9.08 Ku Klux Klan (KKK)

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The
Ku Klux Klan, commonly referred to as the KKK, was purportedly founded on December 24, 1865, by six Confederate veterans in Pulaski, Tennessee during the Reconstruction Era post American Civil War. The secret society was first known as the "Kuklux Clan", a name derived from the combination of the Greek words “kyklos” (κύκλος), meaning “clan” and “kuklos” (κύκλος), meaning “circle”, inferring a circle or a band of brothers. Aside from term “Knights”, which has historically been used by orders affiliated with the Roman Catholic Church, the logo of the KKK bears a Roman Cross superimposed with an icon representative of the number “6” which equates to the letter "F" or the " ǂ" (i.e., the double-cross) in the Roman Score (i.e., the Roman alphabet). As witnessed by the numerous KKK members who were tried and convicted decades after their respective hate crimes, the double-cross is always in play. In other words, members of the KKK are routinely sacrificed once they have fulfilled their respective missions. Fifty years after its inception, the KKK re-established itself in Atlanta, Georgia in 1915 atop Stone Mountain. Founder William J. Simmons and other were members of the Knights of Mary Phagan, a secret society likely affiliated with the Roman Catholic Church. Consequently, the organization and its chapters adopted regalia featured in “The Birth of a Nation” (1915), including white costumes, robes, masks and conical hats which are coincidentally also Greco-Roman in origin. The KKK also began to use paraphernalia adorned with a white Roman Cross on a red shield. At its peak, Klan membership reportedly exceeded 4 million and was comprised of 20% of the adult white male population. However, as of 2012, the KKK was estimated to have between 5,000 and 8,000 members and 150 Klan chapters. It is classified as a hate group by the Anti-Defamation League and the Southern Poverty Law Center. Aside from the Southern Cross of New Orleans, Knights, orders and secret societies affiliated with the KKK include but are not limited to: the Bayou Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, the Church of the American Knights of the Ku Klux Klan; the Imperial Klans of America, Knights of Mary Phagan, the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, the Knights of the White Camelia, the True Ku Klux Klan. the United Klans of America (UKA), the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, and the Women of the Ku Klux Klan.

KKK Under CIA Control
Similar to most secret societies (e.g.,
Freemasonry, Rosicrucianism, etc.), the KKK claims that it is not one organization but rather that it is composed of small independent chapters. They also claim that they never operated under a centralized structure, despite the existence of the United Klans of America (UKA), one of the largest Ku Klux Klan organizations in the U.S. which admittedly had “tens of thousands” of members. Nevertheless, modern historical sources emphatically state that “there was little organizational structure above the local level”. Klan organizers entitled "Kleagles" reportedly traveled the country, signing up hundreds of new members who paid initiation fees, receiving KKK costumes in return. Historical sources state that “The organizer kept half the money and sent the rest to state or national officials”, further confirming a top down command structure within the KKK. Whether the Fraternal Order of the Eagles is connected to the Kleagles and the KKK is not known, but they both appeared in America around the same general time. The first national leader and Grand Wizard of the KKK, Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest, boasted that the Klan was a nationwide organization of 550,000 men and that he could muster 40,000 Klansmen within 5 day notice. Needless to say, this would not be possible if there was no centralized structure within the Klan. Although the KKK claims to be an "invisible" group with no membership rosters, no chapters, and no local officers, in 1925 a Klansman was bribed for the secret membership list and subsequently exposed Klansmen running in the state primaries. Modern historical accounts even state that the so-called “second Klan was a formal fraternal organization, with a national and state structure”, rendering the aforementioned claims of independence obsolete. During the Civil Rights Movement in the American South, the KKK forged alliances with the police department in the South (e.g., Birmingham, Alabama) and with Southern governors (e.g., George Wallace of Alabama). The fact that they conspired with the state to commit acts of terror across the South confirms that the KKK was in fact a state-sponsored terrorist organization. According to historian Brian R. Farmer, "two-thirds of the national Klan lecturers were Protestant ministers”, a statistic which suggests that there was a federal program to incite hate across the South. It has also been revealed that the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has paid informants within the Klan who were active in Birmingham in the early 1960s. In 1964, the FBI's COINTELPRO program admittedly infiltrated and disrupted civil rights groups from within while the KKK attacked them publically. In other words, the FBI and the KKK worked in unison to destroy the Civil Rights Movement which was bringing black and white people together, a threat to the establishment and the status quo. The notion that the KKK is intimately affiliated with the FBI was further confirmed when Bill Wilkinson of the Invisible Empire, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, was revealed to have been working for the FBI. Due to the KKK’s uncanny ability to avoid prosecution for their hate crimes and their intimate relationship with the U.S. government, namely the FBI, it can be ascertained that the organization is highly organized and under command and control of the CIA of Switzerland.

