GREGORY PAPPAS, M.D., PH.D.
2803 18th Street NW
Washington, DC 20009
Akron University Akron, OH United States
Bachelor's of Science Degree 06/1974
Major: Natural Science, Honors: Magna Cum Laude
Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, OH United States
Major: Medical Anthropology
Thesis published as a book with Cornell University Press, "The Magic City" 1987.
Case Western Reserve School of Medicine Cleveland, OH United States
Doctoral of Medicine, (MD) 06/1986
Certificate of Completion, Preventive Medicine Residency, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of Health and Human Services, 1995.
Post-Doctoral Fellowship in Epidemiology, National Center for Health Statistics, Department of Health and Human Services, 1989.
Washington, DC License
Certificate of Completion – Preventive Medicine Residency
Post-Doctoral Fellowship in Epidemiology
National Center for Health Statistics DHHS/CDC 1989
District of Columbia Department of Health 02/2011 - Present
899 North Capital Street NE
Washington, DC 20001
Global Health Consultant 07/2012- present
Currently I am working as an independent working on US and global public health challenges.
Deputy Director, HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis, STD and TB Administration (HAHSTA) 02/2011 to 06/2013
Mayoral appointee and senior policymaker. Senior administrator responsible combating HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis, STDs and TB for the District of Columbia, Department of Health. Administer $90 million annual budget. Supervise two clinics and more than 150 employees. As Director of the DC program I am was member of the Ryan White Planning Council (RWPC) our EMA (eligible metropolitan area) body and I supervise the support staff for that major activity. I also advised the Mayor on the recent round of RWPC appointments following all federal guidelines in that process. I was responsible for Ryan White Part A (urban programs), and Part B (state program), and Part C (Early Intervention services) of Ryan White. My responsibility in the District includes work with DC and three states (Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia) as funds flow through our mechanism to those jurisdictions. I have had a major role in reconfiguring our ADAP (AIDS Drug Assistance Program) for DC. I have worked exercises in emergency preparedness under Part E and have partnered under Part F as administrator for Minority AIDS Initiative (MAI) for the DC Ryan White program. I have worked collaboratively with Part F, AIDS Dental Reimbursement (ADR) Program, the Community- Based Dental Partnership Program, and the AIDS Education and Training Centers (AETCs) collaboratively with local partners. I have also worked with Special Projects of National Significance (SPNS) Program, also a Part F, guiding and assisting community partners in the application process. Successfully established and led the Mayor’s Host Committee for the International AIDS Conference (IAC) in the District of Columbia, July 2012. International AIDS Conference (IAC) with over 60 scientific papers presented, along with numerous workshops, forums, exhibits, and informal exchange of information. My work with the media at IAC effectively in changing national and international perceptions of the nature of the HIV epidemic in DC and the District’s response to the epidemic. More than 40 media interviews and events (national and international) were completed with print, radio, and TV news organizations such as the New York Times, the Washington Post, PBS, NBC and a wide range of US and international reporters. Conceptualized and led the Mayor’s Commission on HIV/AIDS, bringing together public and private sector to review current HIV/AIDS policies and programs and initiate new directions. The Commission was instrumental in promoting a new policy aimed at reducing the overall viral load of the community. Spearheaded a major policy initiative to promote the HIV patient-centered medical home as a solution to the fragmented and poorly coordinated care received by HIV+ people in the District of Columbia.
· Led DC CFAR (Center for AIDS Research) with NIH and university partners to improve capacity for research on HIV/AIDS in District measuring impressive gains staff and output
· Aligned existing HIV/AIDS plans, goals and objectives with the National HIV/AIDS Strategy
· Established a website to encourage public and private sector partners to adopt the strategic plan and to share in the planning process
· New records set for HIV testing in DC ( persons tested in 2012), approximately one third of DC residents are tested each year one of the highest rates in the US
· No baby born HIV+ in DC since 2009
· 24% decline in new HIV diagnoses between 2006 and 2010
· Award-winning social marketing program set a new record for condom distribution in DC, over 5 million, a ten-fold increase since 2007
· 72% decrease in the number of newly diagnosed HIV cases attributable to injection drug use during the rapid scale of needle exchange in the city
· Launched new policies and programs to increase HIV testing in DC
· Social networking used to promote HIV testing
· Cost saving blood-based rapid testing included as a part of the HIV testing program
· Promoted increased/more effective community involvement
Global Health Consultant - self employed 07/2008 - 02/2011
International health consultant
Worked as an independent contractor for the World Health Organization (WHO), US Agency for International Development (USAID), the government of Kuwait and Duke University, the National Medical Association (NMA), and InterAction. Acted as adviser and lead for the development, monitoring, coordination, and implementation of projects for clients including the governments of Kuwait, Kazakhstan, and Southern Sudan. Identified and assessed emerging health issues, and advised senior health leadership and senior staff of potential and emerging problem areas, including development of a national pharmaceutical formulary system. Served as Medical Advisor to the Board of the National Association of People Living with AIDS and conceptualized treatments support role.
WHO consultant activities:
· Spearheaded development of a strategic plan for the emerging nation of Southern Sudan. Spent extensive time in Juba implementing the planning process. Worked with the government in Juba and international agencies. The planning process involved all the major components of the Department of Health, USAID, and the World Bank
· Effectively provided WHO (Western Pacific Region) in Kobe, Japan with results-based policy recommendations on issues related to urbanization and health, as part of a global reconsideration of Health Equity programs. The consultation led to changes in staff development and policy development
· Credited with implementing new directions in research policy for the Global Forum, the body associated with WHO that addresses issues of research policy in developing countries. Through consultations with senior staff and written reports, helped formulate a new approach that focuses research efforts on essential national health needs
Kuwait MOH consultant activities:
· Assisted the Ministry of Health of Kuwait in strategic planning. Worked in Southern Sudan and Kuwait on national policy regarding pharmaceuticals;
· Successfully advised the Minister of Health of Kuwait as part of a high-level team working on a major health reform agenda. The series of consultations included working with major aspects of health care delivery in the country, and culminated in testimony before the health committee of the National Assembly of Kuwait.
