7.06 Spartans

According to legend, a
Spartan was a person from the Greek city of Sparta or the Greek city-state by the same name. The Spartiates were the males of Sparta who from a young age were trained for battle and put through grueling challenges intended to craft them into fearless warriors. Although the city of Sparta was founded on Peloponnese (i.e., mainland Greece), their shields bore the Chevron symbol (i.e., “Λ”) which is the unmistakable symbol for the Island of Crete, the birthplace of the Greco-Roman Empire. The Chevron symbol, which represents both the letters “C” and “K” in the Roman Score (i.e., the Roman alphabet), was reportedly adopted around 420 BC and but has since been rebranded as the “lambda”,  the 11th letter of the Greek alphabet. Similar to the Greco-Roman Centurions and Trojans, the Spartans wore helmets which featured the Mohawk crest along with a distinctive crimson red tunic (i.e., “chitōn) and cloak (i.e., “himation). The Spartans also had long hair which they reportedly retained to a far later date than most Greeks. To the Spartans, long hair was the symbol of a free man. This may have had something to do with the fact that when the Greco-Roman Empire and their Spartans conquered a tribe or region, they generally shaved the heads of the men as they began a life of slavery. 

Greco-Roman Spartans
The term Sparta (S/Z+F/P+R+T) is consonantly similar to the acronym “ZFФR” (S/Z+F/P+R) which was depicted on the original
flag of the Roman Empire. Evidently, Sparta was home to the army or ground troops of the Greco-Roman Empire and therefore their flag contained the same characters, although it has since been disguised by the often interchangeable letters inherent to Roman English. The term “sport”, for which the Spartans were famous for, was evidently derived from Sparta. During the Punic Wars, Sparta was reportedly an “ally” of the Roman Republic. This alleged alliance appears to be more historical cover for the Greek and Roman Empire which was one and the same entity (i.e., Greco-Roman Empire). In other words, by stating that Sparta and Rome were allies, it infers that they were not one and the same entity. Modern historical sources state that the city of Sparta became a tourist attraction for the Roman elite who came to observe exotic Spartan customs. This was likely because the first gladiatorial games were held in Sparta as captured slaves and enemy soldiers would be used as guinea pigs for both sport and military training.  

City of Sparta
The city of
Sparta is located in the region of Laconia in the south-eastern Peloponnese (i.e., mainland Greece). Sparta was home to the first ever standing army of the Greco-Roman Empire which in time became the greatest military land power in classical Greek antiquity. In order for Sparta to exist relatively unabated, it was built on the banks of the Evrotas River in the valley of the Evrotas, a natural fortress. To the west of Sparta was Mt. Taygetus (2407 meters) and to the east Mt. Parnon (1935 meters), providing natural defenses. To the north, Sparta was separated from Arcadia by uplands reaching 1000 meters in altitude, making a surprise attack on Sparta almost impossible. Consequently, the city of Sparta was never sacked, a feat likely unprecedented in history. The fact that Sparta never destroyed by enemy forces further confirms the notion that the Greco-Roman Empire has never been defeated militarily and therefore the world is still under their command and control, albeit from Greenland via their proxy state of Switzerland.

Spartan Army
Spartan army was the sole reason the city of Sparta existed. In other words, the city of Sparta was a byproduct of the budding Greco-Roman Empire’s base in Sparta. Like any military, Sparta’s goal was to create the best soldiers possible. Consequently, over time, Sparta became the greatest military land power in all of classical Greek antiquity, morphing into what would later become the army of the Roman Empire. During the second Persian invasion of Greece, Sparta was assigned the overall leadership of Greek forces on land. Sparta's reputation as a land-fighting force was unequaled and “par excellence” (i.e., “being the best of a kind”). These attributes are in fact correct considering that the military of Sparta, although suffering defeats in battle, essentially won the war over mankind, making them the best of the best. At the height of Sparta's power, it was commonly accepted that, "one Spartan was worth several men of any other state". Sparta’s military superiority was no accident for military training essentially began at infancy. Shortly after birth, Greek mothers would reportedly bathe their children in wine to see whether they were strong enough to live. If the child survived, it was brought before the Gerousia by the child's father where it was decided whether the child was to be reared or not. According to Spartan legend, "puny and deformed" babies were thrown into a chasm on Mount Taygetos, known euphemistically as the “Apothetae”. This was likely the first form of Greco-Roman eugenics which has since infiltrated all forms of modern society. Male Spartans that survived the wine bath and were spared from Mount Taygetos would begin military training at age 7. These young Spartans would enter the Agoge system which involved rigorous military training in loyalty, stealth, hunting, dancing, singing and social preparation. At age 20, the Spartans received membership in one of the syssitia (dining messes or clubs), composed of about fifteen members each. It was here that the Spartans learned how to bond and rely on one another. Even though Spartan men were encouraged to marry at 20, they were not allowed to live with their families until they left active duty military service at the age 30. Spartan men remained in the military reserve until the age 60, shattering the myth that the average lifespan in pre-modern times was drastically lower.

