3.02 Columns

According to
modern historical accounts, the Greeks were the first to develop the classical orders of architecture (i.e., the Doric Order, the Ionic Order, and the Corinthian Order) which are most easily distinguished by their columns. The first of these orders was likely derived from the Columnas Plus Ultra which were located on both sides of the Strait of Gibraltar, otherwise known as the Pillars of Hercules. Although the Romans are credited with developing the Tuscan Order and the Composite Order, the aforementioned Greek orders were widely used by the Romans and are consistently found in all facets of neo-classical and modern architecture. Despite the fact that the Roman Empire fell 1,683 years ago (despite never being defeated militarily), Greco-Roman columns are found today in almost every country, state and city on Earth. In order to hide their true origins and affiliation, modern buildings featuring Greco-Roman columns have been given local names and histories to mask the fact that these are distinctly Roman buildings and that humanity is in fact living in New Roman Times.

Modern Greco-Roman Columns
While it could be argued that countless modern architects from all over the world are simply paying tribute to Greco-Roman architecture of the past, these columns are always accompanied by other key Greco-Roman architectural signatures (i.e., arches, domes, obelisks, etc.), all of which have been replicated in the same exact manner as the original 80 Greco-Roman temples (fully or partially standing) found today in such places as Athens, Greece (e.g.,
Acropolis, Parthenon, and the Hellenic Parliament), Rome, Italy (e.g., Altare della Patria and the Pantheon), and the island of Sicily (e.g., Segesta and the Valle dei Templi). As it was in the times of not so ancient Greece and Rome, Greco-Roman columns are found today in the architecture of the highest governmental, legal, monetary and political offices of the world, including but not limited to: Buckingham Palace (London, England); National Capitol (Bogotá, Colombia); Federal Palace of Switzerland (Bern, Switzerland); Government Conference Centre (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada); Great Hall of the People (Beijing, China); Iranian Parliament Building (Tehran, Iran); National Capitol Building (Havana, Cuba); Old Supreme Court Building (Singapore); Reichstag Building (Berlin, Germany); Royal Palace, Oslo, Norway); The White House (Washington, D.C.); the United States Capitol Building (Washington, D.C.); 42 of 50 U.S. State Capital Buildings (see list below); the United States Supreme Court Building (Washington, D.C.); and Wall Street (New York, New York). The reality is that any building of great importance, regardless of location, features Greco-Roman columns. To date, over 196 high-profile buildings have been identified as having Greco-Roman columns (e.g., banks, basilicas, capitol buildings, cathedrals, colleges, hotels, libraries, mosques, museums, palaces, stock exchanges, temples, theaters, train stations, universities, etc.). Upon further research, the total number modern Greco-Roman columned structures is sure to rise exponentially.

Defining "Column"

When the silent "N" from the word “column” is removed, the letters "column" (C/K+L+M) translate to "Kill M", "Kill 13" or "13 Kill". The letter "M" is the 13th letter in the English alphabet and equates to the
number 13 which is representative of the 13 bloodlines of Rome who have since abandoned Rome and moved to Greenland. The term "column" or "kill em" can be translated quite literally as the original Greco-Roman temples served as the prime location where human sacrifices took place and where devious war plans were hatched. This is why the current capitol of the United States is entitled the District of “Colum”-bia, otherwise known as Washington, D.C., for it has been responsible, at least publically speaking, for the murder of millions over the last few centuries. This is also why there has been a number of high-profile false-flag tragedies associated with the term "column" (i.e., the Columbia Space Shuttle Disaster and the Columbine High School massacre). The term "column" is most commonly represented today by the term "Columbia" which is found in the names of hundreds of high profile entities, institutions and titles. Examples include but are not limited to: the Canadian province of British Columbia; the Columbia River; the city of Columbia, South Carolina; the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS); Columbia Records; Columbia University; the figure known as Christopher Columbus; the country of Colombia; the city of Columbus, Ohio; the city of Colombo, Sri Lanka; the television show "Columbo"; as well as the secret societies of Rome known as the Knights of Columbus and the Columbian Squires.