Duke University consultant activities:
· Prepared proposals for the establishment of a major health science university in Kazakhstan;
· Led the development of plans to establish an academic medical center for a new agency of the government of Kazakhstan, in cooperation with Duke University and Medical Center. Worked closely with the semi-autonomous body that will administer this major development project promoting health care innovation in Kazakhstan;
· Was part of the negotiating team that successfully obtained major funding for Duke and coordinated the Duke role in the process
USAID consultant activities:
· Effectively advised USAID in development of policy related to HIV/AIDS and mental health
· USAID activities included research, policy development, and presentations to policymakers. The objective was to promote a new initiative that recognizes the importance of supporting mental health services in less developed countries, as part of capacity building in USAID client countries
National Medical Association consultation: Managed and directed domestic and global projects for the National Medical Association (NMA), the oldest and largest organization of African American physicians. Led implementation of a CDC project that promotes the documentation of sexual histories of minority men who have sex with men (MSM) to assess and address health issues. This included national consultation with practicing physicians to develop a suitable approach and materials, as well as developing support for the project. Led the effort to acquire major funding for the project from the Ford Foundation (for the NMA Global Health Initiative) resulting in an award of $1 million for mobilization of African Diaspora physicians to work on capacity building around HIV/AIDS in African countries.
US-based NGO that works with the US Department of State and USAID in
coordinating US and global humanitarian assistance organizations. Coordinated
with a consortium of US and global NGO partners (American Red Cross,
International Red Cross, Care and others), UN agencies and USAID. Developed
policies and programs for pandemic preparedness.
· Led development of pandemic preparedness activities in a global program funded by
USAID, with partners from 40 countries. The period of employment included the H1N1
epidemic of 2009;
· Organized and conducted meetings of government and private sector African and Asian
partners on pandemic preparedness. Responsible for contracting and arrangement
of major meetings to develop national and regional policy on pandemic preparedness.
The meetings took place in Addis Ababa, Pretoria, and Ho Chi Min City;
· Effectively handled media relations on issues of pandemic preparedness, including
international media (press, radio and television interviews) during the H1N1 outbreak
· Served as the InterAction focal point for inquiries, requests, and correspondence directed
to the InterAction supervisor and members of the senior staff regarding influenza and
other global health issues
· Prepared policy and technical input on issues such as data systems to coordinate global
humanitarian response for correspondence under the signature of InterAction leadership
· Advised WHO and other global health agencies on issues related to pharmaceutical policy and influenza that required technical, legislative, and regulatory expertise. Evaluated and integrated (with sensitivity) the perspectives of various agencies and organizations, and coordinating with Federal and global agencies on issues of pandemic
· Improved an innovative software platform that facilitates coordination of regional
pandemic preparedness and organizational efficiency and effectiveness through use of an
interactive database. The database collects information from multiple partners and
displays the data in flexible policy-relevant interfaces (Drupal based system)
· Successfully planned and conducted “desktop simulations” of pandemic preparedness for WHO and US NGO leaders (Geneva and CEOs of major international humanitarian agencies with global partners including OCHA, OFDA, International Red Cross, American Red Cross, USAID, and Care
Aga Khan University 06/2005 - 06/2008
Professor, Chairman Department Community Health Science
Managed a faculty of 45 (MDs and PhDs) and a staff of more than 200, with staff and programs in Pakistan, Afghanistan and Kenya. Senior advisor to the University and the highest levels of the Ministries of Health in those countries. Led major improvements in the award-winning Urban Health Programs that provide health, education and development services in three facilities in poor urban communities (catchments totaling 60,000 each). The Department has a major role in the undergraduate medical education program and offers three Master’s programs (Biostats/Epidemiology, Health Policy and Management, and Clinical Epidemiology) and a Residency in Community Medicine. Managed a multi-disciplinary Human Development Program that includes research in early childhood development and offers a Diploma course in human development. The Department has 29 externally funded research projects that total more than $7 million, annually. Doubled funding for the Department over a three-year period
· Credited with dramatic increases in funding and the production of a large number of publications by the Department, covering a broad range of topics.
· Obtained funding from the National Science Foundation supported the first air pollution health study in Pakistan. The study led to numerous publications on air quality and policy initiatives to address air quality in Karachi, a megacity of over 18 million people
· Obtained funding from Canadian CIDA supported a major Asia regional initiative to promote eHealth. Led the initiative in 19 countries resulting in a number of publications as well as a series of other initiatives in the region.
· Launched a major project addressing mental health needs of village women in Afghanistan. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) provided $1 million of support, which led to the expansion of mental health services into villages and the training and supervision of village health workers. The model was expanded though the Aga Khan Health Services operating under the auspices of the Ministry of Health of Afghanistan.
· These efforts to focus attention on urban health in the development world culminated in my book, “Megacities and Global Health” (APHA Press) with Omar Khan.
· Effectively managed a major role for the University in the global response to the Pakistan earthquake of 2005, coordinating with WHO and other response partners. Trained and deployed the first team of epidemiologists who entered the earthquake zone.
· Improved a long-standing urban health and development program including three clinics in the slums of Karachi through organizational efficiency and effectiveness, short and long-term training and capacity building, as part of succession of employees in a different job positions. These reforms lead to recognition of the program through award of the McJanet Prize in 2008..
· Spearheaded an initiative that led to construction of a sewage system in a poor neighborhood of Karachi (60,000 inhabitants) through mobilization of community partners. The project is described and fully documented in an article in Anthropology Now, a major academic journal in the social sciences and demonstrates the importance of community mobilization and coalition building to address public health problems effectively at the local level.
· Re-established the Karachi City HIV/AIDS Work Group including government, university and private agencies. Planned studies and responses to HIV/AIDS in Karachi including studies of HIV in Rehri Got, published reports of high HIV prevalence in a population not previously studied, and possible new modes of transmission.
Futures Group 06/2003 - 04/2005
Washington , DC
Served as principal manager for a major international HIV/AIDS program, AIDSRelief, including prevention, clinical and palliative care, monitoring, evaluation and social support services in nine countries (Uganda, Rwanda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, South Africa, Nigeria, Haiti, and Guyana). Helped create AIDSRelief, a consortium of the Institute of Human Virology, Catholic Relief Services, Catholic Medical Mission Board, Interchurch Medical Assistance, and the Futures groups, which received a $355 million, PEPFAR grant.
