7.03 Druids

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A Druid
is a member of the educated and professional class of the Celtic peoples which has historically included the best and brightest doctors, lawyers, speakers and poets. The term “Celtic” (C/K+L+T+C/K) acronymically equates to “Cult Kill” or “Cult Ʌ”, an apparent reference to the ruling class of the Roman Empire, otherwise known as the Imperial Cult. The “Ʌ” symbol, which equates to both “C” and “K” in the modern Roman-English alphabet, is the sole symbol for Island of Crete (the birthplace of the Greco-Roman Empire) in the Roman Score (i.e., the Roman alphabet). The Tribann, otherwise known as the Druidic symbol, is coincidentally also a Chevron symbol (i.e., “Ʌ”) as depicted in the logo of The Ancient Order of Druids (AOD). The oak tree described in the Druid’s ritual of oak is coincidently also reflected in the symbology associated with the Greco-Roman gods of Zeus, Thor and possibly even Odin. The English term “Druid” was allegedly derived from the Latin “Druids”, further inferring that English was the official language of the Roman Empire. The term “Druid” is also cognate with the Old Irish word “druí”, meaning "Druid and sorcerer". Interestingly, the hypothetical proto-Celtic word can be reconstructed as “dru-wid-s” meaning "oak-knower". The notion of "oak-knower" or "oak-seer" is also supported by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and military commander, who documented in his book “Natural History” that the Greek noun “δρύς” (drus) means "oak-tree". The oak tree is instrumental to the Druids because underneath it is where they hold their human sacrifices (see below). Consequently, the modern Irish word for Oak is “Dair” (D+R) which consonantly equates to “Dr.”, as in “doctor”. Words derived from the term “Dr.” potentially include “dream”, “drink”, drum, etc., while words derived from the term “Druid” include but are not limited to: “dread”, “dreads”, “dried”, “droid”, etc. The term “Druid” (D+R+D) also acronymically equates to “Dr. Die” or “Dr. Death”, a name likely rooted in the historical tradition of Druidic spawned biological pandemics in the underworld.

History of the Druids
The only evidence that the
Druids ever existed is coincidentally only found within the descriptions left by the Greeks and Romans. Although archaeological evidence has been uncovered pertaining to alleged Celtic religious practices, there is nothing evidence wise confirming or denying their existence. This is likely because the Druids and the leadership of the Greco-Roman Empire were one and the same. Consequently, all historical connections linking the two have been purposely severed over time. According to historian Ronald Hutton, "not one single artifact or image has been unearthed that can undoubtedly be connected with the ancient Druids". The earliest record of the Druids reportedly comes from two Greek texts (c. 300 BC) which have now been conveniently lost. The first was a history of philosophy written by Sotion of Alexandria, and the other a study of magic entitled "Druidas” about wise men belonging to the “Keltois” (Celts) and “Galatias” (the Galatians or the Gauls). Although the texts have mysteriously  disappeared, they are quoted in “Vitae” by Diogenes Laertius, a biographer of the Greek philosophers. The oldest actual description comes from the Roman military general Julius Caesar in his “Commentarii de Bello Gallico” (c. 50 BC). In his description, Caesar claimed that the Druids were one of the two most important social groups in the region who were responsible for organizing worship, sacrifices and divination. Caesar claimed that the Druids had the power to excommunicate people from religious festivals, making them social outcasts. Around 750 BC, the word “Druid” appears in a poem by Blathmac, who wrote about Jesus, saying that he was "... better than a prophet, more knowledgeable than every Druid, a king who was a bishop and a complete sage”. Two other classical writers, Diodorus Siculus and Strabo, also wrote that the Druids were held in such respect that if they intervened between two armies they could stop the battle. The Druids then also appear in some of the medieval tales from Christianized Ireland like the "Táin Bó Cúailnge", where they are largely portrayed as sorcerers who opposed the coming of Christianity. In the “Livre d'Artus” (1861), Merlin, a mythical Druid, enters Rome in the form of a huge stag with a white fore-foot. He bursts into the presence of Julius Caesar and tells the Emperor that only the wild man of the woods can interpret the dream that has been troubling him. This particular narrative is key because it once again ties Merlin, a Druid, to the leadership of the Roman Empire, furthering the notion that the Druids are in fact Roman in origin.

