7.09 Vikings

The Vikings
(i.e., Norsemen) were seafaring pirates and mercenaries who came from the North (i.e., Greenland) to raid and pillage Europe and the known world during the 8th and 11th centuries. Armed with a “derivative” of the Roman Spatha (sword) and facilitated by advanced seafaring technology (the longship), Viking attacks extended to the shores of the Mediterranean, North Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia, the North Atlantic islands and even North America. Interestingly, Viking voyages to Canada and North America are mentioned in the Norse Sagas which were authenticated at the start of 20th century. Danish antiquarian Carl Christian Rafn was a strong proponent of the theory that the Vikings had explored North America centuries before Christopher Columbus's and John Cabot's voyages. Although the term “Viking” is synonymous with “Norsemen”, the Slavs and the Byzantines called them “Varangians”, further confirming the notion that the Vikings and Varangians were one and the same people. According to Anna Komnene (1083–1153), a Greek princess, scholar, physician, the Varangian Guard (i.e., Vikings) were "axe-bearing barbarians" who originated "from Thule”, which is coincidentally located in Greenland. The notion that Vikings traveled to (and from) Greenland is admitted by modern historical sources, although Viking settlements in Greenland reportedly died out due of course to “climate change”. Although the Vikings allegedly spoke Old Norse, which is closely related to Old English, they have been conveniently deemed a non-literate culture that conveniently produced no literary legacy. Instead, the Vikings erected some 3,000 runestones which were left behind to sell the notion that the Viking were not from Greenland but rather from a Scandinavian country  such as Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway or Sweden. Interestingly, Viking Bergen Island is the name of a hypothetical former island that was allegedly located between modern Scotland and Norway. The mythical island appears to have been created in order to quell any potential notion that the Vikings emanated from Greenland, hence the very specific Viking name. Lastly, in order for the Vikings to sail the shores of Africa, Europe and North America with without routinely running aground or getting lost, they would have had to have in their possession very detailed maps and charts in respect to the tides, winds, inlets, outlets, etc. Needless to say, this type of information would have taken decades if not centuries to gather. Therefore, it can be ascertained that the Viking invasion was aided by the latest technology in respect to navigation and cartography, something only the Greco-Roman Empire could have provided.  

Greco-Roman Vikings
The Slavs
and Arabs referred to the Vikings as “Rhōs”, likely due to the fact that they were Roman in origin and prone to rowing. As depicted on the Faroe Islands stamp sheet, the sails of Viking ships exhibit the colors of red and white, the colors of Rome. The relentless warfare of the Vikings were reportedly motivated by and fuelled by their belief in Thor and Odin, the Greco-Roman gods of war and death. Since the Vikings originally emanated from Greenland, it stands to reason that they would worship gods representative of Greenland (i.e., Thor and Odin). Since the country of Greenland is shaped like a bear or wolf’s head (i.e., the Beast of Greenland), Vikings routinely wore their skin in battle. The term “Berserker”, which means to fight with reckless abandon and disregard for one’s own life, is intimately associated with both the Varangians and the Vikings. A Berserker was a kind of shirt or coat (i.e., “serkr” in Old Norse) made from the pelt of a bear (i.e., “ber” in Old Norse) which was word during battle. As mentioned in the “Vatnsdœla Saga”, “Haraldskvæði” and the “Völsunga Saga”, the “Úlfhéðnar” is another term associated with berserkers who were said to wear the pelt of a wolf when they entered battle. Also, the helm-plate press from Torslunda depicts a scene of Odin with a Berserker, which, according to modern historical accounts, depicts "a wolf skinned warrior with the apparently one-eyed dancer in the bird-horned helm, which is generally interpreted as showing a scene indicative of a relationship between Berserkgang… and the god Odin". The god of “Odin” (D+N) represents in part to the third and final “den” or home of the Greco-Roman Empire.