· Led development of major proposal for Futures groups as part of a major re-orientation of a development firm that had not been involved with antiretroviral treatment previously ($350 million award). Instrumental in the creation of the partnerships necessary for this organization to deploy the skills of its work force in a new challenge to global health, scaling up treatment and support for HIV/AIDS. Based on association in the earliest phases of PEPFAR, played a major role helping the global health industry leaders in Washington DC become oriented to the new priorities of the federal program.
· Conducted business processes, re-engineering AIDSRelief partners in African and Caribbean clinical partners. Led human resource planning, recruitment, job orientation, and performance appraisals for Futures participation in AIDSRelief. Built a US based staff from scratch to support the information systems functions of the Futures group as part of AIDSRelief. Provided assessment and development of innovative software to be used in clinical and programmatic settings.
· Credited with major contributions to the establishment of PEPFAR by working as a major author of the Five Year Strategy: a Report to Congress. Worked directly with the senior PEPFAR staff drafting critical sections including sections on strategic information systems and pharmaceutical policy.
· Launched antiretroviral programs in seven countries in Africa and the Caribbean for AIDSRelief. Led roll outs in half of the countries and was coordinator for data collection for all. This work involved negotiation with national Ministries of Health, coordination with local clinical partners, and logistical planning for roll out activities. Activities included training of US based technical assistance staff regarding needs of African and Caribbean institutional partners, training of clinical staff, orientation of trainers, data collection on status of clinical partners at the beginning of the project. AIDSRelief has placed 254,000 patients on life saving antiretroviral medications and currently have over 400,000 patients in HIV care services.
ORC Macro (currently ICF International) 05/2001 - 05/2003
Calverton , MD
As senior manager for the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), responsible for policy and program innovation. The DHS is the largest, longest running global health data operation in the world. Funded by USAID, the DHS conducts surveys in over 40 countries and is the major source of national health data for the less developed world. Promoted new surveys and survey techniques that addressed emerging policy needs of the US government and client countries. I played a key role in the evolution of the IRB efforts of the DHS, issues related to health disparities, “report of finding to survey participants” policies, and survey sampling issues. Led, negotiated, planned, and implemented prototype surveys including a health examination survey, an HIV facility survey and added biomarkers to the DHS. Integrated HIV testing into population based surveys (DHS) in Mali, Zambia, and Dominican Republic. Led preparation and presentation of innovations to ORC Macro IRB (HIV testing, Chlamydia testing, cholesterol, vitamin A, blood pressure, lead testing). Served as policy adviser to Commonwealth Regional Health Community Secretariat, a regional body representing 14 Eastern and Southern African countries to harmonize health policies in the region.
· Successfully planned, negotiated, implemented and analyzed the first Uganda National Health Facility Survey, focused on provision of services to address HIV/AIDS, STDs, and TB that was conducted with JSI. This large national effort sampled over 200 public and private sector health care delivery facilities that revealed the serious gaps in provision of care, which was critical to the planning of PEPFAR. The results of this global prototype survey were published in a national report for Uganda, a peer review journal, and presented in many scientific forums.
· Spearheaded a major policy initiative to include biomarkers in the DHS. Planned, negotiated, implemented and analyzed a national health examination survey in Uzbekistan. This was the first time the DHS collected data on a wide variety of adult health indicators including blood pressure, cholesterol, vitamin A, Chlamydia, and many others biomarkers. Pioneered vitamin A specimen collection for the DHS in a study in Uganda. I planned, and analyzed the first national HIV prevalence estimate in Africa using survey data in the Mali DHS 2001. Designed, negotiated, implemented and analyzed the Dominican Republic DHS 2001 that included HIV testing (oral test). My publications and presentation in many global forums (WHO, WB, ADB, USAID) have been critical to the advancement of the use of biomarkers in national surveys. The Uzbekistan National Health Survey has become a corner stone of national health policy in that country and an important turning point for USAID that has begun to address issues of urban health and chronic diseases in its programming.
· Conceptualized, designed, and implemented use of vitamin A measures in national health surveys. Conducted the first piloted in series of Ugandan villages to assess the feasibility and potential use of vitamin A as a component in a national survey. The results of the study led to the inclusion of vitamin A in the National Health Survey of Uzbekistan.
DHHS Office of International and Refugee Health 04/1992 - 04/2001
Washington , DC
Senior Policy Advisor to Surgeon General/Assistant Secretary
Over a four-year period I assumed increasing levels of responsibility ending as Senior Policy Adviser to the Surgeon General/Assistant Secretary, Dr. David Satcher. The first three years of this four-year stint I worked at the Office of International and Refugee Health (now office of Global Health Affairs, DHHS). I served as acting Director of the Office for one year, supervising a staff of over 50 persons with responsibility for a budget of $25 million. I had policy, administrative, and program responsibility including coordination of DHHS international activities implemented through FDA, CDC, and NIH through multilateral (WHO, UNICEF, PAHO) and bilateral (Russia, Mexico, Japan, South Africa, India, Pakistan, Egypt) agreements. I led liaison efforts with U.S. government agencies (USAID, State, and Commerce) and other international agencies (e.g., World Bank). I represented DHHS at UNICEF Executive Board, Western Pacific Regional Office of the World Health Organization, US-Japan Common Agenda, and New Transatlantic Agenda (US-EU).
· Spearheaded policy formation and action for the National Coalition to Eliminate Racial and Ethnic Disparities for Surgeon General/ Assistant Secretary. Played a key role organizing the White House kick-off of the Initiative in October 2000. Coordinated the collaboration with the American Public Health Association. Spoke nationally promoting the initiative at state public health association meetings (Alaska, Oregon, New Mexico, and North Carolina) representing the Department.
· Led scientific briefings for the Surgeon General/Assistant on emerging science and policy issues related to infant mortality, emerging pathogens, racial and ethnic health disparities. In-depth briefings and associated documents guided DHHS policy at the highest level supporting both short term action (consideration of policy for blood borne pathogens supported at World Health Assembly) and long-term programs (support for an NICHD longitudinal study of material and child health). Represented DHHS at the Practicing Physicians Advisory Council of HCFA. Provided technical assistance to the Office of Human Research Protection/DHHS that oversees protection of human subjects in research.