Tales from the Crypt

According to legend, Spartan youths were recruited by the Crypteia, a type of “Secret Police” which instructed members to spy and carry out terror attacks on the subjugated Helot population. During these missions, young Spartan males would be instructed to kill Helot slaves who were out at night or spoke badly about the ruling Spartans. The premeditated ritualistic murder committed by these Spartans was excused because war was formally declared against the Helots every autumn. Consequently, the killing a Helot was not considered as a crime but rather a valuable deed for the Greco-Roman state. Only Spartans who had served in the Crypteia as young men could expect to achieve the highest ranks in the Spartan army and society in general. It was felt that Spartans who showed the willingness and ability to kill for the state as a youth were morally corrupt enough to be leaders in their later years. The Crypteia was in essence an initiation process during which the most savage and ruthless would be selected while those with a conscious would be dismissed. The modern street gang entitled the Crips, who also have ritualistic killings as part of their initiation process, was evidently named after the original Crypteia of Sparta. Interestingly, the hand sign for the Crips consists of a “C” and “C” (pointer and thumb) as well as “3” and “3” (remaining fingers). These letters and numbers acronymically and numerically equate to Chania, Crete, the birthplace of the Greco-Roman Empire.

Battle of Thermopylae
The Battle of Thermopylae was allegedly fought by King Leonidas of Sparta against the Persian Empire of Xerxes I, during the second Persian invasion of Greece in
480 BC. According to legend, a small force of approximately 300 Spartans made a legendary last stand against the massive Persian army at the Battle of Thermopylae. Although the Spartans killed hundreds if not thousands of Persian forces, the 300 Spartans were finally encircled. Thermopylae was without a doubt the most famous Greco-Roman battle of all-time and therefore it is found throughout popular culture, including but not limited to: Business: Alvis Leonides, British air-cooled radial piston aero-engine; Leonidas, a chocolate producer; and Leonidas, the codename for Fedora 11, an operating system based on the Linux kernel; Comics:300” (1998), a comic by Frank Miller which retells the Battle of Thermopylae and the events leading up to it from the perspective of Leonidas of Sparta; “Alan Ford” (1969), a comic by Max Bunker (Luciano Secchi) and Magnus (Roberto Raviola) which depicts a story about Leonidas being fat, and the Persians were stopped when he got stuck in Thermopylae; “Batman: The Dark Knight Returns” (1986), a comic by Frank Miller which depicts the translation of the name Thermopylae ("Hot Gates") as the name of a porn star; “Hell and Back (A Sin City Love Story)” (1999-2000), a comic by Frank Miller which depicts Wallace hallucinating as he sees his friend appear as King Leonidas as portrayed in Miller's “300”; Leonid Kovar, a Russian comic superhero also known as Red Star; Mort Cinder” (1962), a comic by Héctor Germán Oesterheld  which depicts a Spartan warrior stating the famous Spartan quote, "In the shade, therefore, we will fight!"; and “Sin City: The Big Fat Kill” (1994-1995), a comic by Frank Miller which depicts Dwight McCarthy, facing a fight against a large number of enemies, mulls on the Battle of Thermopylae; Films:300” (2007), a depicts the retelling of the Battle of Thermopylae from the perspective of Leonidas; “Don't Tempt Me” (2001), the films’ characters refers to Thermopylae as a legal defense; “Go Tell the Spartans” (1978), U.S. troops come across the grave of French defenders of a Vietnamese village which has the famous epitaph to the Spartans written over; "Last Stand of the 300” (2007), a documentary on the Battle of Thermopylae; “Meet the Spartans” (2008), a parody of the movie “300” which