KKK & Prohibition
The KKK’s allegiance to the U.S. government was never more apparent than during
prohibition which decimated rural America’s self-sustainability and caused widespread economic damage the country. Historian Prendergast stated that the KKK’s "support for prohibition represented the single most important bond between Klansmen throughout the nation”. This confirms, albeit in a de facto manner, that the KKK was on the payroll of the U.S. government. In 1922, two hundred Klan members set fire to saloons in Union County, Arkansas, terrorizing the South. Their use of violence against bars, bootleggers and distilleries was widespread, working hand in hand with the U.S. government against the people of America.

KKK Legislation
In response to KKK-related violence, the U.S. federal government passed the
Force Acts in 1870 and 1871 which were allegedly used to prosecute Klan crimes. However, in 1876, the Supreme Court of the United States eviscerated the Ku Klux Act in “United States v. Cruikshank” (1875) when they ruled that the federal government could no longer prosecute individuals although states would be forced to comply with federal civil rights provisions. The result was that African Americans were at the mercy of hostile state governments that refused to intervene against their own private paramilitary groups. In other words, there would be no federal prosecution of the Klan and therefore they could continue terrorizing the South as they pleased. Six years later, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in “United States v. Harris” (1882) that the Klan Act was partially unconstitutional. They stated that Congress's power under the Fourteenth Amendment did not extend to the right to regulate against private conspiracies. Again, the U.S. federal government openly allowed the Klan to operative with impunity, repealing all federal laws that could be used to prosecute them. Therefore, it must be concluded that the KKK was a federally funded program that they did not want to interrupt.

Terror Arm of Democratic Party
Evidence acquired to date indicates that the KKK was primarily used as the terror arm of the
Democratic Party. According to historian Eric Foner: “In effect, the Klan was a military force serving the interests of the Democratic party…Its purposes were political, but political in the broadest sense, for it sought to affect power relations, both public and private, throughout Southern society. It aimed to…destroy the Republican party's infrastructure, undermine the Reconstruction state, reestablish control of the black labor force, and restore racial subordination in every aspect of Southern life”. According to historical sources, “The members of the first Klan in the South were exclusively Democrats”, launching a "reign of terror against Republican leaders both black and white. Those political leaders assassinated during the campaign included Arkansas Congressman James M. Hinds, three members of the South Carolina legislature, and several men who served in constitutional conventions”. The Klan also attacked black members of the Loyal Leagues and intimidated southern Republicans and Freedmen's Bureau workers. They killed black political leaders, heads of families, and leaders of churches and community groups because they had prominent leadership roles in society.  In North and South Carolina alone, within an 18-month period from ending in June of 1867, there were 197 murders and 548 cases of aggravated assault”. To add insult to injury, the KKK made people vote Democratic and gave them certificates of the fact. Again, the KKK was working hand in hand with a state-sponsored political party, further confirming that they themselves were in fact state-sponsored.