· Credited with early leadership of HIV testing and treatment in global health during an era in which there was resistance to this movement. Key to the promotion of the evidence base for policy around “compulsory licensing” at the US delegation to the WHO World Health Assembly assisting the understanding.
· Policy reform at UNICEF regarding HIV/AIDS. As the DHHS representative to the Executive Board of UNICEF for three years, played a critical role in the US government policy that provided leadership among other member delegations -- efforts that ultimately led to a major shift in policy at UNICEF. Breast-feeding policy of UNICEF came into conflict with the science that documented that breast-feeding could lead to HIV infection among infants. Organized scientific briefing for the US delegations and UNICEF staff, wrote policy briefs, and resolutions that helped UNICEF develop the most progressive policy stance for HIV in the UN system at that time.
· Conceptualized and led a series of articles for the Surgeon General/Assistant Secretary in JAMA that provide national and global policy direction in areas of HIV/AIDS, smoking, and global health. Negotiated the series with the editor of JAMA and wrote two of the pieces.
DHHS National Center for Health Statistics 07/1987 - 03/1992
Special Assistant to Associate Director, NCHS
Assumed increasing levels of responsibilities for policy development and supervision of large-scale projects, including staff and budgetary oversight, ending as the Special Assistant to Associate Director/NCHS. The National Center of Health Statistic is part of the CDC and the largest center devoted to national health information systems. Developed expert level experience in all the major data systems of the center including that National Health Examination Survey, National Health Interview Survey, National Hospital Discharge Survey, and the Vital Records System. Planned and implemented major survey work. Published extensively on data sets from the Center making both policy and methodological contributions of national and global significance.
· Led development of relationships between NCHS/CDC and the District of Columbia, Commission of Health as part of a larger federal initiative to provide technical assistance to District Government. Assigned by the Federal government to serve as an assistant to the Commissioner of Health and led policy development for DC health information system and program evaluations of immunization, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS programs.
· Led development of major components of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III, during the policy, planning and implementation phase (physicians exam, hearing exam, dental exam, CNS exam). This national population-based household survey interviewed and examined 40,000 persons to provide health status information for policy and science. NHANES is a major data source for Healthy People
· Effectively provided expert testimony for a national policy forum related to racial and ethnic disparities, (National Committee on Vital Records and Health Statistics). This and other efforts of this period of my career led to growing national attention to racial and ethnic health disparities and related policy reform.
· Improved scientific operations of the Scientific Advisory Committee of NCHS, which oversaw all major survey operations including the original creation of the national representative sample of genetic material for the US government. This effort established processes for use of genetic material on a nationally representative sample of the country that involved major scientific and ethical consideration creating an invaluable component of the national data sets of the country.
· Spearheaded the highly successful and policy relevant National Health Survey of Pakistan, first survey of its kind in a less developed country. Implemented the analysis of this health examination survey of a representative sample of Pakistan (with more than 18,000 people interviewed and examined). Trained teams of Pakistani doctors and statisticians to analyze data and develop policy initiatives raised by the survey findings. This successful effort led to publication of a major report and a large series of peer-reviewed articles, which have had major policy ramifications for national health policy in Pakistan.
· Conceptualized and led the “Lee Report” a study commissioned by Assistant Secretary of Health Dr. Phil Lee. This DHHS wide initiative led to the production of a series of studies of social inequalities in health. The effort was the culmination of the Poverty and Health Work Group at NCHS, which I also founded and led. Gained national recognition for my paper published in the New England Journal of Medicine that demonstrated widening disparities in mortality between socio-economic groups in the United States. A front-page story of New York Times reviewed the paper. Led a study that demonstrated disparities between race and income groups in avoidable causes of hospitalization which was the first use of zip code data as a proxy for social class at NCHS, an important methodological innovation. Worked on policy analysis publishing a paper on monitoring the health consequences of welfare reform.
MEMBERSHIPS AND AFFILIATIONS
· National Association of People with AIDS Medical Advisor – 2010-2011
· Medical Holding, Kazakhstan Board Member – 2009
· American Public Health Association Executive Board Science Board Chairperson – 2000-2005
· Bloomberg School of Public Health Adjunct Faculty Member – 2000 to present
· Howard Medical School Adjunct Faculty Member – 2009 to present
· GW School of Public Health Adjunct Faculty - 2012
· District of Columbia Free Clinics
Whitman Walker, Zaccheaus Clinic Volunteer physician (15 Years)
· Tapped for Excellence Directors Award, National Center for Health Statistics, 1996.
· Special Achievement Award, Case Western Reserve School of Medicine, graduation ceremony, 1986
· Professor and Chairman, Department of Community Health Science, Aga Khan University, Karachi Pakistan. Served on Appointment and Promotions Committee for University, Service in Faculty Senate.
· Adjunct Faculty, George Washington University School of Public Health, (2011 to present). I provide lectures and advise students.
· Adjunct Faculty, Howard School of Medicine. I served between 2003 and 2005 administering and developing a new MPH program for Howard, the first MPH to be created to address health disparities. I have returned to Howard (2010-11) to develop program and curriculum emphasizing community and prevention work.
· Adjunct Associate Professor, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of International Health, Division of Health Systems. Department Policy and Management teaching health survey methods, epidemiology and health services research, 1996 to present,
· Preventive Medicine Residency, Faculty, Centers for Disease Control teaching residents in areas of quantitative methods of epidemiology and health services research, 1997-98.
· National School of Public Health, Faculty, Madrid, Spain and Barcelona Department of Public Health teaching annual seminars and consultation on epidemiology and health services research, 1993-1999.
· Visiting Professor, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait City, Kuwait, taught introduction to public health and epidemiology, 1997.
· Hellenic International Schools Athens Greece High school instructor (biology, psychology, chemistry, and math), 1976 -1977.
· La Verne College, Athens, Greece Undergraduate instructor in "Introduction to Anthropology" and "Theory in Anthropology" June 1978 to September 1978.
