)

Creediidae

Mullidae

Not examined: Leptoscopidae (assumed affinity with Creediidae [30]).

Order Scombriformes, new circumscription (=Stromateoidei sensu Li et al. [21]) (100%)

Ariommatidae

Bramidae

Caristiidae

Centrolophidae

Chiasmodontidae

Gempylidae

Icosteidae

Nomeidae

Pomatomidae

Scombridae (not monophyletic)

Scombrolabracidae

Stromateidae

Trichiuridae

 Stromateoid” families not examined: Amarsipidae, Scombropidae, Tetragonuridae; not examined but assumed affinity: Arripidae [31].

Comment: interfamilial resolution in Scombriformes is tenuous; circumscription of scombriform families into suborders (e.g., Scombroidei, Stromateoidei, Icostoidei) requires further work.

Series Carangimorpharia  (94%)   

Subseries Anabantomorphariae (=Anabantiformes sensu Li et al. [21]) (99%)

Order Synbranchiformes, new circumscription (98%)

Suborder Indostomoidei

      Indostomidae

Suborder Synbranchoidei

Synbranchidae

Suborder Mastacembeloidei

Mastacembelidae

Not examined: Chaudhuriidae.

Order Anabantiformes (100%)

Suborder Anabantoidei (95%)

Anabantidae

Helostomatidae

Osphronemidae

Not examined: Badidae, Pristolepididae.

Suborder Channoidei (85%)

Channidae

Nandidae

Subseries Carangimorphariae (=Carangimorpha sensu Li et al. [21]) (100%)

Incertae sedis: Centropomidae (sensu Greenwood), Leptobramidae, Menidae, Polynemidae, Sphyraenidae, Toxotidae.

Order Istiophoriformes, new (100%)

Istiophoridae

Xiphiidae

Order Carangiformes sedis mutabilis (not monophyletic)

Carangidae

Coryphaenidae

Echeneidae

Nematistiidae

Rachycentridae

Comment: Monophyly of Carangiformes is not significantly rejected by the data (see also [4]).

Order Pleuronectiformes sedis mutabilis (not monophyletic)

Suborder Psettodoidei (100%)

Psettodidae

Suborder Pleuronectoidei (100%)

Achiridae

Achiropsettidae

Bothidae

Citharidae

Cynoglossidae

Paralichthyidae (not monophyletic)

Pleuronectidae

Poecilopsettidae

Rhombosoleidae (not monophyletic)

Samaridae

Scophthalmidae

Soleidae

Not examined: Paralichthodidae.

Comment: Although Psettodidae was not recovered as the sister group of pleuronectoids in the present analysis, the order was resolved as monophyletic by a recent study, albeit with low support [4].

Subseries Ovalentariae (sensu Smith & Near in Wainwright et al. [3]; =Stiassnyiformes sensu Li et al. [21]) (100%)

Incertae sedis: Ambassidae, Embiotocidae, Grammatidae (in part; not monophyletic), Plesiopidae, Polycentridae, Pomacentridae, Pseudochromidae (not monophyletic).

Superorder Cichlomorphae (93%)

Order Cichliformes

Cichlidae

Order Pholidichthyiformes

Pholidichthyidae

Superoder Atherinomorphae (100%)

Order Atheriniformes (100%)

Atherinidae

Atherinopsidae

Bedotiidae

Isonidae

Melanotaeniidae

Pseudomugilidae

Telmatherinidae

Not examined: Dentatherinidae, Notocheiridae, Phallostethidae.

Order Beloniformes (32%)

Suborder Adrianichthyoidei

Adrianichthyidae

Suborder Exocoetoidei (100%)

Belonidae (not monophyletic)

Exocoetidae (not monophyletic)

Hemiramphidae (not monophyletic)

Scomberesocidae

Zenarchopteridae (not monophyletic)

Order Cyprinodontiformes (57%)

Suborder Aplocheiloidei

Aplocheilidae

Suborder Cyprinodontoidei (100%)

Cyprinodontidae

Fundulidae

Poeciliidae

Not examined: Anablepidae, Goodeidae, Nothobranchiidae, Profundulidae, Rivulidae, Valenciidae.