KKK Cover
Although a federal grand jury determined that the
Klan was a "terrorist organization” in 1870, its member remained free to terrorize the South for over a century. Reason being, the KKK was a cover for federal intelligence operation being executed in the South. If a politician or labor party leader needed to be assassinated, their subsequent murder would be blamed on the Klan. In other words, the KKK was the scapegoat for thousands of acts of state-sponsored terrorism. The notion that the KKK was nothing more than federal cover was corroborated by historical sources which state in-part: “Many people not formally inducted into the Klan had used the Klan's costume for anonymity, to hide their identities when carrying out acts of violence…While people used the Klan as a mask for nonpolitical crimes, state and local governments seldom acted against them.” The fact that the government did not prosecute said crime further confirms that the KKK was a state-sponsored organization. This notion was also substantiated by a Georgia-based reporter who wrote in 1870: "A true statement of the case is not that the Ku Klux are an organized band of licensed criminals, but that men who commit crimes call themselves Ku Klux.” Historical sources also state that: “The "Ku Klux Klan" name was used by a numerous independent local groups opposing the Civil Rights Movement and desegregation, especially in the 1950s and 1960s.”

“The Birth of a Nation”
Just prior to the Ku Klux Klan re-establishing itself atop Stone Mountain in Georgia, a film entitled “The Birth of a Nation” (1915) was released nationwide on February 8, 1915. In short, the film served as the advertisement for the new and improved KKK. The film was allegedly based on Thomas Dixon, Jr.’s book “The Leopard's Spots” (1902), as well as his book and play entitled “The Clansman” (1905). Dixon stated that his purpose was "to revolutionize northern sentiment by a presentation of history that would transform every man in my audience into a good Democrat!" In other words, his work was designed to reignite racial and political tension between the North and South along the lines of the previously fought American Civil War. In “The Clansman”, Dixon falsely claimed that the KKK had used burning crosses when rallying to fight against Reconstruction. Nevertheless, film director D. W. Griffith repeatedly portrayed an upright Roman Cross on fire in “The Birth of a Nation” rather than the St. Andrew's cross which was historically accurate. Due to the movie, a burning Roman Cross has been associated with the Klan ever since. Consequently, William J. Simmons displayed an upright burning Roman Cross atop Stone Mountain during the KKK’s second founding. Because “The Birth of a Nation” (see movie) was a Hollywood propaganda film that mythologized and glorified the Ku Klux Klan, it made the terrorist organization a household name overnight. The film is credited with single-handedly reviving the KKK in America. By portraying the Ku Klux Klan a heroic force, the film created an artificially induced Klan craze, exactly as it was designed to do. Needless to say, the movie has been used as a recruiting tool by the KKK ever since. At the official premiere in Atlanta, Georgia, members of the Klan rode up and down the street on horses in front of the theater, a publicity stunt designed to invoke fear in the South. As depicted in the movie poster for “The Birth of a Nation”, much of the modern Klan's iconography, including the standardized white costume, the white cross on a red shield, and the burning cross, were all derived from the film. Under Democratic U.S. President Woodrow Wilson, the “The Birth of a Nation” was the first motion picture to be screened at the White House. In order to create even more racial tension and turmoil in America, Wilson, a Southerner, endorsed the film. According to a Hollywood press agent, Wilson stated after watching the film, "It is like writing history with lightning, and my only regret is that it is all so terribly true”. Naturally, Wilson's alleged remarks generated a national scandal, causing Wilson’s staff issued an official denial on April 30, 1915. According to a press release from Wilson's aide, Joseph Tumulty, "The President was entirely unaware of the nature of the play before it was presented and at no time has expressed his approbation of it”. Due to its phenomenal success in causing unprecedented racial division in America, the “The Birth of a Nation” is often ranked as one of the greatest American films of all time.