· National Committee on Vital Records and Health Statistics - Advised on data policy related to national minimum data standards used in vital statistics and health care statistics. 1990-1996
· Institutional Review Board for the National Health Examination Study - Reviewed research protocols and developed policy guidance to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey including collection of DNA collection conservation, 1994-98
· World Bank - Led an evaluation study on the development of health information systems in Sri Lanka. 1995
· Kaiser Permanente of Northern California - Evaluation of survey systems for quality and outcome management leading to policy recommendations that were subsequently integrated into the Kaiser Hospital system, 1996
· New England Research Institute - Provided strategic guidance and a proposal for development of health information system development in Kuwait School of Medicine, 1996
· USAID - Provided conceptual support and report to guide an initiative regarding mental health services and support needs for HIV/AIDS program in less developed countries and resource poor settings. (2010)
· World Health Organizations - Provided consultation and reports on issues related to emergency prepared training programs and research capacity building program (2010)
· Government of Kuwait, Ministry of Health - Provided strategic guidance on health reform to Ministry of Health Kuwait (Dr. M. Hilal) and the Health Committee of the national elected assembly. Work was part of a high level team of private consultants over a series of visits to Kuwait.
· Duke Medical Center and the Government of Kazakhstan - Provided strategic guidance and extensive documentation for development of an academic medical center for the Government of Kazakhstan (2011)
· Government of Southern Sudan - Led planning initiative to develop direction for the creation of a new Ministry of Health for a emerging nation. Work included to extensive tours of Juba, Southern Sudan. (2011)
COUNTRIES OF PROFESSIONAL WORK
UAE, Kuwait, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Vietnam, South Africa, Zambia, Uganda, Rwanda, Nigeria, Kenya, Tanzania, Ethiopia, South Africa, Guyana, Haiti, Spain, Greece, Austria, Japan, Thailand, Switzerland, UK, Guyana, Dominican Republic
· French – Intermediate
· Greek – Intermediate
· Urdu – Basic
PUBLICATIONS, ABSTRACTS AND PRESENTATIONS
· Khan O and G Pappas Megacities and Global Health. APHA Press: Washington DC 2001.
· Pappas G “Primary Health Care (PHC) and health systems in urban settings: challenges, issues, contemporary issues, case studies, lessons learned, and recommendations” Technical Paper commissioned by the WHO Kobe Center, Japan, Nov. 2009.
· Sherwani J, Ali N, Tongia R, Rosenfeld R, Memon Y, Karim M, Pappas G HealthLine: Towards Speech-based Access to Health Information by Semi-literate Users, in Speech in Mobile and Pervasive Environments, Singapore, September 2007.
· Pappas G, Khoja S. book chapter: “Prospects of improving healthcare in Pakistan, using e-Health: Lessons learned and a Proposal” in Better Healthcare through Telehealth. Editors: Khan HA; Qureshi MM, Hayee I. Government of Pakistan: Islamabad 2008.
· Final Report of the Tawana Pakistan Project to the Ministry of Social Welfare and Special Education, Aga Khan University: Karachi, June 2006.
· Uzbekistan National Health Survey 2004. ORC Macro, Calverton, MD, June 2004.
· Uganda National Health Facility Survey 2002. ORC Macro, Calverton, MD, 2002.
· President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, US Five-years Global HIV/AIDS Strategy: A Report to Congress, US Department of State, Washington DC, February 2004
· Health DC Residents 2000. A fact book of data and targets. DC Commission of Public Health: Washington DC, 1996.
· Pappas G, Akhter NM, "Race, Class, and Place: Policy directions for the future of public health" in Geographic Information Systems and Health Applications, Idea Group Publishing: Hersey, 2003.
· Pappas G. "Maternal and Child Health: towards a community-centered approach" in Topics in Maternal and Infant Health American Public Health Association: Washington DC, 2002.
· Pappas G The National Health Survey of Pakistan Proceedings of the 1989 Public Health Conference on Records and Statistics. Washington, D.C. July 17-19, 1989
· Pakistan Medical Research Council. Health Profile of the People of Pakistan. PMRC: Islamabad, 1997.
· Pappas G. The Magic City: Unemployment in a Working-Class Community. Cornell University Press: New York, 1989.
· Pappas G Book review: AIDS, Sex, and Culture: Global Politics and Survival in Southern Africa, by Ida Susser, JAMA. 2010;304(3):353.
· Pappas G PLoS Med Response, Preparation for Avian Influenza: what is missing? PLOS 10 September 2007.
· Shaikh BT, Kadir MM, Pappas G Thirty years of Alma Ata pledges: Is devolution in Pakistan an opportunity for rekindling primary health care? J Pak Med Assoc 2007;57(5):259-60.
· Pappas G Geographic Data on Health Inequities: Understanding Policy Implications. PLoS Med 2006; 3(9): e357.
· Pappas G book review “Vulnerable Populations in the United States” by Shi and Steven New England Journal of Medicine 2005;353:104-105.
· Pappas G Letter to the Editor Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy, 2003;6:71.
· Akhter MN, Pappas G Health Pakistan, and Globalization. American Journal of Public Health, 2001;91:13.
· Akhter, M and Pappas Letter to the Editor: Response to Debra Nanan. American Journal of Public Health 2001 91(10):1545-1546.
· Pappas, G Uganda: Coming to Terms with HIV/AIDS The Gay and Lesbian Review, 2001;8(5):45.
· Pappas G Anthropology’s Response to the Clinton Initiative on Race. Newsletter of the American Anthropology Association, Feb. 1998.
PUBLISHED PEER REVIEW ARTICLES
· Holtgrave D, Maulsby C, Kharfen M, Jia Y, Wu C, Opoku J, West T and Pappas G Cost–Utility Analysis of A Female Condom Promotion Program in Washington, DC AIDS and Behavior Volume 16, Number 5 (2012), 1115-1120, DOI: 10.1007/s10461-012-0174-5.
· Pappas G, JiaY, Khan O. Three Decades of HIV/AIDS. Medscape Public Health. Posted: 07/15/2011. Accessed on September 23, 2012. Available at: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/746153.
· Mamoud S, Pappas G, Hadden C ‘Prevalence of head lice and hygiene practices among women over twelve years of age in Sindh, Balochistan, and North West Frontier Province: National Health Survey of Pakistan, 1990-1994” Parasit Vectors. 2011; 4: 11.