Viking Giants
When the Varangians (i.e., Vikings) fought in the partial reconquest of
Sicily under the allegedly Byzantine Greek general George Maniakes, it was said that he was extremely tall, well built, and almost a giant. This was likely because the Romans interbred with the native giants of Greenland after the Trojan War, spawning an unrivaled army of giants which in time became known as Varangians and Vikings. Consequently, said giants were able to wield weapons too heavy for a normal man, cover great distances with ease, and literally defeat any foe. Byzantine writers noted that the "Scandinavians [Vikings] were frightening both in appearance and in equipment, they attacked with reckless rage and neither cared about losing blood nor their wounds". This was likely because the wounds they suffered from enemy arrows, spears and swords were largely superficial in nature due to their sheer size and heavy armor. In combat, the Vikings are believed to have engaged in a disordered style of frenetic, furious fighting, leading them to be termed “Berserkers”. The Icelandic historian and poet Snorri Sturluson (1179–1241) wrote the following description of Berserkers in his Ynglinga Saga: “His (Odin's) men rushed forwards without armour, were as mad as dogs or wolves, bit their shields, and were strong as bears or wild oxen, and killed people at a blow, but neither fire nor iron told upon them. This was called “Berserkergang”. Modern historical sources state that the Vikings performed things which otherwise seemed impossible for human power” and that “they [were] built and shaped more like trolls than human beings”. In other words, the Vikings were giants who were unrivaled in the underworld.

Viking Terror Attacks
In England, the so-called
Viking Age began on June 8, 793 when Norsemen (i.e., Vikings) attacked and destroyed the Roman Catholic abbey on the island of Lindisfarne. The devastation of Northumbria's Holy Island “shocked” Europe, alerting them to the new Viking presence. Northumbrian scholar Alcuin of York reportedly declared that "Never before has such an atrocity been seen”. More than any other single event, the Viking attack on Lindisfarne was used to create the perception of the Vikings for the next twelve centuries. In reality however, the attack appears to be a false-flag which was ordered by the Roman Empire against their own abbey in order to quell any notion that the Vikings were being organized and funded by Rome. In Heimskringla, a saga by Icelandic poet and historian Snorri Sturluson, one hundred Vikings were adorned “in coats of ring-mail, and in foreign helmets” at the Battle of Nesjar. Therefore, like modern Special Forces units, it appears that the Vikings dressed up in different uniforms depending on which type of terror attack they were planning to commit. In other words, the Vikings were state-sponsored terrorists who were outfitted with various uniforms in order to disguise the fact that they emanated from Greenland.

Viking Pirates

It is imperative to note that above all, the Vikings were pirates. According to the
Icelandic sagas, the phrase "to go Viking" implies participation in raiding activity or piracy. Modern historical accounts state the following in respect to Viking piracy: “The most widely known and far reaching pirates in medieval Europe were the Vikings, warriors and looters from Scandinavia who raided mainly between the 8th and 12th centuries, during the Viking Age in the Early Middle Ages. They raided the coasts, rivers and inland cities of all Western Europe as far as Seville, attacked by the Norse in 844. Vikings even attacked coasts of North Africa and Italy. They also plundered all the coasts of the Baltic Sea, ascending the rivers of Eastern Europe as far as the Black Sea and Persia. The lack of centralized powers all over Europe during the Middle Ages favored pirates all over the continent”. Historian Adam of Bremen wrote in the fourth volume of his “Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum” that, "[t]here is much gold here (in Denmark), accumulated by piracy. These pirates, which are called “wichingi” by their own people, and “Ascomanni” by our own people, pay tribute to the Danish king”. Since Greenland is owned solely by the state of Denmark, the aforementioned statement is in fact correct. In short, Vikings were sent to the underworld from Greenland to loot and pillage all remaining wealth (e.g., gold, jewelry, etc.). 

Viking Helmet
Aside from two or three ritualistic Vikings helmets, no depictions of Viking helmets and no preserved Viking helmets have horns.
In reality, the combat style of Vikings would have made horned helmets cumbersome and hazardous. Consequently, historians believe that the Viking did not wear horned helmets. That being said, cartoons such as “Hägar the Horrible” and “Vicky the Viking” along with popular sports teams such as the Minnesota Vikings have perpetuated the myth of the horned Viking helmet. Viking horns are therefore in essence a PSYOP which has been perpetrated by the Roman Empire in order to confuse historians as to the true Greenlandic origin of the Vikings. This notion is corroborated by the fact that the Vikings were often depicted with winged helmets from Classical antiquity, especially in depictions of Norse gods. As evidenced in the logo of the Good Year blimp which evidently first discovered Greenland, “wings” are representative of “heaven” or “haven” (i.e., Greenland). Because Vikings were literal giants, there is conveniently only one complete and authentic Viking helmet in existence and it is naturally normal in size. After all, if a real Viking helmet was located, it would confirm the notion that the Vikings were giants from the north, raising a whole spectrum of questions that cannot be answered until Greenland is once and forever exposed as being home to the giants of the Greco-Roman Empire.