Severing Druids from Rome
In order to dispel any notion that the
Druids were affiliated with the Roman Empire, at least four separate historical narratives have been fabricated in order to mislead historians. The first is the historical account of Diviciacus of the Aedui (c. 60 BC), the only named Druid in history. Diviciacus allegedly traveled to Rome where he curiously formed an alliance with one Julius Cesar. The second account involves the Roman historian Suetonius who wrote that Rome's first emperor Augustus (27 BC-14 AD) decreed that no-one could be both a Druid and a Roman citizen. The third account is by Roman senator and historian Tacitus (40-69 AD) who described how when the Roman army, led by Suetonius Paulinus, attacked the island of Mona (Anglesey, “Ynys Môn in Welsh), the legionaries were awestruck on landing by the appearance of a band of Druids, who, with hands uplifted to the sky, poured forth terrible imprecations on the heads of the invaders. He states that these "terrified our soldiers who had never seen such a thing before”. Needless to say, if these Druids with god-like powers were in fact a viable threat to the mighty Roman Empire, more than one Druid would be documented in Roman history. Lastly, the fourth account was made in respect to the Roman Emperor Claudius (41-54 AD) who reportedly banned all Druidic religious practices. Interestingly, Professor Phillip Freeman stated in respect to the Historia Augusta (a fourth century A.D. collection of imperial biographies) that the “Druids […] were supposedly extinguished by the Romans”, but that “the Druidic function of prophesy continued among the natives in Roman Gaul”. Acronymically speaking, the term “Gaul” (G+L) equates to “Greenland”. Therefore, Freeman’s statement is indeed correct in the sense that although the Druids were extinguished from Rome (i.e., Europe), they are now alive in Greenland where they continue to practice their witchcraft to this very day. 

Druidic-Roman Festivals
Similar to Jewish holidays, the 8 primary Druidic holidays mimic the holidays and festivals of the Roman Empire almost exactly. This is because Druids are Greco-Roman in origin and therefore their holidays are celebrated in the underworld by the Jews who are responsible for performing Rome’s blood sacrifices in the underworld. Although modern science states that the difference between the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere is based on the relationship with the celestial equator, they real difference between the two hemispheres is the underworld and Greenland. In other words, aside from Greenland and the most northern parts of Canada and Russia, the entire known world in the Southern Hemisphere. Consequently, Druidic and Jewish blood sacrifices are timed to coincide with sun’s relationship to both of the hemispheres on specific dates.

Alban Elfed: The Druidic festival “Alban Elfed”, otherwise known as the Autumn Equinox, is celebrated on September 21 or 22 in the Northern Hemisphere and March 20 in the Southern Hemisphere. The Northern Hemisphere festival coincides the Roman holiday of “Mercatus” on September 20-23, while the Southern Hemisphere festival coincides with the Roman Anniversary of the Temple of Minerva on the Aventine on March 19-23.

Beltaine: The Druidic festival “Beltaine
” is celebrated on April 30 or May 1 in the Northern Hemisphere and November 1 in the Southern Hemisphere. The Northern Hemisphere festival coincides the Roman festival known as the “Games of Flora” on May 1 which also involves a sacrifice to Roman goddess Maia. May 1 is also the anniversary of the Temple of Bona Dea on the Aventine where the rites (i.e., sacrifices) to the Lares Praestites are held. The Southern Hemisphere festival of “Beltaine” coincides with the end of Roman festival known as “Ludi Victoriae Sullanae” on November 1.

Imbolc: The Druidic festival “
Imbolc” is celebrated on February 1 or 2 in the Northern Hemisphere and August 1 in the Southern Hemisphere. The Northern Hemisphere festival coincides Roman holiday known as “Dies natalis” in honor of the Temple of Juno Sospita on February 1, while the Southern Hemisphere festival coincides the Roman Anniversary of the Temple of Spes in the Forum Holitorium on August 1, which is coincidentally the National Day of Switzerland.

Lughnasadh: The Druidic festival “
Lughnasadh” is celebrated on August 1 or 2 in the Northern Hemisphere and February 1 in the Southern Hemisphere. The Northern Hemisphere festival coincides the Roman Anniversary of the Temple of Spes in the Forum Holitorium on August 1 (which is coincidentally the National Day of Switzerland), while the Southern Hemisphere festival coincides with the Roman holiday of “Dies natalis” in the Temple of Juno Sospita on February 1.

Samhain: The Druidic festival “Samhain” is celebrated on October 31 in the Northern Hemisphere and April 30 or May 1 in the Southern Hemisphere. The Northern Hemisphere festival coincides Halloween, while the Southern Hemisphere festival coincides Roman festival known as the “Games of Flora” on May 1 which also involves a sacrifice to Roman goddess Maia. May 1 is also the anniversary of the Temple of Bona Dea on the Aventine where the rites (i.e., sacrifices) to the Lares Praestites are held.

Alban Eilir: The Druidic festival “Alban Eilir”, otherwise known as the Spring Equinox, is celebrated on March 20 or 21 in the Northern Hemisphere and September 21 or 22 in the Southern Hemisphere. The Northern Hemisphere festival coincides with the Roman Anniversary of the Temple of Minerva on the Aventine on March 19-23, while the while the Southern Hemisphere festival coincides with the Roman holiday of “Mercatus” on September 20-23.

Alban Hefin: The Druidic festival “Alban Hefin”, otherwise known as the
Summer Solstice, is celebrated on June 21 or 22 in the Northern Hemisphere and December 21 in the Southern Hemisphere. The Northern Hemisphere festival only coincides with Summer Solstice, while the while the Southern Hemisphere festival coincides Roman holiday of “Divalia” which is held in honor of Angerona on December 21. The Greco-Roman gods of Hercules and Ceres also receive a blood sacrifice on December 21. 