· Saleem S, McClure EM, Bux R, Shaheed A,Goldenberg RL, Pappas G1 Pregnancy Behavior Of Pakistani Women Over Their Reproductive Life Span Al Ame en J Med Sci (2010) 3 :228 -236.
· Pappas G Pakistan’s Hygiene Hijinx, Anthropology Now April 2010:2:(1):40-47.
· O’Neill J, Pappas G Health Diplomacy: lessons for global health from PEPFAR. The Internet Journal of World Health and Societal Politics. 2009 Volume 7 Number 1
· Pappas G, A Ghaffar, T Masud, MBBS, A Hyder, S Siddiqi. Governance and health sector development: a case study of Pakistan Internet Journal of World Health and Societal Politics 2009 Volume 7 Number 1.
· Halperin D, de Moya EA, Pe´rez-Then E, Pappas G Understanding the HIV Epidemic in the Dominican Republic: A Prevention Success Story in the Caribbean? JAIDS 2009;5(1): S52-S59.
· Rabanni F, Wasim J, Abbas F, Jahan F, Syed NA, G Pappas, Azam SI, Brommels M, Tomson G Culture and quality care perceptions in a Pakistani hospital International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance 2009;2(5) : 498-513.
· Jokhio AH, Pappas G Capacity of senior health managers in Pakistan: a survey of managers in public health sector. The Internet Journal of Healthcare Administration. 2009;6(2).
· Jokhio AH, G Pappas, Lancashire RJ Health System Managerial Staffing Patterns: Public Sector Experience From Pakistan. The Internet Journal of World Health and Societal Politics. 2008; 5(1).
· Pappas G, Glasser JH, Akhter M, Nayani PB. Healing the Schism: Medicine and Public Health in Pakistan. Education for Health 8 2008: 173.
· Badruddin SH, Agha A, Peermohamed H, Rafique G, Khan KS, Pappas G Tawana project-school nutrition program in Pakistan--its success, bottlenecks and lessons learned. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:357-60.
· Pappas G, Agha A, Rafique G, Khan KS, Badruddin SH, Peermohamed H. Community-based approaches to combating malnutrition and poor education among girls in resource-poor settings: report of a large scale intervention in Pakistan. Rural and Remote Health 2008;8: 820.
· Moe J, Pappas G, Murray A, International management of globalizing health care services: a case study of Jordan’s King Hussein Cancer Center BMC Global Health. 2007; 3: 11.
· Rabbani F, Jafrim W , Abbas F, Pappas G, Brommels M, Tomson G. Reviewing the Application of the Balanced Scorecard with Implications for Low-Income Health Settings Journal for Healthcare Quality 2007; 29(5): 21-34.
· Fatmi Z, Hadden W, Razzak JA, Qureshi HI, Hyder AA, Pappas G “Annual incidence, patterns and severity of reported unintentional injuries in Pakistan for persons five years and older: Results of the National Health Survey of Pakistan 1990-94. BMC Public Health 2007:7:152.
· Fatmi Z, Kazi A, Hadden W, Bhutta Z, Razzak J, Pappas G “Incidence and pattern of unintentional injuries and resulting disability among children under 5 years of age: results of the National Health Survey of Pakistan” Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology Volume 23, Issue 3, pages 229–238, May 2009.
· Talati J, Pappas G “Migration, Medical Education, and Health Care: A View from Pakistan” Academic Medicine. 2006;81(12) Supplement:S55-S62, December
· Jafar, T, Chaturvedi N, Pappas G “Prevalence of overweight and obesity and their association with hypertension and diabetes mellitus in an Indo-Asian population” CMAJ 2006; 175(9): 1071-7.
· Hicks E, Pappas G Coordinating Disaster Relief After the South Asian Earthquake Society 2006; 43(5):42-50.
· Pappas G, Wolf C, Morineau G, Harding R Validity of Survey Questionnaire Items related to pain and symptoms in HIV/AIDS infected households in resources poor settings: results from a community based study in Dominican Republic and Cambodia, BMC Palliative Care 2006; 5:3.
· Pappas G, Andriote JM, Mwalali P National Data Policy for Antiretroviral Therapy in Resource-Poor Settings: on the challenge of durable viral suppression. AIDS & Public Health 2005:20. 3/4: 66-73.
· Wolf RW, G Bicego, Marconi K, Bessinger R, van Praag E, Noriega-Minichiello S, Pappas G, Fronczak N, Peersman G, Fiorentino RK, Rugg D, NovakJ. Developing and implementing monitoring and evaluation methods in the new era of expanded care and treatment of HIV/AIDS. New Directions for Evaluation 2004; 103: 81-100.
· Pappas G and Hyder A Ethical considerations for the use of biological and physiological markers in population-based surveys in less developed countries: towards international standards and practice, Globalization and Health 2005; 1: 16-25.
· Pappas G, Hyder AA, Akhter M Globalization and Health: towards a new framework for public health. Social Theory and Health. 2003;1(2): 91-107.
· Hadden W, Pappas G, Khan MQ, Social Stratification, Development and Health in Pakistan: an empirical exploration of relationships in population-based national health examination survey data. Social Science and Medicine 2003;57(10):1863-74.
· Pappas G, Khan O, Wright J, Khan S, Kumaramangalam L, O’Neil J. Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) and HIV/AIDS in India: the hidden epidemic. AIDS & Public Health Policy 2002:16; 4-17.
· Pappas G, Akhter T, Kahn, Q, Hadden W. Health Status of the Pakistani Population: a health profile and comparison with the United States. American Journal of Public Health 2001; 9(1):93-98.
· Pappas G, Moss N Health for All in the 21st Century, WHO Renewal, and Equity in Health: a commentary, International Journal of Health Services Research 2001;31:647-657.
· Schalick LM, Hadden WC, Pamuk E, Navarro V, Pappas G The widening gap in death rates among social classes in the United States: 1967, 1986. International Journal of Health Services. 2000;20 (1): 13-26
· Dieveler D, Pappas G Policy Implications of Social Class in Public Health: A Case Study from the District of Columbia, Social Science and Medicine 1999;48:1095- 1102.
· Pappas G Monitoring the Health Consequences of Welfare Reform. International Journal of Health Services 1998;28 (4):703-713.