Superorder Mugilomorphae (100%)

Order Mugiliformes

             Mugilidae

Superorder Blenniimorphae (100%)

Incertae sedis: Grammatidae (in part; not monophyletic) and Opistognathidae.

Order Blenniiformes, new circumscription (Li et al. [21] plus Gobiesocidae) (100%)

      Suborder Gobiesocoidei

Gobiesocidae

Subroder Blennioidei sedis mutabilis (not monophyletic)

Blenniidae

Chaenopsidae

Clinidae

Dactyloscopidae

Labrisomidae (not monophyletic)

Tripterygiidae

Comment: While blennioids are not monophyletic in Fig. S1, we note that preliminary analyses resulted in the reciprocal monophyly of gobiesocoids and blennioids, which is also congruent with a recent multi-locus analysis [3]. Monophyly of gobiesocoids and blennioids (as separate orders/suborders) is further supported by morphological evidence [1].  

Series Percomorpharia (99%)

Incertae sedis: Acropomatidae (not monophyletic), Caesionidae, Caproidae, Centrogenyidae, Chaetodontidae, Emmelichthyidae, Enoplosidae,  Epigonidae, Gerreidae,  Haemulidae,  Howellidae,  Kuhliidae,  Kyphosidae (not monophyletic),  Lateolabracidae,  Leiognathidae,  Lobotidae,  Lutjanidae (not monophyletic),  Malacanthidae,  Monodactylidae,  Moronidae, Oplegnathidae,  Percichthyidae (not monophyletic), Polyprionidae (not monophyletic),  Pomacanthidae,  Priacanthidae,  Scatophagidae,  Sciaenidae,  Siganidae, Sillaginidae,  Sinipercidae,  Terapontidae.

Not examined: Datnioididae (assumed affinity with Lobotidae [11]); Callanthiidae, Cepolidae (see [21]); Dinolestidae, Dinopercidae, Ostracoberycidae, Pentacerotidae (see [26]).

Order Uranoscopiformes, new circumscription (=Paratrachiniformes sensu Li et al. [21]) (95%)

Ammodytidae

Pinguipedidae

Uranoscopidae

Not examined: Cheimarrichthyidae (see Li et al. [21]).

Order Labriformes sensu stricto (100%)

Labridae (not monophyletic)

Odacidae

Scaridae

Order Ephippiformes, new circumscription  (100%)

Drepaneidae

Ephippidae

Comment: Greenwood et al. [32] hypothesized a close affinity between Drepane and ephippids.

Order Spariformes sensu Akazaki [33] and Johnson [34] (94%)

Lethrinidae

Sparidae

Possibly included (examined): Nemipteridae

Not examined but assumed affinity [34]: Centracanthidae

Comment: Akazaki [33] proposed that Lethrinidae

Sparidae, and Nemipteridae were closely related based on specializations of the suspensorium and other features [29]. Johnson [34] supported the monophyly of Akazaki's spariforms with the addition of Centracanthidae.

Order Lophiiformes (100%)

Suborder Lophioidei (100%)

Lophiidae

Suborder Antennarioidei (100%)

Antennariidae

Not examined: Brachionichthyidae, Lophichthyidae, Tetrabrachiidae.

Suborder Chaunacoidei (100%)

Chaunacidae

Suborder Ogcocephaloidei (100%)

Ogcocephalidae

Suborder Ceratioidei (not monophyletic)

Ceratiidae (not monophyletic)

Gigantactinidae

Himantolophidae

Melanocetidae

Oneirodidae

Not examined: Caulophrynidae, Centrophrynidae, Diceratiidae,  Linophrynidae, Neoceratiidae, Thaumatichthyidae.

Comment: The monophyly of Ceratioidei is challenged in this analysis due to misplacement of Cryptoceratias; however, another recent mitogenomic study provided evidence for the monophyly of the suborder [35].

Order Tetraodontiformes (100%)

            Suborder Triacanthodoidei (100%)

Triacanthodidae

                        Suborder Tetraodontoidei, new circumscription (100%)

Diodontidae

Tetraodontidae

                        Suborder Moloidei, new (100%)

Molidae

                        Suborder Balistoidei, new circumscription (100%)

Balistidae

Monacanthidae

                        Suborder Ostracioidei, new (100%)

Aracanidae

Ostraciidae

Suborder Triacanthoidei, new

Triacanthidae

Not examined or classified: Triodontidae.