Alban Arthan: The Druidic festival “Alban Arthan”, otherwise known as the
Winter Solstice, is celebrated on December 21 or 22 in the Northern Hemisphere and June 21 in the Southern Hemisphere. The Northern Hemisphere festival coincides with the Roman holiday of “Divalia” held in honor of Angerona on December 21. The Greco-Roman gods of Hercules and Ceres also receive a blood sacrifice on December 21.  The Southern Hemisphere festival only coincides with Summer Solstice on June 21.

Druidic Human Sacrifices
In Greco-Roman accounts of the
Druids, a number of recurring themes emerge, namely that they performed human sacrifices. Little is known about these blood sacrifices except for the ritual of oak and mistletoe as described by Pliny the Elder a Roman author and military commander. The oak tree (i.e., Donar's Oak) is curiously also sacred to the Greco-Roman gods of Zeus, Thor and possibly Odin whose human sacrifices generally involved male slaves of each species (e.g., Africa, Asian, European, Latin, etc.) being hung from the branches of a tree, most likely oak. Greek and Roman references to the Druids being practitioners of human sacrifice are also found within the works of Lucan, Julius Caesar, Suetonius and Cicero. Although Caesar claimed that the human sacrifice primarily involved criminals, he does admit that at certain times innocent humans would also be sacrificed. Although Caesar claims that the victims would be burnt alive in a large wooden effigy (i.e., a wicker man), evidence suggests that the victims were not burned until their blood was utilized and their flesh eaten. National Geographic corroborated this notion in 2009 when they revealed evidence that the “Druids possibly committed cannibalism and ritual human sacrifice—perhaps on a massive scale”. The report cites Pliny the Elder who suggested that the Celts practiced ritual cannibalism, eating their enemies' flesh as a source of spiritual and physical strength. According to Greek historian Diodorus Siculus, "These men [the Druids] predict the future by observing the flight and calls of birds and by the sacrifice of holy animals: all orders of society are in their power... and in very important matters they prepare a human victim, plunging a dagger into his chest; by observing the way his limbs convulse as he falls and the gushing of his blood, they are able to read the future”. According to the “Commenta Bernensia, a 10th-century manuscript preserved in the Burgerbibliothek (library) of Bern, Switzerland (the main proxy state of the Roman Empire), Druidic sacrifices to the deities of Teutates, Esus and Taranis were executed by drowning, hanging and burning, respectively (i.e., the threefold death). While private human sacrifices by the Druids in Greenland involve personal hands on killing, assassinations and terror attacks executed by Switzerland in the underworld are also forms of human sacrifices, albeit it very public ones. 

Druidic Bio-Terror
The
biological pandemics which have decimated Europe and the world since the alleged fall of the Roman Empire can almost certainly be traced to the Druids living in Greenland. The notion that the Greco-Romans were fluent in bio-terrorism is coincidentally found within Greek mythology which describes the Telchines of the Island of Rhodes as the first to produce the chemical weapons. This reportedly occurred when Telchines concocted a mixture of Stygian water and sulfur which subsequently killed both animal and plant. Evidently, humans were the next in line. Shortly after the fall of the Rome, the first major pandemics in history began to take place. The Plague of Athens (Athens, Greece), the Antonine Plague (Rome, Italy), and the Plague of Justinian (Constantinople, Turkey) all just happened to target former Roman capitals and metropolitan centers of the Roman Empire. Interestingly, the home of the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) is located in Druid Hills, just outside Atlanta, Georgia. As depicted in the Bio-Terror Bible, the CDC along with the WHO (World Health Organization) is responsible for creating, developing and housing deadly strains of biological pathogens which will likely be used to spark the global pandemic planned for 2014. Aside from the fact that the term “Druid” (D+R+D) acronymically equates to “Dr. Die” or “Dr. Death”, the most prominent medical titles also have negative connotations. Acronymically speaking, according to the Roman Score (i.e., the Roman alphabet) and the Roman-English alphabet (i.e., the modern English alphabet), the term “M.D.” or “M.+.” equates to “13 Kills”, a reference to the 13 Bloodlines of Rome and the letter “D” or “+” which equates to “Die” or “Death”. The term “Ph.D.” or “πH.+.” acronymically equates to “Pi Forever Die”, a reference to the never-ending death doled out by Greenland which is considered to be “π” (i.e., pie). The title for a nurse in English is “R.N.” or “Γ.X.” which acronymically equates to “Rome Kills” or “Rome Die” as nurses are often tasked with administering harmful medicines. Lastly, the letters “RX” or “Γ.X.”, which are found within the logo of most pharmacies and on almost all prescription medication, also acronymically equates to “Rome Kills” or “Rome Death” as all prescriptions inherently contain harmful chemicals. 