· Pappas G, Kozak LJ, Hadden W., Fisher G. Avoidable Hospitalizations: Inequalities between Socioeconomic Groups in the United States. American Journal of Public Health 1997;87(5): 811-816.
· Montgomery L, Kiely J, Pappas G. Child Health, Poverty, Race and Family Structure. American Journal of Public Health 1996:86(10): 1401-1405.
· Fisher G, Pappas G Limb M. Prospects Problems and Prerequisites for National Health Examination Surveys in Less Developed Countries. Social Science and Medicine, 1996; 42: 1639-1650.
· Kogan M., Alexander G., Teitelbaum M., Jack B., Kotelchuck M., Pappas G The Effect of Gaps in Health Insurance on Continuity of a Regular Source of Care Among Preschool-aged Children in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1995;274:1429-1435.
· Kogan M, Pappas G, Yu S.M, Kotelchuck M Over-the-counter Medication Use Among US Preschool-age Children. Journal of the American Medical Association 1994;272: 1025-1030.
· Queen S, Pappas G, Hadden W, Fisher G. The Widening Gap Between Socioeconomic Status and Mortality. Statistical Bulletin 1994;75(2):31-35.
· Pappas G, Elucidating the Relationships between Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Health. American Journal of Public Health 1994;84:892-893.
· Pappas G, Queen S, Hadden W Fisher G The Increasing Disparity in Mortality Between Socioeconomic Groups in the United States, 1960 and 1986. New England Journal of Medicine 1993;329:103-109.
· Iftikhar G., Fisher G, Pappas G, Prospects for the National Health Survey of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Medical Research 1992;31(4):266-269.
· Zubair A, Wajid G, Pappas G, Khan A, Non-response Analysis in the National Health Survey of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Medical Research 1992;31(4):297-299.
· Pappas G, Williams P, Health Examination Surveys in Less Developed Countries: A Review of the World Literature. Pakistan Journal of Medical Research 1992;31(4):300-306.
· Pappas G, Gergen P, Carroll M, Hypertension Prevalence and the Status of Awareness, Treatment, and Control in the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1982-1984). American Journal of Public Health 1990;80:1431-1436.
· Pappas G, Power, Domination, and Exploitation in the Doctor-Patient Interaction: a comparison of Howard Waitzkin and Author Kleinman. Social Science and Medicine 1990;30: 199-204.
· Lazarus E, Pappas G, Categories of Thought and Critical Theory: Anthropology and Social Science Medicine. Medical Anthropology Quarterly 1986; 17:136-137.
· “HIV/AIDS in the District of Columbia: towards a dynamic spatial analysis” Festschrift for Roderick Wallace, Columbia School of Public Health, October 2011.
· “Role of the Diaspora in the Response to HIV in on the African continent” for a consultation with the Ford Foundation, New York City, April 2010.
· “The Indus River Treaty: Water Wars in the Future?” presentation at the annual meeting of the American Public Health Association, Nov. 2009.
· “Pandemic preparedness in less developed countries: starting with the science” for regional conference of civil society and governments in east Africa, for Humanitarian Pandemic Preparedness (H2P), (spoke at a series of three meetings I organized) Addis Ababa, Ethiopia April 2009, Pretoria South Africa July 2009, Hanoi, Vietnam 2009.
· “Governance in the Health Sector: a case study of Pakistan” annual meeting American Public Health Association, San Diego, November 2008.
· “Megacties and Public Health: how one slum community got a sewer line in Karachi Pakistan” Annual meeting of the American Public Health Association, San Diego, November 2008.
· “Community Partnerships and Public Health: case study from a slum in Karachi, Pakistan” Global Forum meeting, Beijing, China, October 29, 2007.
· “HIV/AIDS among Migrant workers from NWFP and FATA: Report to Department of Health NWFP and UNAIDS” presentation to Minister of Health, Peshawar, Pakistan, September 12, 2007.
· “Healing the schism in Pakistan: a medicine and public health initiative” annual meetings of American Public Health Association, Boston, November 6, 2006.
· “Tawana Pakistan: case study of the consequences of globalization on a school feeding program” annual meeting of Global Forum for Health Research, Cairo, Egypt, October 31, 2006.
· “Translation of Science into Practice and Policy” key note speaker, annual meeting of the Malaysian National Institute of Health, Putrajaya, Malaysia, September 18, 2006.
· “Validation of measures of pain: community based studies in Cambodia and Dominican Republic” at Fifth Pain Symposium on Recent Developments in Pain Management, AKU, Karachi, September 10, 2006.
· “eHealth and ePrevention for Pakistan” Keynote speaker for the National Health Policy Forum meeting, Islamabad April, 2006.
· “Science and Policy for Rapid Scale up of HIV/AIDS treatment in resources poor settings” for the White House Office on HIV/AIDS, Washington, DC 2003.
· “National Population-bases Estimates of Prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Mali” results of the Mali Demographic and Health Survey 2001, International HIV/AIDS meeting, Barcelona, Spain, July 2002.
· "Biomarkers in national surveys in developing countries: prospects for the Demographic and Health Surveys" Population Association Meetings, Atlanta, Georgia, May 2002.
· “Eliminating Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health: it takes a whole Society” keynote speaker for the Alaskan Health Summit, Anchorage, Alaska, December 2000.
· “Eliminating Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health: it takes a whole society” for annual meetings of ASTHO/NACHO, Arizona Public Health Association, Oregon Public Health Association, North Carolina Public Health Association, September-October 2000.
· “Anthropological Perspective on HIV/AIDS and Palliative Care” for the UNAIDS Fourth International Conference on Home and Community Care for HIV/AIDS, Symposium on Palliative Care, Paris, France, December 1999,
· “Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic” keynote address to the National Black Caucus, Baltimore, November 1999.
· “Developing health information systems” RAND workshop on Measurement and inequalities Santa Monica, October 1999,
· “Capacity building for health information systems” Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of International Health, school-wide seminar, Baltimore, Maryland, October 1999.
· “Global HIV/AIDS epidemic: lesson to bring home” Johns Hopkins School of Public Health and Hygiene, Center for Health Education, Baltimore, Maryland, August 1999.
· “WHO Health for All renewal: a commentary from the perspective of equity” Annual meeting of the Global Health Council, Crystal City, June 1999.