includes the Battle of Thermopylae; “Patton” (1970), General Patton refers to the Battle of Thermopylae; “Rambling Rose” (1991), Robert Duvall's character refers to Thermopylae as he resists Rose's sexual advance; “The 300 Spartans” (1962), depicts the Battle of Thermopylae; The Dark Knight Rises” (2012), the character Leonid Pavel is a Russian nuclear scientist; and “The Last Samurai” (2003), the main characters refer to the battle of Thermopylae twice; Literature:Atlantis: Gate” (2002), a novel by Greg Donegan (pen name of Bob Mayer) which depicts Leonidas and Thermopylae are part of an interdimensional battle to save all earths from a trans-dimensional race; “Gates of Fire” (1998); a novel by Steven Pressfield which depicts the Battle of Thermopylae as told by the Spartan helot Xeones; “Ghost (2004), a novel by John Ringo which includes a description of the Battle of Thermopylae; Halo: Ghosts of Onyx” (2006), a novel by Eric Nylund which depicts the SPARTAN-III program in which each company contained around 300 SPARTANs; “Halo: The Fall of Reach” (2001), a novel by Eric Nylund which contains a direct reference to the 300 men at Battle of Thermopylae on two occasions; Labyrinth Trilogy, a series of novels by writer Sergey Lukyanenko in which Leonid is the protagonist; Leonid Gorbovsky, a character in Arkady and Boris Strugatsky's series of novels; Lion of Macedon” (1990), a novel by David Gemmell which discusses the Battle of Thermopylae several times as part of the studies of the lead character, a Spartan named Parmenion;Red Star” (1908), a novel by Alexander Bogdanov in which Leonid is the protagonist;The Dark Tower” (2004), a novel by Stephen King which includes a comparison with the Battle of Thermopylae; “The Hot Gate” (2011), a novel in the Troy Rising series by John Ringo which contains a nickel-iron inflated asteroid battlestation that is called Thermopylae; “The First Chronicles of Druss the Legend” (1993), a novel by David Gemmell in which the Battle of Thermopylae is re-sprayed into Gemmell's Drenai fantasy setting; “The Lion in the Gateway” (1964), a novel by Mary Renault which tells the story of the conflict between the Persians and Greeks across the reigns of Darius and Xerxes, including Thermopylae; “The Spartan” (1988), a novel by Valerio Massimo Manfredi which gives an account of the Battle of Thermopylae; and “Wanderer kommst Du nach Spa...”, (1950), a novel by Heinrich Böll whose title "Sparta" was truncated because the narrator had run out of room at the edge of the board; Mascots: RKSV Leonidas, an amateur football club from Rotterdam, Netherlands; Military: Australian groups seeking to get greater recognition for the heroic acts of soldiers in the World War II during the Battle of Isurava (1942) in New Guinea have dubbed that battle "Australia's Thermopylae"; ELBO Leonidas-2, Greek-built armored personnel carrier; “Leonidas” (1807), a 36-gun fifth-rate frigate in the Royal Navy of Britain; “Leonidas” (1866), a labor ship; “Leonidas” (1913), a Laforey-class destroyer. the Royal Navy of Britain; The Battle of Thermopylae has also been compared to various battles of the Anglo-Zulu War; The Battle of Wizna is often called the Polish Thermopylae; The Luftwaffe Leonidas Squadron in World War II flew "Self-sacrifice missions" (“Selbstopfereinsatz”) or kamikaze attacks against Soviet held bridges over the Oder River from April 17-20, 1945 during the Battle for Berlin; The phrase “come and take it” is was written on the flag fashioned by the Texans during the Battle of Gonzales; “Thermopylae” (1868), a British and Portuguese clipper ship; “USS Leonidas (1861) (1861), a ship in the U.S. Navy; and “USS Leonidas (AD-7)”, a ship in the U.S. Navy; Names: The name "Leonidas" exists in English, Spanish, Portuguese and of course modern Greek; The name "Leonidas" passed into Russian as well as Ukrainian (shortened to "Leonid"), and remains a fairly common male name among the speakers of these