Greek Greco-Roman Temples
A total of 18 original Greco-Roman columned temples have been identified in Greece thus far: Temple of Aphaea (Aegina); Temple of Apollo (Corinth); Temple of Apollo (Delphi); Temple of Apollo Epicurius (Bassae); Temple of Asclepius (Epidauros); Temple of Athena Nike (Athens); Temple of Hera (Olympia);  Temple of Hephaestus (Athens);  Temple of Hera (Samos); Temple of Isis (Delos); Temple of Nemesis (Rhamnous); Temple of Olympian Zeus (Athens);  Temple of Poseidon (Sounion); Temple of Zeus (Cyrene); Temple of Zeus (Nemea); Temple of Zeus (Olympia); The Erechtheion (Athens); and The Parthenon (Athens).

European Greco-Roman Temples (Neoclassical)
A total of 8 original Greco-Roman columned temples have been identified in Europe thus far: Croatia: Temple of Augustus (Pula); France: Roman Temple of Maison Carrée (Nîmes);  Portugal: Templo de Diana (Évora):  Spain: Roman Temple of Alcántara (Alcántara); Roman Temple of Córdoba (Córdoba); Roman Temple of Vic (Osona); Temple of Augustus (Barcelona); and Temple of Diana (Mérida);

Italian Greco-Roman Temples
A total of 26 original Greco-Roman columned temples have been identified in Italy thus far: Pantheon (Rome);Santi Cosma e Damiano (Rome); Temple of Antoninus and Faustina (Rome); Temple of Apollo (Pompeii); Temple of Apollo Palatinus (Rome); Temple of Apollo Sosianus (Rome); Temple of Athena (Paestum); Temple of Bellona (Ostia); Temple of Bellona (Rome); Temple of Mars Ultor (Rome); Temple of Caesar (Rome); Temple of Ceres (Paestum); Temple of Castor and Pollux (Rome); Temple of Hadrian (Rome); Temple of Hera (Paestum); Temple of Hercules Victor (Rome); Temple of Isis (Pompeii); Temple of Janus (Rome); Temple of Portunus (Rome); Temple of Poseidon (Paestum); Temple of Saturn (Rome); Temple of Venus and Roma (Rome); Temple of Venus Genetrix (Rome); Temple of Vespasian and Titus (Rome); Temple of Vesta (Rome); and Temple of Vesta (Tivoli).


Middle Eastern Greco-Roman Temples (Neoclassical) 
A total of 14 original Greco-Roman columned temples have been identified in the Middle East thus far: Egypt:
Temple of Isis at Philae (Agilkia Island); Jordan: Temple of Artemis (Jerash); Temple of Hercules (Amman); Al Khazeh (Petra); Lebanon: Iaat (Beqaa Valley); Temple of Bacchus (Baalbek); Temple of Jupiter (Baalbek); Syria: Temple of Bel (Palmyra Syria;  Temple of Jupiter/Umayyad Mosque) (Damascus); Turkey:  Temple of Apollo (Didyma); Temple of Artemis (Ephesus); Temple of Artemis–Cybele (Sardis);  Temple of Athena Polias (Priene); and Temple of Dionysus (Teos).

Sicilian Greco-Roman Temples
A total of 15 original Greco-Roman
columned temples have been identified in Sicily thus far: Temple at Segesta (Segesta); Temple C (Selinunte); Temple E (Selinunte); Temple F (Selinunte, Sicily); Temple G (Selinunte); Temple of Apollo (Syracuse); Temple of Athena (Syracuse); Temple of Castor and Pollux (Agrigento); Temple of Concordia (Agrigento);  Temple of Hera (Agrigento); Temple of Hera (Selinunte); Temple of Heracles (Agrigento); Temple of Juno Lancinia (Agrigento); Temple of the Olympian Zeus (Agrigento); and The Great Temple of Apollo (Selinunte).

Other Greco-Roman Columns (Neoclassical) 
A total of 14 original Greco-Roman
columned structures and monuments have been identified in greater Europe and the Middle East thus far: England: Roman Baths (Bath); France: July Column (Paris); Iran: Persepoli (Fars); Jordan: Corinthium Column (Jerash); Form (Jerash); Greece: Choragic Monument of Lysicrates (Athens); Library of Hadrian (Athens); The Tholos of Athena (Delphi); The Philippeion (Olympia); Tholos of Polycleitus (Epidauros);  Treasury of Athens (Delphi); Italy: Roman Forum (Rome); Turkey: Library of Celsus (Ephesus); and Ukraine: Great Lavra Bell Tower (Kiev).

