VI. Gods of Rome‎ > ‎

6.03 Freyja (Frigg)

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Freyja
(Freya, Frejya, Freyia, Frøya, Frøjya, Freia, Freja, etc.) is a warrior goddess and priestess who is one of the most popular, beloved, honored, and renowned among the goddesses in Norse mythology. In Old Norse, she is known as the "Lady" who has a total of 10 names (i.e., Gefn, Freyja, Hörn, Mardöll, Skjálf, Sýr, Thröng, Thrungva, Valfreyja, and Vanadís). Coincidentally, the flag of Greenland is adorned with the “Ф” symbol which equates to the number “10” in the Roman Score (i.e., the Roman alphabet). Freyja is often portrayed as a goddess of battle, beauty, death, fertility, gold, love, magic, prophecies, seiðr (i.e., sorcery), sexuality, war, and wealth. Freyja is the owner of the Brísingamen, a golden necklace which may symbolize the 24/7 daylight of Greenland. She also rides in a chariot pulled by big blue cats (symbolizing the “lion” or the “Line of Man”), or on the golden battle boar Hildisvíni (likely symbolic of the “Beast of Greenland”). Freyja also possesses a cloak of falcon feathers which allows her to fly between different worlds, an apparent reference to the Roman Eagle which is currently found in the coat or arms and on the flags of many nations (e.g., Egypt, Germany, Iran, Mexico, United States, etc.). Because Denmark is the legal owner of Greenland, Freyja is mentioned in the civil national anthem of Denmark entitled “Der er et yndigt land which states, “it is called old Denmark and it is Freja's hall”. 

Friday
The name of Friday, the fifth day of the Roman week, was derived from the Norse goddess Freyja. The consonant letters of "F" and "R" found in the name of Friday (F+R) are evident today in the official name for Friday in at least 13 languages originating out of  Europe (i.e., Proto Germanic (Frijjōz dagaz); Old English (Frīgedæg); Old Saxon (Frîjadag); Old High German (Frîjatag); German (Freitag); Scots (Friday); West Frisian (Freed); Old Norse (frjádagr); Faroese (fríggjadagur); Norwegian/Bokmål (fredag); Norwegian/Nynorsk (fredag); Danish (fredag); and Swedish (fredag). In Roman English, the letter “F” is interchangeable with the letter “P” and vice versa, although the pronunciation tends to stay the same. Therefore, the consonant letters of "F/P" and "R" found in the name of Friday (F/P+R) are evident today in the official name for Friday in at least 2 languages originating out of Europe and Oceana (i.e., Finnish (perjantai) and Maori (prairie).

Freyja = Four
Freyja appears to be the goddess of “four” (i.e., the number “4”), possibly the most sacred of number of the Greco-Roman Empire. Like the term “four” (F+R), Freyja, which is pronounced “Frey” (F+R), is essentially verbalized via the consonants of “F” and “R” while the letters “Y” and “J” are relegated to silent fillers. Consequently, Freyja is called "The Fair One" as in “The Four One”. Freyja also has a precious necklace called Brísingamen which is known as the “Jewelry of Fire” (i.e., the “Jewelry of Four”). The
Number "4" (pronounced “fear” in the language of German) is represented in the Roman Score (i.e., the Roman alphabet) by the "+" symbol as well as the letter "D" in the modern English alphabet. The number “4” is indicative of the four classical Greek elements (fire, air, water, and earth). The number “+” (i.e., the letter “D”) is evidently an acronym for both “Die” and “Day” which is indicative of the 24/7 daylight of Greenland. Symbolically speaking, the number “4” tends to double as the Greco-Roman cross which is the featured symbol of the Roman Empire. Although the Roman cross is depicted on numerous flags around the world, a geometrically square "+" symbol is only found on the flag of Switzerland, the main proxy state of Roman Empire. This is why Freyr, the twin brother of the goddess Freyja, is known as the Lord of the elves for in Roman mythology, Switzerland is considered Santa’s workshop and Jewish people his elves.