Anti-Catholic Agenda
In order to publically disassociate itself from the
Roman Catholic Church, it’s alleged founder and funder, the Ku Klux Klan has disseminated various forms of anti-Catholic propaganda, especially since its second founding in 1915. Shortly after the pro-KKK Hollywood propaganda film entitled “The Birth of a Nation” (1915) was released in America, the KKK suddenly focused on the impending threat of teh Catholic Church, resorting to anti-Catholicism and nativism. Although a book entitled “Klansmen: Guardians of Liberty” (1926) was allegedly responsible for fostering the Anti-Catholic sediment, it’s far more likely that the Catholic Church wanted to distance itself from the KKK after funding the aforementioned film which generated an uncontrollable and unpredictable KKK movement. In a cartoon from 1926, the Ku Klux Klan is depicted chasing the Roman Catholic Church (personified by St. Patrick) from the shores of America. The "snakes" in the cartoon are labeled with the negative attributes of the Church, including superstition, union of church and state, control of public schools, and intolerance. In another carton from 1926 entitled "The End", a KKK member is depicted with an American flag and a Bible sitting atop a fat Roman Catholic priest. Historian Roger K. Newman stated that KKK politician Hugo Black "disliked the Catholic Church as an institution" and gave over 100 anti-Catholic speeches at KKK meetings in Alabama during his 1926 U.S. senate campaign. Black was subsequently rewarded for anti-Catholic rhetoric when he was elected as a Democrat to the U.S. Senate later that year. Although Black said he left the Klan when he became a senator, it is highly unlikely. In 1937, President Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed Black to the U.S. Supreme Court despite his activity in the Klan.

KKK Bombings
During the
Civil Rights Movement and the days of Martin Luther King, Jr., there were so many Klan bombings in Birmingham, Alabama, that the city's nickname was "Bombingham". During the tenure of Bull Connor, the police commissioner of Birmingham, Alabama, Klan groups were closely allied with the police and operated with impunity, showing once again that the KKK was and is a state-sponsored terrorist organization. In states such as Alabama and Mississippi, Klan members also forged alliances with the governors' administrations. When the Freedom Riders arrived in Birmingham, Connor gave Klan members 15 minutes to attack the riders before sending in the police to quell the attack. In Birmingham and elsewhere, the KKK bombed the houses of civil rights activists, also using physical violence, intimidation and executing assassinations. According to a report from the Southern Regional Council in Atlanta, the homes of 40 black Southern families were bombed between 1951 and 1952. The Ku Kulx Klan was responsible for numerous murders during the Civil Rights Movement, including but not limited to: the 1951 Christmas Eve bombing of the home of National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) activists Harry and Harriette Moore in Mims, Florida, resulting in their deaths; the 1957 murder of Willie Edwards, Jr. Klansmen forced Edwards to jump to his death from a bridge into the Alabama River; the 1963 assassination of NAACP organizer Medgar Evers in Mississippi; the 1963 bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama, which killed four African-American girls; the 1964 murders of three civil rights workers, Chaney, Goodman and Schwerner, in Mississippi; the 1964 murder of two black teenagers, Henry Hezekiah Dee and Charles Eddie Moore in Mississippi; the 1965 murder of Viola Liuzzo was transporting Civil Rights Marchers in Alabama; and the 1966 firebombing death of NAACP leader Vernon Dahmer Sr., 58, in Mississippi.

Knights of the White Camelia
The Knights of the White Camelia was purportedly founded on May 22, 1867 in Franklin, Louisiana by Colonel Alcibiades DeBlanc, a Confederate veteran. The name was derived from a snow-white flower of the genus Camellia, an apparent reference to the required skin color of its members. The secret society supported white supremacy, opposed to the Republican Party, and was very similar to the Ku Klux Klan with whom it associated with. Unlike the Klan however, which drew much of its membership from lower-class southerners and Confederate veterans, members of the Knights of White Camelia were mainly upper crust southerners, including doctors, landowners, newspaper editors, and officers. By 1870, the original Knights of the White Camelia allegedly ceased to exist. Like so many other secret societies, their alleged demise has likely been exaggerated. In other words, the Order appears to have gone undercover. Louisiana Judge Taylor Beattie, who led the Thibodaux massacre of 1887, and David Theophilus Stafford, the Louisiana adjutant general, were both member so the Order. In 1939, TIME magazine quoted West Virginian George E. Deatherage as saying that he was the "national commander of the Knights of the White Camellia", suggesting that the Order is alive and well. Based on their use of the Roman Cross and their close relationship with the Ku Klux Klan, it can be ascertained that the Order was founded and sanctioned by the Roman Catholic Church.