languages. Among the prominent persons of that name are Soviet Union premier Leonid Brezhnev and Leonid Kuchma, president of the post-Soviet Ukraine; Places: Leonidas, New Orleans, Louisiana; Leonidas, Minnesota; and Leonidas Township, Michigan; Poems:A Nation Once Again" (1844), a poem by Thomas Osborne Davis which states in part: “In Greece and in Rome where bravely stood 300 men and 3 men”; Don Juan” (1819), a poem by Lord Byron which states in part: “A remnant of our Spartan dead! Of the three hundred grant but three, To make a new Thermopylae!”; “Gerontion" (1920), a poem by T. S. Eliot which states in part: “I was neither at the hot gates Nor fought in the warm rain”; “'Go Tell It' — What a Message" (Unknown), a poem by Emily Dickinson which states in part: “To Law—said sweet Thermopylae, I give my dying Kiss”; and "Letter in November" (Unknown), a poem by Sylvia Plath which states in part: “Golds bleed and deepen, the mouths of Thermopylae”; Politics: The Greek phrase "come and take them" or “come and take it” is a quote attributed to Leonidas at the Battle of Thermopylae which is now the battle cry of pro-gun activists in their quest to retain their constitutional right to keep and bear arms; Science: Asteroid 2782 Leonidas is named after the Spartan king; Song: “The National Anthem of Colombia”, IX Stanza IX (1920), a song which states in part: And so the nation forms Thermopylae springing; “The Volunteers at Shipka” (Unknown), a song by Ivan Vazov which states in part: “As great as Thermopylae, all fame embracing”; “Thermopylae” (1903), a song by the Greek poet Kavafis which states in part: “Let honor be to those in whose life it was set to guard Thermopylae”; “Tusculanae Disputationes”, 1.42.101” (Unknown), a song by Cicero which states in part: “And Leonidas, king of the Spartans, shouts: “Fight with spirit, Spartans; perhaps we will dine today among the ghosts!”; and XXV. The Oracles” (1895-1910), a poem by A. E. Housman which states in part: “And he that stands will die for nought, and home there's no returning. The Spartans on the sea-wet rock sat down and combed their hair”; Television: Deadliest Warrior” (2009-2011), in the episode “Spartan vs. Ninja", Team Spartan talks about the Battle of Thermopylae being a "rear guard action" similar to a "Greek Alamo"; “Robot Chicken” (2005-Present), in the episode “Moesha Poppins”, parodies of “300” include the line This! Is! AMERICA! While another Episode has Leonidas saying THIS IS SPARTA-like quotes in mundane situations; “Samurai Jack” (2001-2004), in the episode "Jack and the Spartans", a group of warriors, similar in appearance to Spartans, defend a narrow gateway against a vast robot army; “SeaQuest DSV” (1993-1996), in the episode “Spindrift”, Captain Hudson explains that just like the Greeks at Thermopylae, to sacrifice is worth it; “South Park” (1997-Present), the episode “D-Yikes!" contains a parody of the film “300” featuring the Battle of Thermopylae; “Star Trek: Deep Space Nine” (1993-1996), in the episode “What You Leave Behind", Dr. Julian Bashir offers to take Ezri Dax on a date in a holosuite program depicting the Battle of Thermopylae; “Xena: Warrior Princess” (1995-2001), in the episode “One Against an Army", Xena and Gabrielle have to defend the pass of Thermopylae from the invading Persian army; and Video Games: 300: March to Glory” (2007), a game based on the film “300”; “Carrier Command” (1988), carriers facing off over an island named Thermopylae; “Gates of Troy” (2004), one of the scenarios is the battle of Thermopylae where you have to resist for 20 turns against the Persian army; “Marathon Trilogy” (1994), the Marathon 2 contains a level called "My Own Private Thermopylae; “Rainbow Six Lockdown” (2005), Rainbow sniper Dieter Weber states that the Spartans were "outnumbered 800 to one, but they went down fighting"; and “World of Warcraft: Wrath of the Lich King” (2008), pits 300 Defenders of the Light against 10,000.