Viking Weaponry

The Viking sword was admittedly “a development of the Roman Spatha” whose shape was “very much based on the Roman Spatha with a tight grip, long deep fuller and no pronounced cross-guard”. The notion that the Vikings wielded Roman swords is essentially admitted by modern historical sources which state that “the viking swords are recognizable derivatives [of the Spatha]”. Like the Romans, the Vikings wore their sword in a leather-bound wooden scabbards suspended from a strap across the right shoulder, many bearing inscriptions such as INGELRII (N+G+L+R) or VLFBERHT (V+L+F+B+R+H+T). The first inscription acronymically speaking equates to “North Greenland Rome” (home of the Vikings) while the latter may equate to “Veil Life Bear Infinity”, an apparent reference to the veil which enables never-ending life on the bear (i.e., the Beast of Greenland). The notion that the Vikings did not manufacture their own swords is confirmed by modern scholars who state that they “were undoubtedly imported”. This is imperative to note for it dispels the notion that the Vikings were a self-reliant community out to expand. Conversely rather, it confirms that the Vikings were being armed with the latest and greatest swords which took decades to develop, courtesy of the Roman Empire. When not carrying a sword, the Vikings used an axe as their main battle weapon. Entitled the “Dane Axe, these axes were as long as a man and made to be used with both hands. The name “Dane Axe” (D+N+X) acronymically equates to “Den X” or “Den Kill”, a tribute to Greenland, the third and final “den” or “home” of the Greco-Roman Empire. Due to the sheer height of the giant Vikings, an axe was a far better weapon than a sword for it allowed them to literally chop their smaller opponents in two, starting with their head and shoulders. This notions is confirmed by the Húscarls, an elite Viking guard of King Cnut and King Harold II, who stated that the Vikings were “armed with two-handed axes that could split shields or metal helmets with ease”. In order to further sell notion that the Vikings originated from Scandinavia and not Greenland, the Dane Axe is depicted on the Coat of Arms of Norway.

Viking Ships
Viking longships were equipped with oars to complement the sails, making navigation possible independently of the wind. The longship had a long, narrow hull and shallow draught to facilitate landings and troop deployments in shallow water.
Since seafaring did not originate in the North Atlantic but rather in around the Island of Crete, the advanced technology used by the Vikings was evidently derived from a culture long accustomed to seafaring and naval warfare (i.e., the Greco-Roman Empire). Consequently, the Vikings were outfitted with some of the latest naval technology, including the beitass, a spar mounted to the sail that allowed Viking ships to sail effectively against the wind. Viking ships were also clinker built, featuring the overlapping of planks riveted together, allowing for light yet sturdy hulls. In order to confuse historians in respect to Roman gunpowder and cannons which were hidden in the mouths of dragon-like creatures, Viking ships were also outfitted with a dragon heads that protruded from both bow and stern. Consequently, Viking ships were called dragonships by their enemies such as the English. Interestingly, historical depictions of Viking ships are rather small in size despite that fact that Viking dragon-ships reportedly carried up to 100 warriors at a time. Therefore, a Viking ship carrying 100 or more giant-like men with armor would at least need 100 slaves to power the ship, the crew and tons of supplies. Also, if numerous slaves were aboard Viking longships in order to row, it stands to reason that the ships would have at least 2 levels which are curiously nowhere to be found in the Norwegian found longship replica predictably entitled the “Viking”. In other words, like the aforementioned Viking helmets, Viking longships are not rooted in reality. Interestingly, the flag of Tynwald, the parliament of the Isle of Man,  the oldest continuously governing body in the underworld, features a Greco-Roman Dragon ship along with what appear to be Vikings. However, Viking dragon heads spit no fire and were evidently only created for show. Since the Vikings giants were bred specifically by the Romans for battle, they were only given technology needed to complete their tasks, nothing more. In other words, Rome’s gunpowder and cannon technology were not given to the Vikings, but rather used to destroy them once their mission was complete. This particular notion is apparently depicted in Norse mythology which describes a giant-like race entitled the Jötnar (i.e., the Vikings) which were murdered by their brethren the Æsir who refused them entry to their world, Asgard (i.e., Greenland).