Freyja Worldwide
Tributes to the Norse goddess Freyja are found within numerous countries around the world, including but not limited to: Antarctica: Fry Glacier, a glacier in Victoria Land; and Fry Peak, a peak in Palmer Land; Belgium: Castle of Freÿr, a castle in Belgium; Brazil: Fraiburgo, a southern Brazilian town that is related to Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany; Frei Gaspar, a municipality located in the northeast of the state of Minas Gerais; Frei Inocêncio, a town and municipality in the state of Minas Gerais; Frei Lagonegro, a town and municipality in the state of Minas Gerais; Frei Martinho, a town and municipality in the state of Paraíba; Frei Miguelinho, a city in Pernambuco; Frei Rogério, a city in Santa Catarina; and Nova Friburgo, a municipality in the state of Rio de Janeiro; Canada: Fry's, Saskatchewan, a former locality in Canada; Czech Republic: Freiberg in Bohemia, a German exonym for Příbram; and Freiberg in Moravia, a German exonym for Příbor, Czech Republic; England: Frays River, a river in London; France: Fry, Seine-Maritime, a French commune; Fribourg, France, a town in the Moselle département; and Friburge, a small hamlet in Champagny-en-Vanoise in the French Alps; Germany: Frei-Laubersheim, a municipality in the district of Bad Kreuznach in Rhineland-Palatinate: Freiberg, Saxony; Freiberg am Neckar, Ludwigsburg, Baden-Württemberg; Freiberg District, Saxony; Freiberg Subcamp, a former concentration camp located in Freiberg, Saxony; Freiburg District, a former district in Baden-Württemberg which was merged into the district Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald in 1973;  Freiburg im Breisgau, a city in Baden-Württemberg; Freiburg, an administrative district in Baden-Württemberg; Freiburg, Lower Saxony, a municipality in the district of Stade in Lower Saxony; Freiburger Münster (Freiburg Minster), a cathedral in Freiburg im Breisgau; and Freyburg, Saxony-Anhalt; Norway: Frei, a former municipality in Møre og Romsdal county; Frei, an island in Kristiansund Municipality; Frei, or Nedre Frei, a village in Kristiansund Municipality; Frei Church, a church in Kristiansund Municipality; Frøya, Sogn og Fjordane, an island and a former municipality of Sogn og Fjordane county; and Frøya, Sør-Trøndelag, an island and a present municipality of Sør-Trøndelag county; Poland: Świebodzice, a Polish city, whose German name is “Freiburg in Schlesien”; Switzerland: Canton of Fribourg, a canton (state) in Switzerland; and Fribourg, a Swiss city whose German name is “Freiburg im Üechtland”; United States: Friberg Township, Minnesota; Fry, West Virginia; Fry Mountains, a mountain range in California; Frye Island, Maine; Fryeburg, Maine; Freyburg, Ohio; Freyburg, Texas; Fryburg, North Dakota; and Fryburg, Ohio; and Yugoslavia: Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, abbreviated as FRY.