Canadian Columns (Modern)
A total of 9 modern Greco-Roman columned structures have been identified in  Canada thus far: Bank of Montreal (Montreal, Quebec); Bank of Toronto (Toronto, Ontario); Canada Life Building (Toronto, Ontario); Centaur Theatre (Montreal, Quebec); Dominion Public Building (Toronto, Ontario); Government Conference Centre (Ottawa, Ontario); Manitoba Legislative Building (Winnipeg, Manitoba);  Union Station (Toronto, Ontario); and Sun Life Building (Montreal, Quebec).

Eastern European Columns (Modern) 
A total of 10 modern Greco-Roman columned structures have been identified in Eastern Europe thus far: Bulgaria: Party House (Sofia); Lithuania: Vilnius Cathedral (Vilnius); Poland: Marynka's Palace (Puławy); Palace of Culture and Science (Warsaw); The Assumption Church (Puławy); Russia: Central Academic Theatre of the Russian Army (Moscow); Demidov Column (Barnaul, Siberia); Kazan Cathedral (St. Petersburg); Sanatorium (Saratov); and Vlakhernskoye-Kuzminki (Moscow).

European Columns (Modern)
A total of 43 modern Greco-Roman columned structures have been identified in England, Finland, France, Italy, Scotland, Spain, and Switzerland thus far: England: Ashmolean Museum (Oxford); Buckingham Palace (London); Divinity School (Oxford University); East India Company House (London); Nelson's Column (London); Northington Grange (Hampshire); Radcliffe Camera (Oxford University); Royal Institution (London); University College London (London); Finland: Russian Embassy (Helsinki); France: Column of the Grande Armée (Boulogne-sur-Mer); July Column (Paris); Maison Carrée (Nîmes); Perrault's Colonnade (Paris); Palais Garnier (Paris); Petit Palais (Paris); Pont Alexandre III (Paris); St-Gervais-et-St-Protais (Paris); The Grand Palais (Paris); Germany: Glyptothek (Munich); Reichstag Building (Berlin); Walhalla Memorial (Bavaria);  Italy: Column of Antoninus Pius (Rome); Column of Marcus Aurelius (Rome); Column of Phocas (Rome); Teatro Massimo (Palermo, Sicily); Santa Maria Nova (Vicenza); St. Peter's Square (Vatican City); Trajan's Column (Rome); Villa Capra "La Rotonda" (Vicenza); Norway: Royal Palace, (Oslo); Scotland: Aberdeen Arts Centre (Aberdeen); Edinburgh Bank of Scotland (Edinburgh); Museum and Art Gallery (Perth); Nairn Colum (Nairn); National Gallery of Scotland (Edinburgh); St. Giles Church (Elgin); Town House (Aberdeen); The Cowdray Hall (Aberdeen); The Music Hall (Aberdeen); University of Edinburgh (Edinburgh); and Wellington Square Gardens (Ayr); Spain: Museo del Prado (Madrid); and Switzerland: Federal Palace of Switzerland (Bern); Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland (Bern); Zürich Opera House (Zürich).

Stock Exchange Columns
A total of 22 modern Greco-Roman columned stock exchanges (current and former) have been identified around the world: Argentina: Buenos Aires Stock Exchange (Buenos Aires); Rosario Board of Trade (Santa Fe); Austria: Wiener Börse (Vienna); Belgium: Brussels Stock Exchange (Brussels); Chile: Santiago Stock Exchange (Santiago); Germany: Börse München (Munich); Frankfurt Stock Exchange (Frankfurt); Greece: Athens Exchange (Athens); Hungary: Budapest Stock Exchange (Budapest); Italy: Borsa Italiana (Milan); Latvia: Riga Stock Exchange (Riga); Mongolia: Mongolian Stock Exchange (Ulan Bator); Netherlands: Brussels Euronext Exchange (Amsterdam); Norway: Oslo Stock Exchange (Oslo); Peru: Lima Stock Exchange (Lima); Poland: Exchange Building (Warsaw); Spain: Bolsa de Madrid (Madrid); Sweden: Stockholm Stock Exchange Building (Stockholm); United States: Merchants' Exchange Building (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania); New York Stock Exchange (New York, New York); Philadelphia Stock Exchange (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania); and Vietnam: Ho Chi Minh City Stock Exchange (Ho Chi Minh City).