Viking Aftermath

Norsemen (i.e., Vikings) reportedly established states in England, Scotland, Iceland, Wales, the Faroe Islands, Finland, Ireland, Russia, Greenland, and North America between the 8th and 11th centuries. Since the primary source of profit for the Vikings was slave-taking, countless slaves who were shipped to various locations in Europe, ultimately creating communities were they previously were none. In time, all the regions surrounding Greenland were eventually populated and so that governments could be created and borders erected, thus preventing free travel, especially north. Consequently, by the late 11th century, royal dynasties legitimized by the Catholic Church had taken shape in the form of three kingdoms in the North now known as Denmark, Norway and Sweden. In the East, the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks (i.e., Rome) was evidently created in order to populate Eastern Europe and Russia so that governments and borders could be instituted there as well. In summation therefore, the Vikings were created in order to destroy the old order and create a ring of countries around Greenland so that travel northward to Greenland would become that much harder. Lastly, Despite battling throughout Africa, Europe, Middle East, North America and Russia for over 400 years, there is only one complete Viking helmet in existence and only one single fragmented Viking mail shirt that has been excavated. Realistically speaking, this is impossible. Surely, at some point a Viking body would have been buried or drowned intact, ultimately preserving it. This phenomenon can only be explained when it is understood that the Vikings were literally giants. Therefore, if and when they were killed in battle, their bodies, weapons and armor would be rather easy to recover. Although giant-like Viking battle regalia has likely been discovered, there’s likely be a concerted effort by the Greco-Roman Empire to hide it.