· “Developing Health Information System: lessons learned and future directions” for the WHO Cluster on Evidence and Information, Geneva, March 1999.
· “Global Health: challenges for the 21st Century” George Washington University, Department of Public Health, Washington, March 1999.
· “Update on HIV/AIDS in India” for US Ambassador Richard. Celeste and senior staff, Delhi, February 1999.
· “Surgeon General’s Global Health Initiative” to the GAO, Washington, DC, January 1998.
· “Measuring the Health Consequences of Welfare Reform: A Federal Perspective” American Public Health Association, Annual Meeting, Indianapolis, November 1997.
· “Monitoring Equity: A Global Perspective” Reporter for World Health Organization meeting, Geneva, Policy-Oriented Monitoring of Equity in Health and Health Care. October 1997.
· “Inaugural address for Pakistan Medical Research Council Golden Jubilee Celebration: National Health Survey of Pakistan” national meeting in Pakistan for political and bureaucracy leaders. Islamabad, September 1997.
· “The National Health Information System of the United States: Strategic View for Development” National School of Public Health, Madrid, Spain, February 1997..
· "Development of Health Information Systems" Faculty Seminar, Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Kuwait, Kuwait, April 1996.
· "Socio-economic Status and Health: Progress of the Assistant Secretary's Task Force" Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, San Diego, October 1995.
· "Report of the Task Force on Socioeconomic Status and Health of the Assistant Secretary for Health" Testimony to the subcommittee on Minority Health Statistics, National Committee on Vital Records and Statistics" Washington, DC, September 28, 1995.
· "I'm Sick Because I'm Poor: Changing the Health Status of the Nation's Underprivileged” Annual Meeting of the Massachusetts Medical Society, Boston, Massachusetts, May 1994.
· "Tools of Policy Analysis and Research for Senior Health Decision-Makers” Workshop sponsored by the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research's User Liaison Program, Charlottesville, Virginia, May 1994.
· “Community Health Assessment and Data Needs for the Future” Presented at the annual conference sponsored by the American Hospital Association in Seattle, Washington, April 1994.
· “National Estimates of Avoidable Causes of Hospitalizations” Seminar for Preventive Medicine Residents, CDC, Atlanta, Georgia, January 1994.
· “The Crisis in Health: An Epidemiological Perspective” Abstract accepted for annual meeting of American Association for Advancement of Science. Chicago, Illinois, February 1992.
· “Differential Mortality for Income and Education among American White Males (25-64 years of age): 1960 and 1986” Presented at annual meeting of the American Association of Public Health. Atlanta, Georgia, November 1991.
· “Deindustrialization and Access to Health Care” Presented at annual meeting of American Anthropology Association. Chicago, Illinois, November 1991.
· “Differential Mortality for Income and Education among American Black Males (25 - 64 years of age): National Mortality Follow Back Survey” Presented at annual meeting of American Statistical Association. Atlanta, Georgia, August 20, 1991.
· “National Data Sets and the Undeserved: Resources and Gaps” Guest faculty lecture, Meeting of Clinical Directors Network of Region III PHS. White Plains, New York, June 25, 1991.
· “Progress of the National Health Survey of Pakistan” Presented at the Ministry of Health, Government of Turkey. Ankara, Turkey, November 19, 1990.
· “Definitions, Data Sets, and Indicators: What We Can and Cannot Know About the Health of an Underclass” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association. New York, New York, October 1990.
· “Underclass and Epidemiology: An Anthropology of Public Health Knowledge” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Anthropology Association. New Orleans, Louisiana, November 1990.
· “Utilization of Indigenous Healers in Pakistan: Potential and Limitations of Data from National Surveys” Presented at the meeting of the International Society for the Study of Traditional Asian Medical Systems. Bombay, India, January 1990.
· “Health Examination Surveys in Less Developed Countries: Review of the World Experience with Reference to the Technical Assistance Program at NCHS” Seminar presented to the Population, ”Nutrition, and Health Division, World Bank. Washington, DC, January 1989.
· “Hypertension Prevalence and the Status of Awareness, Treatment, and Control in the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1982-84)” Pappas, G.; Gergen, P.; Carroll M.; Poster session at the American Public Health Association Annual Meeting, November 1988.
· “The Importance of Collecting Farm Work Histories for Mexican Americans: NHANES” Brody, D.; Carter, O.; Pappas, G.; Hitchcock, D.; presented at American Public Health Association Annual Meeting. Boston, Massachusetts, November 1988.
· “Power, Control, Autonomy and the Role of the Physician” Presented at the American Anthropology Association Annual Meetings. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, December 1986.
· “Mental Health and Unemployment” Presented at Student Research Day, Case Western Reserve University. Cleveland, Ohio, February 1986.
· “Health Effects of Unemployment” presented at the American Industrial Hygiene Conference. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, May 1983
· “Budget Cuts and Cleveland: Report of the Health Policy Study Group” Presented at
· the American Medical Student Association National Convention. Cleveland, Ohio, March 1982.
PRESENTATION AND POSTERS AT 2012 XIX INTERNATIONAL AIDS CONFERENCE, WASHINGTON, DC JULY 2012
· Organized and spoke at Satellite Session: Prevention, Care and Treatment in the National Capital Region (DC Metropolitan Area): Moving into the Fourth Decade of the Epidemic. Sunday, July 22, 2012
· Organized and spoke at Global Village Session: Turning the Tide in the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the city, Washington DC: the partnership between government, research institutions and the community.
· Improved clinical outcomes among the low-income HIV-positive patients: an evaluation of treatment/ antiretroviral therapies provided through AIDS drugs assistance program (ADAP) from 2007 to 2010 in Washington D.C. D.K. Gurung, Y. Jia, G. Freehill, G. Pappas
· J. Opoku, R. Samala, S. Willis, A. Castel, A. Griffin, T. West, G Pappas, Clinical disparities between black and white MSM newly diagnosed with HIV in the District of Columbia
· T. Ahmed, A. Griffin, T. West, G. Pappas Gentrification and its effects on HIV/AIDS rates in D.C.
· S. Willis, A. Castel, A. Griffin, T. West, I. Shaikh, G. Pappas, Factors associated with achieving viral suppression among newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS cases in the Washington, D.C.
REFERENCES UPON REQUEST