Professional Mascots
Professional Sparta and Spartan-related sports mascots are found featured by sports teams around the world, including but not limited to: Barbados: Spartan Cricket Club, a cricket club; Czech Republic: AC Sparta Prague, a football team in Prague; HC Sparta Praha, an ice hockey team in Praha; England: Blyth Spartans A.F.C., a football team in Northumberland; Fairlands Valley Spartans, a running club in Stevenage; Manchester Village Spartans RUFC, a rugby team in Manchester; and Spartan South Midlands Football League, an English football feeder league to the Southern Football League; Germany: Hannover Spartans, an American football team in Hannover; Kenya: Co-op Bank Spartans, a basketball team in Nairobi; Malta: Hamrun Spartans F.C., a football team in Hamrun; Netherlands: Sparta Rotterdam, a football team in Rotterdam; New Zealand: Hutt Valley Spartans, an American football team in Avalon; Norway: Sparta Warriors, an ice hockey team in Sarpsborg; Scotland: Spartans F.C., a football team in Edinburgh; and the United States: La Crosse Spartans, an indoor American football team in La Crosse, Wisconsin.

Collegiate Mascots
Collegiate Sparta and Spartan-related sports mascots are found in colleges and universities around the world, including but not limited to: Canada: Trinity Western University, Langley, British Columbia; England: Universities at Medway, Kent, England; South Africa: University of Cape Town, Cape Town; and the United States: Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio; Manchester University, North Manchester, Indiana; Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan; Norfolk State Spartans, Norfolk, Virginia; San Jose State University, San Jose, California; St. Thomas Aquinas College, Rockland County, New York; University of Dubuque, Dubuque, Iowa; University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina; University of South Carolina Upstate, Spartanburg, South Carolina; University of Tampa, Tampa, Florida;

High School Mascots

High school Sparta and Spartan-related sports mascots are featured by high schools around the world, including but are not limited to: Canada: Centennial Collegiate Vocational Institute, Guelph, Ontario; Clark Road High School, London, Ontario; Hazelton Secondary School, Hazelton, British Columbia; La Salle Secondary School, Kingston, Ontario; Lorne Park Secondary School, Mississauga, Ontario; Milne Valley Middle School, Toronto, Ontario; Ridgemont High School, Ottawa, Ontario; Riverdale High School, Pierrefonds, Quebec; Scott Park High School, Hamilton, Ontario; Sisler High School, Winnipeg, Manitoba; Souris Regional High School, Souris, Prince Edward Island; St. John's Catholic High School, Spartan (Perth), Ontario; Westlane Secondary School, Niagara Falls, Ontario; England: Essex Spartans, AFC, Essex, England; Jamaica: St. Jago High School, Spanish Town; and the United States: Adlai E. Stevenson High School, Livonia, Michigan; Amity Regional High School, Woodbridge, Connecticut; Athens Academy, Athens, Georgia; Baker High School, Baker, Montana; Bernalillo High School, Bernalillo, New Mexico; Bishop Stang High School, North Dartmouth, Massachusetts; Bishop Walsh School, Cumberland, Maryland; Bixby High School, Bixby, Oklahoma; Boardman High School, Mahoning County, Ohio; Border Central High School, Calvin, North Dakota; Broad Run High School, Loudoun County, Virginia; Brookfield East High School, Brookfield, Wisconsin; Burnt Hills-Ballston Lake High School, Ballston, New York; Camelback High School, Phoenix, Arizona; Campbell High School, Smyrna, Georgia; Central Davidson High School, Lexington, North Carolina; Central Union High School, El Centro, California; Connersville High School, Connersville, Indiana; Conneaut High School, Conneaut, Ohio; Corvallis High School, Corvallis, Oregon; Damien High School, La Verne, California; De La Salle High School, Concord, California; De Smet Jesuit High School, Creve Coeur, Missouri; Deptford High School, Deptford, New Jersey; East Longmeadow High School, East Longmeadow, Massachusetts; East Syracuse-Minoa High School, Syracuse, New York; Eastside High School, Coeburn, Virginia; Emery High School, Castle Dale, Utah; Emporia High School, Emporia, Kansas; Fargo North High