Vikings in Popular Culture
Aside from the plethora of Thor-related tributes, in popular culture, Vikings-related tributes in popular culture include but are not limited to: Aircraft: ASL Viking, a two-seater biplane first flown in 1912; Bellanca Viking, a four-seat American plane introduced in 1967; Blohm & Voss BV 222 Wiking, a WWII flying boat; Grob Viking, a Royal Air Force plane introduced in the 1980s; Lockheed S-3 Viking, a U.S. Navy aircraft introduced in 1974; Vance Viking, an American single-seat cargo and racing aircraft first flown in 1932; Vickers VC.1 Viking, a British airliner introduced in 1946; and Vickers Viking, a British military aircraft introduced in 1919; Books: Eaters of the Dead” (1976), a book by Michael Crichton; and “The Long Ships” (1941), a book by Frans Gunnar Bengtsson;  Business: 96.9 Viking FM, an English independent radio station; Hotel Royal Christiania, formerly Hotel Viking, in Oslo, Norway; Viking, an automobile manufactured by Oldsmobile from 1929 to 1931; Viking Air, a Canadian aircraft manufacturer; Viking Airlines, a defunct private charter airline which was based in Stockholm, Sweden; Viking Flying Boat Company, owned by Robert E. Gross; Viking Line, a Finnish shipping line; Viking Press, an American publishing company; Viking Range, a kitchen appliance manufacturer; Viking Records, a New Zealand independent label; Viking River Cruises; VSM Group (Viking Sewing Machines), a sewing machine manufacturer; Viking Submarine Corporation; Viking Supply Ships, a supply shipping company based in Kristiansand, Norway; Viking Technology, formerly Viking Interworks and Viking Modular Solutions, a division of the electronics manufacturing services provider Sanmina Corporation; Viking Wind Farm, a proposed Shetland Islands wind farm; Wiking Helikopter Service a German helicopter operator; and Wiking Modellbau, a German maker of scale models; Comics:Hägar the Horrible” (1973-Present), a comic strip; Thor (1962), a Marvel Comics superhero; Viking” (2009-20010), a comic book series by Image Comics; “Vikings #1” (2013), comic book prequel to the “Vikings” television series; and Thor: Vikings” (2003-2004), a comic book series published by MAX Comics; Films:Erik, the Viking” (1965); “Erik the Viking” (1989); “The 13th Warrior” (1999); “The Avengers” (2012); “The Long Ships” (1963); The Viking” (1928); The Viking” (1931); The Vikings” (1958);Thor” (2011); and “Thor: The Dark World” (2013); Languages: Old Norse; Literature:Antiquitates Americanæ” (1837), a book by Carl Christian Rafn; “Edda Islandorum” (1665), a book by Peder Resen; Frithiofs Saga” (c. 1300), a saga by Esaias Tegnér; “Gesta Danorum” (1514), a book by Saxo Grammaticus;Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus” (1555), a book by Olaus Magnus; “Linguarum veterum septentrionalium thesaurus grammatico-criticus et archæologicus” (1703–1705), a book by George Hickes; Vatnsdœla Saga” (c. 1300), a saga by an unknown author;Volsunga Saga” (c. 1000), a saga by an unknown author; and “Ynglinga Saga” (1225), a saga by Snorri Sturluson; Historical Reenactment Groups:Regia Anglorum” (1986); and The Vikings” (1971); Holidays: Leif Erikson Day; Military: 5th SS Panzer Division Wiking a Waffen SS panzer division; BvS 10, an all-terrain armoured vehicle called Viking by the British Armed Forces; MP-446 Viking, a Russian semi-automatic pistol; St, Andrews Viking, an American powered parachute design; and Task Force Viking, a U.S. Army formation in the Iraq War; Music: Hagström Viking, a guitar; Los Vikings, a 1960 Salvadoran rock band; “Viking”, (2004), an album by Lars Frederiksen and the Bastards; Viking, a 1980s metal band; Vikings, a barbershop quartet; Viking metal, a sub-genera of heavy metal; Viking rock, a sub-genera of rock and roll; The Vikings, a 1920s vocal quartet; The Vikings, a 1960s American rock band; and “The Vikings”, a 1990s side project of Norwegian band Turbonegro; Operas:Der Ring des Nibelungen” (1869), an opera by Richard Wagner; Organizations: Independent Order of Vikings, an American fraternal organization; Wiking-Jugend a German neo-Nazi organization; and Wikings a Belgium student organization; Places: Viking, Alberta, Canada; Viking, Minnesota, United States; Viking, Wisconsin, United States; and Viking Valley, Alexander Island, Antarctica; Poems: Haraldskvæði” (c. 900), a poem by Þorbjörn Hornklofi;Nibelungenlied” (c. 1230), an epic poem by an unknown author; Poetic Edda” (1643), a collection of Old Norse poems primarily preserved in the Icelandic mediaeval manuscript Codex Regius; “Runic Odes” (1748), a poem by Thomas Warton; and “The Vikingen” (Unknown), a poem by Erik Gustaf Geijer; Science: Viking 1 (1976), a spacecraft (along with Viking 2) sent to Mars as part of NASA's Viking program; Viking 2 (1976), a spacecraft (along with Viking 1) sent to Mars as part of NASA's Viking program; Viking, a rocket engine; Viking, a satellite; Viking, a series of sounding rockets; Viking Formation, a geological feature; and the Viking Program, a NASA program which consisted of a pair of space probes sent to Mars; Ships: HMS Viking” (1909), a Tribal class destroyer launched by the British Royal Navy; HMNZS Viking” (1937), a training ketch launched by the Royal New Zealand Navy; HMS Viking” (1943), a V-class submarine launched by the Royal Norwegian Navy; HMS Gay Viking” (1943), a motor gun boat ordered by the Turkish Navy; HMS Vindex” (1905), a seaplane carrier of the British Royal Navy which was originally entitled “Viking”; HNoMS Viking” (1891), a gunboat of the Royal Norwegian Navy;HSC Viking” (1997), a fastcraft in the Isle of Man Steam Packet fleet; “MS Viking 1” (1970), a ferry ship; “MS Viking 3 (Unknown), a ferry ship; “MS Viking 4” (Unknown), a ferry ship; “MS Viking 5” (Unknown), a ferry ship;MS Viking ADCC” (2009), a planned but canceled Viking Line ferry;MS Viking XPRS” (2007), a Viking Line cruise ferry;SS Viking” (1882), a steam-powered sealing ship used in the film “The Viking” (1931);USS Viking”, (1898), a converted yacht of the U.S. Navy; USS Viking (SP-3314)” (1918), a patrol boat for the U.S. Navy; USS Viking (ARS-1)” (1942), a rescue and salvage ship of the U.S. Navy; “Viking” (1905), a passenger ferry later renamed “HMS Vindex”;Viking” (1902), a Danish sailing ship which is now used as a hotel; and the Viking class submarine” (2005), a planned but canceled European submarine class; Societies: Norrœna Society; and  Viking Society for Northern Research; Sports: Viking Award, an award given to the best Swedish ice hockey player in North America; Viking Cup, a world ice hockey tournament in Camrose, Alberta, Canada; Viking Park, home stadium of the Tuggeranong Vikings; Viking Stadion, a football stadium in Stavanger, Norway; and Vikings Stadium, an approved but unbuilt stadium for the Minnesota Vikings; Titles: Viking, a given name; Television: Blood of the Vikings” (2001), a 5 part 2001 BBC Television documentary series; The Avengers” (2013-Present), a television series; True Blood” (2008-Present), an HBO TV series in which Eric Northman was a Viking prince before being turned into a vampire; “Vicky the Viking” (1975-1975), a cartoon; and Vikings” (2013-Present), a television series; and Video Games: Erik the Viking” (1984);Viking: Battle for Asgard” (2008); and Vikings” (1998).