Stonehenge
Stonehenge
is a prehistoric monument in Wiltshire, England, that is one of the most famous tourist attractions in the world. In short, Stonehenge is a ring of standing stones which are set within earthworks. Because of its unique nature and size, its origins have long been a subject of debate. The term “Stonehenge” (S+T+N+H+N+G) acronymically equates to “Stone Hang”, for its massive stones were likely hung in place via advanced Roman machinery and/or giant-like human beings. The English writer and natural philosopher John Aubrey
(1626–1697) was the first to connect Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments to the Druids. Although the original Stonehenge is likely in Greenland, the Stonehenge monument in Britain was almost certainly created so that Druids would be forever associated with England rather than the Roman Empire or Greenland. In other words, the placement of the stones was an historical red herring of sorts designed to confuse historians. Interestingly, the Roman de Brut (1150 AD), which is a literary history of Britain by the poet Wace, depicts a drawing of a giant helping the Merlin the Druid build Stonehenge. This historical document, which is currently found in the British Library, ultimately ties the Roman Empire (document title), the Druids (Merlin), the giants of Greenland, and Stonehenge together forever in time. In essence, the document infers that Stonehenge in Roman in origin, has Druidic influence, and was built with the help of giants from Greenland, a historical trifecta. In the Fenian Cycle, one of the four major cycles of Irish mythology, both giants and warriors are coincidentally referred to as Druids. Lastly, historian Geoffrey of Monmouth inserts a long section of Merlin's prophecies, taken from his earlier “Prophetiae Merlini (1130 AD), in which he states that Merlin created Stonehenge as a burial place for Aurelius Ambrosius. Monmouth’s account once again ties Merlin, a Druid, to Stonehenge, and potentially foreshadows the notion that the original Stonehenge in Greenland serves as a burial ground for the countless victims of human sacrifices performed by the Druids.


Druids in Pop Culture
Although hidden for hundreds of years, Druids began to surface in popular culture with the first advent of Romanticism, an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement which originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century. Aside from the numerous depictions of Merlin, Druids are found dancing around the crown of the Earth in the logo of Corona Extra, a Mexican beer. Other tributes to Greco-Roman Druids are found throughout popular culture, including but not limited to: Books: High Druid of Shannara” (Unknown), a trilogy of books by Terry Brooks; Les Martyrs” (1809), a novel by Chateaubriand about the doomed love of a Druid priestess and a Roman soldier; The Druid of Shannara” (1991), a book by Terry Brooks; The Druids” (1968), a book by Stuart Piggott; and “The Life and Death of a Druid Prince” (1989), a book by Anne Ross; Characters : Allanon, a Druid in the Shannara series by author Terry Brooks; Amergin, bard in the novel Bard, by Morgan Llywelyn, and his brother Colptha, a diviner; Atticus O'Sullivan, real name Siodhachan O Suileabhain, last of the Druids in The Iron Druid Chronicles series; “Doctor Druid”, a character in the Marvel Comics universe; Getafix, a Gaulish Druid appearing in the French comic series The Adventures of Asterix sometimes translated as Panoramix; Kevin, Druid, harpist and last "Merlin" of Britain, in the Mists of Avalon novel by Marion Zimmer Bradley; Merlin, a wizard who appears in Arthurian legend and is presented as a Druid in some modern works, including The Warlord Chronicles series of books by Bernard Cornwell and the 2004 film “King Arthur”; Pikel Bouldershoulder, a druid in the novels of The Cleric Quintet series by R.A. Salvatore; Taliesin, a powerful Druid and the penultimate "Merlin" of Britain in the “Mists of Avalon”, a novel by Marion Zimmer Bradley; and the Shannara Druids, an order of historians, philosophers, magic-users, teachers and researchers in the Shannara series of fantasy novels and video games by Terry Brooks;  Film:Druids” (2001), a film about a Gallic Druid resisting the Roman armies; Music: Druid, a British progressive rock band; and Druidas, a Mexican rock band; Operas: “La Sacerdotessa d'Irminsul” ("The Priestess of Irminsul"), an opera by Felice Romani about a Druid priestess; Norma” (1831), the most famous Druidic opera by Vincenzo Bellini at La Scala; and “Trieste” (1817), an opera by Giovanni Pacini which brought Druids to the stage; and Video Games: Druid, a character class in “Achaea, Dreams of Divine Lands” (1997); Druid, a character class in “Albion” (1996); Druid, a character class in “Baldur's Gate” (1998); Druid, a character class in “Baldur's Gate II: Shadows of Amn” (2000); Druid, a character class in “Battle for Wesnoth” (2005); Druid, a character class in “Battle Realms” (2001); Druid, a character class in “Dark Age of Camelot” (2001); Druid, a character class in “Diablo II: Lord of Destruction” (2001);  Druid, a character class in “EverQuest” (1999); Druid, a character class in “Fire Emblem” (1990); Druid, a character class in “Gothic 3” (2006); Druid, a character class in “World of Warcraft” (2004); Druid, a character class in “Heroes of Might and Magic III” (1999); Druid, a character class in “Heroes of Might and Magic V” (2006); Druid, a character class in “Icewind Dale” (2000); Druid, a character class in “Majesty: The Fantasy Kingdom Sim” (2000); Druid, a character class in “Neverwinter Nights” (2002); Druid, a character class in “Neverwinter Nights 2” (2006); Druid, a character class in “Rifts” (1990); Druid, a character class in “Shadowbane” (2003); Druid, a character class in “Tibia” (1997); Druid, a character class in “Vanguard: Saga of Heroes” (2007); Druid, a character class in “Ultima” (1981); Druid, a character class in “Ultima I: The First Age of Darkness” (1981); Druid, a character class in “Ultima II: The Revenge of the Enchantress” (1982); Druid, a character class in “Ultima III: Exodus” (1983); Druid, a character class in “Ultima IV: Quest of the Avatar” (1985); Druid, a character class in “Ultima V: Warriors of Destiny” (1988); Druid, a character class in “Ultima VI: The False Prophet” (1990); Druid, a character class in “Ultima Underworld” (1992); Druid, a character class in “ “Ultima Underworld 2” (1993); and “Druid” (1986), a computer game for the Amstrad CPC, Commodore 64, and ZX Spectrum.