Comment: Suborders recognized by Santini and Tyler [36] are not recovered here or in previous molecular studies and thus a new subordinal classification is proposed.

Order Acanthuriformes, restricted circumscription (see also [37]) (100%)

Acanthuridae

Luvaridae

Zanclidae

Order Pempheriformes, new (100%)

Glaucosomatidae

Pempheridae

Comment: Tominaga [38] suggested that features of the cranium and swimbladder may be homologous in Pempheris and Glaucosoma.

Order Cirrhitiformes, new circumscription (similar to Cirrhitoidea sensu Greenwood [39], and Burridge and Smolenski [40]) (91%)

Cheilodactylidae

Cirrhitidae

Not examined but expected affinity [39,40]: Aplodactylidae, Chironemidae, Latridae.

Order Centrarchiformes, new circumscription (100%)

Centrarchidae

Elassomatidae

Order Perciformes, new circumscription (=Serraniformes sensu Li et al. [21], Lautredou et al. [41]) (89%)

Incertae sedis: Platycephalidae, Percophidae.

Not examined (14 families traditionally placed in Scorpaeniformes): Apistidae, Aploactinidae, Bembridae, Champsodontidae, Congiopodidae, Cottocomephoridae, Eschmeyeridae, Gnathanacanthidae, Hoplichthyidae, Neosebastidae, Pataecidae, Perryenidae, Plectrogeniidae, Zanclorhynchidae.

Suborder Serranoidei sedis mutabilis (19%)

            Serranidae

Suborder Percoidei, restricted circumscription (100%)

            Percidae

            Not examined: Trachinidae.

Comment: Lautredou et al. [41] using seven nuclear markers obtained a clade uniting Percidae and Trachinidae with full support.

Suborder Notothenioidei (100%)

Pseudaphritidae

Eleginopsidae

Nototheniidae (not monophyletic)

Artedidraconidae (not monophyletic)

Harpagiferidae

Bathydraconidae (not monophyletic)

Channichthyidae

Bovichtidae

Suborder Scorpaenoidei, new circumscription (83%)

            Scorpaenidae (not monophyletic)

            Sebastidae (not monophyletic)

            Setarchidae

Synanceiidae

Tetrarogidae

Suborder Triglioidei sensu Jordan [42] (100%)

            Triglidae

            Peristediidae

Suborder Cottioidei, new circumscription (=Cottimorpha sensu Li et al. [21]) (100%)

Not examined: Trichodontidae (see [26])

Comment: We have chosen to recognize clades within this suborder as infraorders, adopting the ending –ales for this rank.

Infraorder Anoplopomatales, new

Anoplopomatidae

Infraorder Gasterosteales (100%)

Aulorhynchidae

Gasterosteidae

Hypoptychidae

Infraorder Zoarcales (100%)

Anarhichadidae

Bathymasteridae (not monophyletic)

Cryptacanthodidae

Stichaeidae (not monophyletic)

Pholidae

Zaproridae

Zoarcidae

Not examined: Ptilichthyidae, Scytalinidae.

Infraorder Cottales (96%)

Agonidae (not monophyletic)

Cyclopteridae

Cottidae (not monophyletic)

Hexagrammidae (not monophyletic)

Liparidae

Psychrolutidae

Not examined: 8 families traditionally placed in Cottoidei: Abyssocottidae, Bathylutichthyidae, Comephoridae, Ereuniidae, Hemitripteridae, Normanichthyidae, Parabembridae, Rhamphocottidae.

Superclass Sarcopterygii (96%)

Class Coelacanthimorpha (=Actinistia)

                  Order Coelacanthiformes

                              Latimeriidae

Class Dipnotetrapodomorpha sedis mutabilis (65%)

Subclass Dipnomorpha (100%)

Superorder Ceratodontae

      Order Ceratodontiformes

                  Suborder Ceratodontoidei

                              Neoceratodontidae

                  Suborder Lepidosirenoidei (100%)

                              Lepidosirenidae

                              Protopteridae

                  Subclass Tetrapodomorpha (100%)

 

References

 

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