Collegiate Mascots
Vikings-related mascots are used by collegiate sports teams around the world, including but not limited to: Canada:
Waterloo Collegiate Institute, Waterloo, Ontario; Ireland: University of Limerick, Limerick; and the United States: Augustana College, Rock Island, Illinois; Augustana College, Sioux Falls, South Dakota; Augustana University College, Alberta, Canada; Bethany Lutheran College, Mankato, Minnesota; Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio; Portland State University, Portland, Oregon; and Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington.

Professional Mascots

Vikings-related mascots are used by collegiate sports teams around the world, including but not limited to: Australia:
Canberra Vikings, an rugby union football club in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory; Tuggeranong Vikings, an rugby union club in Tuggeranong, Australian Capital Territory; and the Victorian Vikings, a field hockey team Melbourne, Victoria; Canada: Elliot Lake Vikings, a Junior A ice hockey team in Elliot Lake, Ontario; Denmark: Denmark Vikings, the national Australian rules football team of Denmark; and FC Vestsjælland, (FCV Vikings), a football club in Slagelse; England: Hull Vikings, a speedway motorcycle team in Hull; Somerset Vikings, a rugby league team in Somerset; Southampton Vikings, a defunct ice hockey team in Southampton; and the Widnes Vikings, a rugby league club Widnes, Cheshire; Finland: FC Viikingit, a football club in Vuosaari, East Helsinki; Iceland: Knattspyrnufélagið Víkingur, a football club in Reykjavík; New Zealand: Bay Roskill Vikings, a rugby league football club in Mount Roskill and Blockhouse Bay; Norway: Harstad Vikings, a defunct basketball team in Harstadhallen; Oslo Vikings, an American football team in Oslo; TIF Viking, a sports club in Bergenhus, Bergen; Tønsberg Vikings, an ice hockey club in Tønsberg; Viking FK, a football club in Stavanger; Viking Håndball, a handball club in Stavanger; Viking Hockey, an ice hockey team in Stavanger; and Viking IK, a defunct ice hockey team in Stavanger; Scotland: Dunfermline Vikings, a defunct ice hockey team in Dunfermline; Sweden: Nybro Vikings, an ice hockey team in Nybro; and the Solna Vikings, a basketball team on Solna; aUnited States: Jamestown Vikings, a defunct professional  ice hockey team in Jamestown, New York; and the Minnesota Vikings, an professional American football team in Minneapolis, Minnesota.