Other Druidic Tributes
Tributes to the Greco-Roman
Druids are found in various aspects of modern society, including but not limited to: Business: Druids Celtic Cider, a cider available in the UK and Ireland; and Druid Theatre Company, a theatre company in Galway, Ireland; Computing: “Druid”, another name for a wizard, a user interface function that leads a user through a series of steps; Druid, a database designer; and Druid, an open-source data store; Myths: Amergin Glúingel (Irish);  Bé Chuille (Irish); Biróg (Irish); Bodhmall (Irish); Cathbad (Irish); Dornoll (Scottish); Gwenc'hlan (French); Mug Ruith (Irish); Relbeo (Irish); Tadg mac Nuadat (Irish); and Tlachtga (Irish); Organizations: Druid, a rank within the Ancient Order of Druids (AOD), a social service organization; Druid, a rank within Bards, a professional poet, employed by a patron in medieval Gaelic and British culture; and Druid, a rank within the Gorsedd, a community or coming together of modern-day bard in Wales; Military:Druides”, a World War II spy ring led by Georges Lamarque that provided V-1 and V-2 Intelligence; and USS Druid (SP-321)”, a United States Navy patrol vessel in commission from 1917 to 1919; and Terms: Druidess, a female Druid in Celtic mythology; Neo-druidism, a variety of modern spiritual or religious practices, appealing to perceived aspects of ancient Druidic practice.


Merlin

Of all the
Druids found in myth and history, none is more popular than Merlin, a legendary figure best known as a wizard in Arthurian legend. Although Merlin routinely shapeshifts (changes into another form such as a plan or animal), he is most often depicted wearing a purple robe, a long beard and a pointed hat. The color “purple” (F/P+R+F/P+L), meaning “fearful” is coincidentally associated with the Phoenicians, an historical label given to the ruling class of the early Greco-Roman Empire who wore also purple robes. The name "Merlin" was allegedly derived from the WelshMyrddin”, the name of the bard Myrddin Wyllt, one of the chief sources for the legendary figure. However, in reality, the name “Merlin” (M+R+L+N) was likely derived from the combination of “Mars” (the Greco-Roman god of war) and “Line”, as in the “Line of Man”, the ruling family of the Greco-Roman Empire. Consequently, the term “murder” (M+R+D+R) was likely derived from both “Mars” and “Dr.”, as in “Druid”. Since the first depiction of Merlin appeared in Geoffrey of Monmouth's “Historia Regum Britanniae” (c. 1136), the entire world, namely popular culture, has been inundated with Merlin the Druid. Aside from the numerous comics, books, films, television shows, and video games which depict the character or likeness of Merlin, Adobe Photoshop has long included an Easter egg featuring Merlin in a miniature dialog box entitled "Merlin Lives!" with a cartoon depiction of the wizard and a single button. There is also Merlin's Oak, a famous oak tree that once stood on the corner of Oak Lane and Priory Street in Carmarthen, Wales. Lastly, “Merlin” is also the name of a main asteroid belt which was evidently named in his honor.  