School, Fargo, North Dakota; Framingham North High School (1963-1991), Framingham, Massachusetts; Garden Spot High School, New Holland, Pennsylvania; Glenbrook North High School, Northbrook, Illinois; Granger High School, Granger, Granger, Washington; Greenbrier East High School, Fairlea, West Virginia; Greater Atlanta Christian School, Norcross, Georgia; Hillsboro High School, Hillsboro, Oregon; Holy Spirit High School, Absecon, New Jersey; Homestead High School, Fort Wayne, Indiana; John F. Kennedy High School, Barstow, California; La Canada High School, La Canada, California; Laurel High School, Laurel, Maryland; Laurel High School, New Castle, Pennsylvania; Lewis S. Mills High School, Burlington, Connecticut; Marist Catholic High School, Eugene, Oregon; Mason County Central High School, Scottville, Michigan; McFarland High School, McFarland Wisconsin; Miami Country Day School, Miami, Florida; Miami Southridge High School, Miami, Florida; Moberly High School, Moberly, Missouri; Montour High School, Robinson Township, Pennsylvania; Mountain Brook High School, Mountain Brook, Alabama; Murray High School, Murray, Utah; North Newton High School, Morocco, Indiana; North Springs Charter High School, Sandy Springs, Georgia; Ocean Township High School, Ocean Township, New Jersey; Oshkosh North High School, Oshkosh, Wisconsin; Pinole Valley High School, Pinole, California; Queensbury High School, Queensbury, New York; Richmond Heights High School, Richmond Heights, Ohio; Richfield High School, Richfield, Minnesota; Roger Bacon High School, Cincinnati, Ohio; Romeoville High School, Romeoville, Illinois; Salmen High School, Slidell, Louisiana; Schurr High School, Montebello, California; Sentinel High School, Missoula, Montana; Seven Lakes High School, Fort Bend County, Texas; Shinglehouse High School, Shinglehouse, Pennsylvania; Skyline High School, Sammamish, Washington; Smithfield-Selma High School, Smithfield, North Carolina; Solon High School, Solon, Iowa; South Knox High School, Verne, Indiana; South Warren High School, Bowling Green, Kentucky; Southwestern High School, Shelbyville, Indiana; South Jefferson Central School, Jefferson County, New York; Spalding Catholic High School, Granville, Iowa; Sparta High School, Sparta, Michigan; Sparta High School, Sparta, New Jersey; Sparta High School, Sparta, Wisconsin;  Start High School, Toledo, Ohio; Stoneham High School, Stoneham, Massachusetts; St. Johns Country Day School, Orange Park, Florida; St. Joseph Ogden High School, St. Joseph, Illinois; St. Marks High School, Newark, Delaware; St. Mary's High School, Lynn, Massachusetts; Sumner High School, Sumner, Washington; Sun Valley High School, Union County, North Carolina; Superior High School, Superior, Wisconsin; Sylmar High School, Sylmar, California; The Burlington School, Burlington, North Carolina; Walter Johnson High School, Bethesda, Maryland; Waynesville High School, Waynesville, Ohio; Webb School of Knoxville, Knoxville, Tennessee; West Springfield High School, Springfield, Virginia; White Station High School, Memphis, Tennessee; Williamsville North High School, Williamsville, New York; W. W. Samuell High School, Dallas, Texas; and Wyoming Valley West High School, Wyoming Valley, Pennsylvania.

Tributes to Sparta and her Spartans are featured in the names of various places around the world, including but not limited to: Canada: Sparta, Ontario; El Salvador: Nueva Esparta, a municipality in La Unión Department; Greece: Sparta, Laconia: Honduras: Esparta, a municipality in Atlántida; Turkey: Isparta, the capital of Isparta Province; United States: Sparta, Georgia; Sparta, Illinois; Sparta, Indiana; Sparta, Kentucky; Sparta, Michigan; Sparta, Mississippi; Sparta, Missouri; Sparta, New Jersey; Sparta, New York; Sparta, North Carolina; Sparta, Ohio; Sparta, Tennessee; Sparta, Wisconsin; Sparta Town, Wisconsin; Sparta Township, Knox County, Illinois; Sparta Township, Dearborn County, Indiana; Sparta Township, Noble County, Indiana; Sparta Township, Michigan; Sparta Township, Minnesota; Sparta Township, Christian County, Missouri; Sparta Township, Knox County, Nebraska; Sparta Township, New Jersey; Sparta Township, Pennsylvania; and Spartanburg, South Carolina; and Venezuela: Nueva Esparta, a state in Venezuela.