Freyja Tributes

Tributes to the Norse goddess Freyja are found within various public and private entities around the world, including but not limited to: Business:
Freia, a Norwegian chocolate brand; Frey, a Swiss manufacturer of chocolate since 1887; Fry, a Formula Two racing team constructor from the United Kingdom; Fry Art Gallery, an art gallery located in Saffron Walden, Essex, England; Fry's Electronics, an American electronics retailer; Fry's Food and Drug, a chain of American supermarkets; J. S. Fry & Sons, a Britush chocolate manufacturer; and The Frye Company, an American boot maker; Computing: Elementary OS Freya, third stable version of the Elementary operating system; Freyja 3d, open source 3d modelling software; Fry readability formula, a readability metric for English texts, developed by Edward Fry; Frye Computer Systems, a software company; and West Frisian language, FRY in several ISO 639 language codes; Education: Freyberg High School, a secondary school in the Palmerston North, New Zealand suburb of Roslyn; University of Freiburg, a public research university located in Freiburg im Breisgau, Baden-Württemberg, Germany; and University of Fribourg, a university in the city of Fribourg, Switzerland; Food: French fries; Frying, the act of cooking food in oil or fat; Freiburger, a synonym for the German wine grape Freisamer; Freiburger Pilsner, a beer produced by Ganter Brewery in Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany; Pan frying, frying food in a flat pan; and Stir frying, frying food in a wok and stirring it while it cooks; Military: Freya radar, a German World War II era radar; and Frej (icebreaker), an icebreaker ship; Names: Affray, a public order offence; “Fray (surname)”, a surname; and “Fry”, a surname; Religion: Friars, members of certain religious orders, may be called "frays" (Spanish shortening of the word "fraile" and a titular prefix) in former Spanish colonial territories such as a the Philippines or the American Southwest; Science: 76 Freia, a main belt asteroid; “Cheritra freja, a butterfly found in India; Frei test, a test developed in 1925 by Wilhelm Siegmund Frei, a German dermatologist, to identify lymphogranuloma inguinale; Freja, a Swedish satellite; Freya, a genus of jumping spiders; Frey's procedure, a treatment for chronic pancreatitis; Frey's syndrome, a food-related condition; Fry, a stage in the spawn cycle of aquatic animals; Frye standard”, a test to determine the admissibility of scientific evidence in United States courts; and Vocal fry, a vocal register; and Sport: Freiburger FC, a football team in Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany; Randers Sportsklub Freja, a Danish sports club; and SC Freiburg, a German football club in the Bundesliga.


Freyja in Pop Culture

Tributes to the Norse goddess Freyja are found within various aspects of popular culture, including but not limited to:
Art & Literature: “Fray”, a phenomenon in Terry Pratchett's book entitled “The Carpet People” (1971); Fray” (2001-2003), a comic book series by Joss Whedon; “Freja sökande sin make” (1852), a painting by by Nils Blommér; “Frey”, a Marvel Comics Universe character who first appeared in “Thor #294-295” (1980); “Freya”, a Marvel Comics Universe character who first appeared in “Marvel Super-Heroes III” (1993);  Freyja” (1821-1922), a statue by H. E. Freund; “Freyja” (1901), a work of art by Carl Emil Doepler d. J.; “Freyja and the Brisingamen” (1862–1932) a painting by J. Doyle Penrose; “Freyjas Aufnahme uner den Göttern” (1881), a charcoal drawing by Karl Ehrenberg; “Melaka Fray” (2003), a titular character of the comic book series entitled Fray”; and “Frigg; Freyja” (1883), a drawing by Karl Ehrenberg; Music: Der er et yndigt land (1819), the civil national anthem of Denmark by Adam Gottlob Oehlenschläger which features the words "it is called old Denmark and it is Freja's hall"; Der Ring des Nibelungen (1813–1883), an opera by Richard Wagner featuring “Freia”; "Fray" (2003) a song from the album Staind album entitled “14 Shades of Grey; “Freais sal” (1818), a poem by Adam Gottlob Oehlenschläger; “Frei” (2011), the fifth studio album by German recording artist LaFee;Frei zu leben, a German entry in the Eurovision Song Contest 1990; Freiburger Barockorchester, an orchestra in Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany; “Freya” (2006), a song by doom metal band “The Sword” from their album “Age of Winters; Freya, a metal/hardcore band from Syracuse, New York; “Freyjas” (1818), a comedy by Adam Gottlob Oehlenschläger; Race the Fray, an Australian rock band, sometimes given as The Fray; The Fray, an American rock band; and The Fray” (2009), a self-titled album by The Fray; Television Series: “FreiTek, Inc.”, a fictional company in Star Wars (1977); “Freyr”, a fictional character in Stargate SG-1 (1997-2007) based on the goddess Freyja; “Fry”, a character in the television series Futurama (1999-2013); and “MS Freja”, the name of the ship used in Rederiet (1992-2002), a Swedish soap opera series; Video Games: “Fray”, the main character in “Fray in Magical Adventure” (1990-1994); “Fray”, the main character in “Fray CD (1994), a graphically enhanced remake of Fray in Magical Adventure; and Freya Crescent”, a character in the video game “Final Fantasy IX” (2010).