Merlin in Comics

The character or likeness of Merlin the Greco-Roman Druid is depicted within a number of different comics, including but not limited to: Merlin (DC Comics), Merlyn (DC Comics), Merlin the Magician (Quality Comics), Merlyn (Marvel Comics), Merlin (Marvel Comics), and Maha Yogi (Marvel Comics. Consequently, he has appeared in numerous comics, including but not limited to: Action Comics” (2011-Present), a DC comic; “All Star Comicsv.2 #1 (1999), a DC comic; “All-Star Squadron” #31-32 (1984), a DC comic; Batman: Dark Knight of the Round Table” (1998-1999), a Elseworlds comic; “Batman Incorporated” #4 (2012), a DC comic; “Black Knight Comics” #1: “Strange Tales” #134 (1965), a Marvel comic; “Camelot 3000” (1982-1985), a DC comic;Captain Britain” #1 (1976); a Marvel comic;Cupid” (2009), a DC comic; “Demon Knights #1” (2011); a DC comic; “Forever Evil” (2013-2014), a DC comic; “Identity Crisis” (2004), a DC comic;Journey into Mystery” #96 (1963), a Marvel comic;Justice League of America #94 (1971), a DC comic; Madame Xanadu” vol. 2 #1 (2008), a Vertigo comic; “National Comics” #1-45 (1940–1945), a Quality Comics comic; New Comics #3: “The Tale of Sir Gareth of Orkney” (1936), a DC comic;Superboy 103 (1938), a DC comic; The Books of Magic (1990-2000), a DC comic; The Demon” vol. 1 #1 (1972), a DC comic; The Demon vol. 2 #1 (1987), a DC comic; The Gunslinger Born” (2007), a comic by Stephen King; “The Names of Magic” (Unknown), a Vertigo comic; The New 52: “Green Arrow #0 (Unknown), a DC comic; “The Neutron Knights" (Unknown), a comic by “Doctor Who Magazine”; “The Resurrection of Ra's al Ghul” (2007), a DC comic; "The Tides of Time" (Unknown), a comic by “Doctor Who Magazine”; “The Trials of Shazam!” (2006), a DC comic; “X-Men: Die by the Sword” (2007), a Marvel comic;Young Allies Comics” #11 (1944), a Marvel comic; and “Young Justice” (1998), a DC comic.



Merlin in Film
The character or likeness of Merlin the Greco-Roman Druid is found within a number of different studio films and television films, including but not limited to: 7 Faces of Dr. Lao” (1964);17 rue Bleue” (2001), a French film; A Connecticut Yankee” (1931); A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court” (1921); A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court” (1949); A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court” (1989); A Kid in King Arthur's Court” (1995); A Knight in Camelot” (1998);A Young Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court” (1995); Adventures of Sir Galahad” (1949); Arthur The King” (1985); Arthur's Quest” (1999); Das Wunder von Loch Ness” (2008); “DC Showcase: Green Arrow” (2012); Death Ring” (1993); Des femmes disparaissent” (1959), a French film;Excalibur” (1981); Faites-moi confiance” (1954), a French film; Gierig” (1999), a German film; Good Against Evil” (1977); Green Arrow: Escape from Supermax” (TBA); Guinevere” (1994);Johnny Mysto: Boy Wizard” (1997); Jules et Jim (1962);Kids of the Round Table” (1995);King Arthur” (2004),Knightriders” (1981);Knights of the Round Table” (1953); L'Atterrissage” (1981); Lancelot: Guardian of Time” (1997);Lancelot and Guinevere” (1963);Last Enchantment” (1995);Le Dernier métro” (1980), a French film;Le Sphinx” (1996); Les Acteurs de bonne foi” (1979); Les Chevaliers de la table ronde” (1990), a French film;Let's Stick Together” (1998);Licensed to Love and Kill” (1979);Lucinda's Spell” (1998);Magic” (1978);Merlin” (1998); Merlin” (2012), a French film;Merlin: The Return” (1999); “Merlin and the Book of Beasts” (2010); Merlin and The Dragons” (1991); “Merlin and the War of the Dragons” (2008);Merlin's Shop of Mystical Wonders” (1996);My Wife Is an Actress” (2001); Niets dan de waarheid” (1963); Novye priklyucheniya yanki pri dvore korolya Artura” (1988), a Russian film; Quest for Camelot” (1998); Quidam (1984), a French film; Rakoczy-Marsch” (1933); Regarde les hommes tomber” (1994); Regine” (1935);Sárkány és papucs” (1989);Season” (1989), a Malayalam film;Seaview Knights” (1994);Shrek the Third” (2007);Siege of the Saxons” (1963);Son of Dracula” (1974);Sweet Underground” (2004); T.T. Sindrom” (2002) Serbo-Croatian film; Stargate: The Ark of Truth (2008); Suite en ré” (2000), a French film; The Crystal Cave” (1996); The Excalibur Kid” (1999);The Last Legion” (2007);The Lords of Magick” (1989); “The Sorcerer's Apprentice” (2002);The Sorcerer's Apprentice” (2010); The Spaceman and King Arthur" (1979);The Sword in the Stone” (1963);The War of the Starfighters” (2003); Toi-rand un mohop ha” (1958), a Korean film;Trois Jeunes Tambours” (2003), a French film;Un amour de sorcière” (1997), a French film;Vasantha Sena” (1985), a Malayalam film; and Vice Grils Ltd.” (1964).