Sparta in Popular Culture
Tributes to Sparta and her Spartans are found throughout popular culture, including but not limited to: Business: Sparta, a brand of cigarettes from former Czechoslovakia; “Sparta”, a magazine of ancient Spartan and Greek history; Spartan Aircraft Company, American firm; Spartan Aircraft Ltd, British firm; Spartan Cars, a British kit car maker; Spartan Communications, a company based in Spartanburg, South Carolina that was purchased by Media General in 2000; Spartan Motors, manufacturer of fire fighting vehicles; and Spartan Stores, a regional grocery store chain in the U.S.; Computing: Spartan, a molecular modeling and computational chemistry software application; Currency: Republic of Minerva’s dollar coin features a Spartan; Film:  300” (2007), a highly stylized recounting of the Battle of Thermopylae; Last Stand of the 300” (2007); “Meet the Spartans” (2008); Spartan (2004); The 300 Spartans” (1962), a dramatization of the Battle of Thermopylae; “Troy” (2004), Sparta is one of the invading Greek city-states to besiege Troy;  and “United 300” (2007); Language: Spartan Alphabet, in fingerspelling; Literature: 300 (1998), a comic book series written and illustrated by Frank Miller; "A Spartan Planet" (1969), a book by A. Bertram Chandler; “Gates of Fire” (1998), a book by Steven Pressfield which focuses on a citizen of a destroyed Greek city-state who goes to Sparta; “Go Tell the Spartans” (1991), a book by Jerry Pournelle; Gulliver's Travels” (1726), a book by Jonathan Swift in which Gulliver writes: "A helot of Agesilaus made us a dish of Spartan broth, but I was not able to get down a second spoonful”; Krol Agis (1963), “Syn Heraklesa (1966) and “Heros w okowach (1969), a trilogy of novels by Halina Rudnicka set in ancient Sparta; “Prince of Sparta” (1993), a book by Jerry Pournelle; “Soldier of Arete” (1989), a book by Gene Wolfe; and “Soldier of the Mist” (1986), a book by Gene Wolfe; “Sparta”, a fictional planet in the CoDominium series of books by Jerry Pournelle; “Sparta”, a fictional planet in A. Bertram Chandler's "A Spartan Planet"; Spartan” (1988), a novel by Valerio Massimo Manfredi; and “Spartan”, a Wildstorm comic book character; Military: Alenia C-27J Spartan, a military transport aircraft; C-27A Spartan, a military transport plane; the emblem of the 533rd Training Squadron of the U.S. Air Force features a Spartan; FV103 Spartan, a British armored personnel carrier; LIM-49 Spartan, an American anti-ballistic missile; “HMS Spartan” (1806), a 38-gun fifth-rate ship of the British Royal Navy; “HMS Spartan” (1824), a 46-gun fifth-rate; ordered from Plymouth Dockyard for the British Royal Navy; “HMS Spartan” (1841),a 26-gun sixth-rate ship of the British Royal Navy; “HMS Spartan” (1868), an Eclipse-class wooden screw sloop of  the British Royal Navy; “HMS Spartan” (1891), a 2nd class cruiser of the British Royal Navy; “HMS Spartan” (1942), a Dido class cruiser of the British Royal Navy; “HMS Spartan” (1978), a  nuclear-powered submarine of the British Royal Navy; “HMS Spartiate”, a former Royal Navy shore establishment in St Enoch's Hotel in Glasgow, Scotland; Simmonds Spartan, a British biplane; SPARTA, Inc., a United States defense contractor; “Spartiate” (1798), a 74 gun third rate ship of the British Royal Navy; “Spartiate” (1898), a Diadem class cruiser of the British Royal Navy; and the “USS Spartan (SP-336)” (1917), a United States Navy minesweeper; Music:Sparta” (2011), an album by M.O.P.; and Sparta, a band formed by ex-members of At the Drive-In; Mythology: Sparta, the first mythical queen of Sparta, eponym of the city-state in Greek mythology; and Spartoi or Sparti, a group of mythical beings figuring in the founding myths of the