Frigg

Frigg (sometimes anglicized as Frigga) is a major goddess in Norse paganism whose name means "love" or "beloved one”. She is said to be the wife of Odin and the queen of Asgard (i.e., Greenland). She is described as having the power of prophecy yet she does not reveal what she knows. Frigg is described as the only one other than Odin who is permitted to sit on his high seat Hlidskjalf and look out over the universe, an apparent reference to Mt. Olympus or Mt. Zion in Greenland. Similar to Freyja, the name of Friday was alleged to have been derived from the name of Frigg or Frige. In Old English, “Frīġedæġ” literally means the "day of Frigg". Frigg and Freyja are the two main goddesses in Norse mythology and appear to be one and the same goddess. Frigg in German is actually spelled “Freija”, adding to the argument that Frigg and Freyja are one in the same entity.  The only real differences between them are that Frigg was married to Odin and while Freyja was married to Ód, and that Frigg was the highest goddess of the Æsir and while Freyja was the highest goddess of the Vanir. Similarities between the two include but are not limited to: both have flying cloaks of falcon feathers, both engaged in shape-shifting, both have special necklaces, both have a personification of the Earth as a parent, both were called upon for assistance in childbirth, both of their husbands were often away on journeys, both allegedly traded sex for jewelry, and both were worshipped by the Vikings. Lastly, Frigg is said to be the "foremost among the goddesses”, another apparent reference to the number “four” which Freyja is evidently the god of.


Frigg Worldwide
In Västergötland, Sweden, there is a place called Friggeråker. An English charter from 936 AD displays the name Frigedune, which means "Valley of Frig," thus implying that Friden in Derbyshire is named after Frigg. The villages of Froyle ("Frigg's Hill") and Freefolk ("Frigg's People") in Hampshire, England may also be named after Frigg. Other tributes to Norse goddess Frigg include but are not limited to: “Frig”, a slang term for sexual intercourse and masturbation; Frig, an expression possibly based on a profanity that has been altered to reduce the objectionable characteristics; Frige, an Anglo-Saxon goddess; Frigg, a folk music band; Frigg gas field, a natural gas field off the coast of Norway; Frigg Næstved, a Danish sports club;  Frigg Oslo FK, a Norwegian sports club; and Frigg UK System, a natural gas pipeline.


Frigg in Pop Culture
Tributes to the Norse goddess Frigg are found within various aspects of popular culture, including but not limited to: Art:Frigg; Freyja” (1883), a drawing by Karl Ehrenberg; Comics: Frigga is a fictional character which has appeared in the Marvel Comics universe on multiple occasions, including but not limited to: “Journey into Mystery #92” (1963); “Thor Annual #10” (1982); “Thor #344” (1984), “Marvel Graphic Novel #15: The Raven Banner” (1985); “Journey Into Mystery #504-505” (1996-1997); “Journey Into Mystery #512-513 (1997); “Thor #26” (2000); “Loki #3 (2004); “Thor: Son of Asgard #7&9” (2004); and “Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Deluxe Edition #1” (1982); Frigga also appears in the motion comic entitled “Thor & Loki: Blood Brothers” (2011); Film: Frigga is played by Rene Russo in the film Thor (2011); Frigga is also played by Rene Russo in the film Thor: The Dark World (2013); and Television Series: Frigga appears in “The Super Hero Squad Show” (2009-2011).