Merlin in Literature
The character or likeness of
Merlin the Greco-Roman Druid is found within a number of different books, novels and short stories, including but not limited to: “A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court” (1889), a book by Mark Twain; A Logical Magician” (1994), a book by Robert Weinberg;Artorius Rex” (1977), a novel by John Gloag; Blood of Amber” (1986), a book by Roger Zelazny;Cyr Myrddin, the Coming of Age of Merlin” (1979), a book by Michael de Angelo; Enemy of God” (1996), a book by Bernard Cornwell; Excalibur: A Novel of Arthur” (1998), a book by Bernard Cornwell; Harry Potter” (1997-2007), a series of books by J. K. Rowling; Knight of Shadows” (1989), a book by Roger Zelazny;L'Enchanteur” (1984), a book by René Barjavel; Magic Tree House” (1992-2014), a series of children's books by Mary Pope Osborne;Merlin” (1978), a book by Robert Nye; "Merlin" (1998), a book by Michel Rio; Merlin: Book Two of The Pendragon Cycle (1988), a book by Stephen Lawhead;Merlin Codex”, a series of books by Robert Holdstock (i.e., “The Iron Grail” (2003), “Celtika” (2007) and “The Broken Kings” (2007); “Merlin of Calidon” (2013), a book by Kristine Papin Morris; “Merlin of Carmarthen” (2010), a book by Kristine Papin Morris;Merlín Y Familia (1957), a book by Álvaro Cunqueiro; Merlin's Bones” (1995), a novel by Fred Saberhagen; “Merlin's Mirror” (1975), a book by Andre Norton; “Merlin's Wood” (1994), a novel by Robert Holdstock; Nightside” (2003-2012), a series of books by Simon Green;Pendragon: Book Four of the Pendragon Cycle (1995), a book by Stephen Lawhead; Prince of Chaos” (1991), a book by Roger Zelazny;Prophetiae Merlini” (1130), a book by Geoffrey of Monmouth; Sign of Chaos” (1987), a book by Roger Zelazny;That Hideous Strength” (1946), a novel by C. S. Lewis; The Book of Merlyn” (1977), a book by T. H. White; “The Chronicles of the Imaginarium Geographica (2006-2013), a series of novels by James A. Owen; The Coming of the King (1988), a book by Nikolai Tolstoy;The Crystal Cave” (1970), a novel by Mary Stewart; The Dark Is Rising” (1965-1977), a series by Susan Cooper; “The Dark Tower (1982-2012), a series of novels, by Stephen King; "The Drawing of the Dark" (1997), a novel by Tim Powers; “The Dresden Files” (2000-Present), a series of books by Jim Butcher;The Hollow Hills” (1973), a novel by Mary Stewart; The Indigo King” (2008), a book by James A Owen;The Last Defender of Camelot" (1979), a short story by Roger Zelazny; “The Last Enchantment (1979), a novel by Mary Stewart; “The Lost Years of Merlin”, a book by T. A. Barron; “The Mammoth Book of Merlin” (2009), a book by Mike Ashely; The Merlin Conspiracy” (2003), a book by Diana Wynne Jones; The Mists of Avalon” (1983), a book by Marion Zimmer Bradley; The Once and Future King (1938), a book by T. H. White; The Quest For Merlin” (1985), a book by Nikolai Tolstoy; The Winter King” (1995), a book by Bernard Cornwell; They're Made Out of Meat” (1991); Trumps of Doom” (1985), a book by Roger Zelazny; and Vita Merlini” (1150 AD), a book by Geoffrey of Monmouth; and White Teeth” (2002) by Zadie Smith.

Merlin in Music
The character or likeness of Merlin the Greco-Roman Druid is found within various aspects of music, including but not limited to: “Camelot” (1960-2008), a former Broadway musical featuring Merlin; In Ayreon's first album, “The Final Experiment” (1995), act 4 is entitled “Merlin's Will and Ayreon's Fate”, track 12 is entitled “"Merlin's Will", and track 15 part “B” is entitled “"Merlin's Prophecy"; In Rick Wakeman's album The Myths and Legends of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table (1975), the fourth track is entitled "Merlin, the Magician”; “Merlin” (1886), an opera composed by Karl Goldmark; Merlin” (1902), an opera composed by Spanish composer Isaac Albéniz that did not premier until 2004; “Merlin” (1983), a former Broadway musical; "Merlin; Bard of the Unseen" (2003), an album by Kayak; Merlin is played by Bob Catley of Magnum on the rock operas “Once and Future King Part I” and “Once and Future King Part II” composed by Gary Hughes of Ten; and “The Birth of Merlin” (1622), a play by William Rowley.