ancient Greek city of Thebes; Other: The Spartans Drum and Bugle Corps, an Open Class drum and bugle corps from Nashua, New Hampshire; People: Andrey Koreshkov (born 1990), Russian mixed martial artist nicknamed "Spartan"; Lucio Linhares (born 1973), Brazilian mixed martial artist nicknamed "Spartan"; and Vinicius Queiroz (born 1983), Brazilian mixed martial artist nicknamed "Spartan"; Politics: Lycurgus, the legendary lawgiver of Sparta, is one of the 23 lawgivers depicted in marble bas-reliefs in the chamber of the U.S. House of Representatives in the United States Capitol and on the frieze on the south wall of the U.S. Supreme Court building; Religion: Spartan helmet is depicted in the logo of the Order of Saint James of Altopascio; Science:Sparta”, a moth genus; Sparta, a rocket; and Spartan, a type of apple developed in 1926; Sports: IL Sparta, a Norwegian multi-sport club; Sparta, a Danish athletic club; Sparta, a racehorse who failed to complete the 1848 Grand National; Spartan Fighting Championship, a U.S. mixed martial arts organization; Spartan race, an type of obstacle-based race; and “Spartans”, runners who have completed 10 Melbourne Marathons; Television:Deadliest Warrior” (2009-2011); a Spartan defeats the Ninja while in Season 2, the Spartan was brought back to defeat the Samurai; “Samurai Jack” (2001-2004), a group of 300 warriors, similar in appearance to Spartans, defend a narrow gateway against a vast robot army; “Robot Chicken” (2005-Present), includes the line This! Is! AMERICA! and features Leonidas saying THIS IS SPARTA-like quotes in mundane situations;  Roderick Bradley competes as "Spartan" in the UK TV series “Gladiators”;SeaQuest DSV” (1993-1996), SeaQuest's chief of security Jim Brody's last dying words are "With your shield or on it";South Park” (1997-Present), depicts a parody of the Spartan film 300; “Star Trek: Deep Space Nine” (1993-1999), Dr. Julian Bashir, who has a penchant for last stands, offers to take Ezri Dax on a date in a holosuite program depicting the Battle of Thermopylae;  and “Xena: Warrior Princess” (1995-2001), Xena and Gabrielle have to defend the pass of Thermopylae from the invading Persian army; Titles: Duke of Sparta, title of the heir apparent to the Greek throne; and Video Games:  300: March to Glory” (2007), game is based upon the Battle of Thermopylae;  Ancient Wars: Sparta” (2007), a real-time strategy computer game; and the, a story element in the “Halo” series of video games; “Gates of Troy” (2004), one of the scenarios is the battle of Thermopylae, where the player must resist the Persian army for 20 turn; “God of War (series)” (2005), the protagonist Kratos is portrayed as a former general of the Spartan Army; “Halo (series)” (2001-Present), the military super soldiers train in the SPARTAN Program; “Kratos”, a legendary Spartan demigod warrior and hero who served the Spartan army as a high-ranking officer, is the main protagonist in “God of War” (2005-2013); “League of Legends” (2009), the Champion, Pantheon the Artisan of War, bears a similar design to Spartan warriors; “Marathon Trilogy” (1994), the Marathon 2 contains a level called "My Own Private Thermopylae; “Rome: Total War” (2004), Spartan warriors as well as the city-state of Sparta are in the game;  Rome: Total War II” (2013), Sparta is a faction in the game; “Sid Meier's Alpha Centauri” (2000), one of the seven factions in the game is named The Spartan Federation; “Space Spartans” (1982), the game guide related that like the Spartans of old, one has to hang on as long as possible to give others time for a counterattack; Spartan” (2002), a strategy game set in late Sparta; and “Spartan: Total Warrior” (2005), the protagonist is a soldier in the Spartan army.