Merlin in Television
The character or likeness of
Merlin the Greco-Roman Druid is found within a number of different television series and television shows, including but not limited to: 3-2-1” (1978-1988), in the episodes “The Magic of Merlin and “Egypt”; Alchemy” (1996); Arrow” (2012-Present); Arthur's Quest” (1999); Au théâtre ce soir” (1966-1986), in the episode “La collection Dressen” (1971); Batman: The Brave and the Bold” (2008-2011), in the episode "Day of the Dark Knight"; Bergerac” (1981-1991), in the episode “Always Leave Them Laughing”; Burke's Law” (1963-1966), in the episode “Who Killed Marty Kelso?” (1964); Carry on Laughing” (1975), in the episodes “Short Knight, Long Daze” and “Under the Round Table”; Camelot (2011); Chien et chat” (1992-1995); ChuckleVision” (1987-2009); Doctor Who” (1963-1989), in the episode “Battlefield”; Guinevere Jones” (2002); High Mountain Rangers” (1988); Histeria!” (1998-2000);House of Mouse” (2001-2003); Justice League” (2001-2004), in the episode “A Knight of Shadows: Part 1” (2002); Justice League Unlimited” (2004-2006), in the episode "Dead Reckoning"; Kaamelott” (2005-2010), a French television series; King Arthur and the Knights of Justice” (1992-1993); King Arthur's Disasters” (2005-2006); Knight-Mare Hare” (1955); Knightmare” (1987-1994);Kraft Television Theatre” (1947-1958), in the episode “A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court”; Les Cinq dernières minutes” (1958-1975), in the episode Traitement de choc” (1969);MacGyver” (1985-1992), in the episode “Good Knight MacGyver” (1991); Merlin” (1980), a German television series; Merlin” (2008-2012), a British television series; Merlin of The Crystal Cave” (1991);Merlin's Apprentice” (2006); Morgana” (2007), a Portuguese television series; Mr. Merlin” (1981–1982);MythQuest” (2001), in the episode “Sir Caradoc at the Round Table”; Once Upon a Classic” (1976-1980), in the episode “A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court”;Pé na Jaca” (2006-2007), a Brazilian television series; Potatoes and Dragons (2004-2010); Read All About It!” (1979-1983), in the episode 'Tis Magic;Richard the Lionheart” (1962-1963), in the episode “King Arthur's Sword”; River City Rumble” (2004);Sabrina, the Teenage Witch” (1996-2003), in the episode “Oh What a Tangled Spell She Weaves” (1997); Série noire” (1984-1991), in the episode “L'ennemi public n° 2”;Shadows” (1975-1978), in the episode “The Boy Merlin”; Sir Gadabout: The Worst Knight in the Land” (2002-2003); Sítio do Pica-Pau Amarelo” (2001-2005), a Brazilian television series; Smallville” (2001-2011), in the episode "Disciple"; Startime” (1959-1960), in the episode “Tennessee Ernie Ford Meets King Arthur” (1960); Stargate Atlantis” (2004-2009); Stargate SG-1” (1997-2007); Startime” (1959-1960), in the episode “Tennessee Ernie Ford Meets King Arthur” (1960); Studio One” (1948-1958), in the episode "A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court" (1952); Tarzan and the Super 7” (1978-1980);TekWar: TekLab (1994-1996); The Adventures of Sir Lancelot” (1956-1957);The Adventures of Superboy” (1966-1969), in the episode “The Black Knight” (1966);The Avengers” (1961-1969), in the episodes “The Morning After” (1969) and “Look - (Stop Me If You've Heard This One) But There Were These Two Fellers...” (1968); The Batman/Tarzan Adventure Hour” (1977-1978);The Boy Merlin” (1979); The Brak Show” (2000-2007), in the episode “Time Machine” (2001); The Exotic Time Machine II: Forbidden Encounters” (2000); The David Niven Show” (1959), in the episode “A Day of Small Miracles”;The Ghost Busters” (1975), in the episode “Merlin, the Magician”; The Jersey” (1994-2004), in the episode “Origins: Part 1” (2003); The Legend of King Arthur” (1979);The Legend of Prince Valiant” (1991-1994); The Man from U.N.C.L.E.” (1964-1968), in the episode “The Foxes and Hounds Affair” (1965);The Mists of Avalon” (2001); The New Adventures of Robin Hood” (1997-1998), in the episode “The Legend of Olwyn” and “Return to Camelot”; The Outer Limits” (1995-2002), in the episode “The Tipping Point” (2002); The Real Adventures of Jonny Quest” (1996-1999), in the episode “The Alchemist” (1996); The Time Tunnel” (1966-1967), in the episode “Merlin the Magician” (1967); The Twilight Zone” (1985-1989), in the episode “A Day in Beaumont/The Last Defender of Camelot”;The Zack Files” (2000-2002), in the episode “Once and Future Zack”; They're Made Out of Meat” (2005); They're Made Out of Meat” (2010); Timmy Towers” (1997-2002), in the episode “No Time Like the Present; White Teeth” (2002); and Young Arthur” (2002).

Merlin in Video Games
The character or likeness of Merlin the Greco-Roman Druid is found within a number of different video games and online role playing games, including but not limited to: "Age of Wonders II" (2002); "Age of Wonders: Shadow Magic" (2003); Gauntlet” (1985); "Kingdom Hearts" (2002); Kingdom Hearts II” (2005); Kingdom Hearts Birth by Sleep” (2010);Magic and Mayhem” (1998); "Master of Magic" (1994); RuneScape” (2001); "Sonic and the Black Knight" (2009); Wizard101” (2008); "Young Merlin" (1994); and "Zoda's Revenge: StarTropics II" (1994).