U.S. State Capitol Columns
Greco-Roman columns are featured  prominently in the architecture of
the United States Capitol (Washington, D.C.) as well as 42 of 50 U.S. state capital buildings: Alabama State Capitol (Montgomery); Alaska State Capitol (Juneau); Arizona State Capitol (Phoenix); Arkansas State Capitol (Little Rock); California State Capitol (Sacramento); Colorado State Capitol (Denver); Connecticut State Capitol (Hartford); Florida State Capitol (Tallahassee); Georgia State Capitol (Atlanta); Idaho State Capitol (Boise); Illinois State Capitol (Springfield); Indiana Statehouse (Indianapolis); Iowa State Capitol (Des Moines); Kansas State Capitol (Topeka); Kentucky State Capitol (Frankfort); Maine State House (Augusta); Maryland State House (Annapolis); Massachusetts State House (Boston); Michigan State Capitol (Lansing); Minnesota State Capitol (Saint Paul); Mississippi State Capitol (Jackson); Missouri State Capitol (Jefferson City); Montana State Capitol (Helena); New Hampshire State House (Concord); New Jersey State House (Trenton); New York State Capitol (Albany); North Carolina State Capitol (Raleigh); Ohio Statehouse (Columbus); Oklahoma State Capitol (Oklahoma City); Pennsylvania State Capitol (Harrisburg); Rhode Island State House (Providence); South Carolina State House (Columbia); South Dakota State Capitol (Pierre); Tennessee State Capitol (Nashville); Texas State Capitol (Austin); Utah State Capitol (Salt Lake City); Vermont State House (Montpelier); Virginia State Capitol (Richmond); Washington State Capitol (Olympia); West Virginia State Capitol (Charleston); Wisconsin State Capitol (Madison); and Wyoming State Capitol (Cheyenne). Although the U.S. state capitol buildings of Delaware, Hawaii, Louisiana, Nebraska, New Mexico, Nevada, North Dakota and Oregon do not feature Greco-Roman columns, they do exhibit other unmistakably Greco-Roman architecture such as arches and domes.

U.S. Columns (Modern)
Aside from the aforementioned U.S. Capitol Buildings, a total of 31 modern Greco-Roman columned structures have been identified in United States:
925 Grand (Kansan City, Missouri); Baltimore Basilica (Baltimore, Maryland); Bank of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania); Beacon Hill Monument (Boston, Massachusetts); Bentley Hall (Meadville, Pennsylvania); Congregation Kahal Kadosh Beth Elohim (Charleston, South Carolina); First Bank of the United States (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania); General Post Office (New York, New York); Grand Central Terminal (New York, New York); Jefferson Memorial (Washington, D.C.);  National Postal Museum (Washington, D.C); Monumental Church (Richmond, Virginia); Nicholas Serracino (New York, New York); Old Federal Reserve Bank Building (San Francisco, California); Parthenon (Nashville, Tennessee); Peace Officers Memorial (St. Paul, Minnesota); Philadelphia Meseum of Art (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania); Philadelphia Stock Exchange (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania); Quincy Market (Boston, Massachusetts); Russell Senate Office Building (Washington, D.C.); San Francisco City Hall (San Francisco, California); Second Bank of the United States (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania); Soldier Field (Chicago, Illinois); Temple Beth-El (Providence, Rhode Island); Temple Emanu-El (Birmingham, Alabama); Temple Israel (Minneapolis, Minnesota); The White House (Washington, D.C.); Union Station (Washington, D.C.) United States National Arboretum (Washington, D.C.); United States Supreme Court Building (Washington, D.C.); and War Memorial Opera House (San Francisco, California).

University Columns (Modern)

Further research must be conducted in order to accurately gage the sheer volume of Greco-Roman architecture (e.g., arches, domes, columns, obelisks, etc.) on collegiate campuses worldwide. A small sample suggests that the number is likely in the tens of thousands. For example, at St. Francis Xavier University in Antigonish, Nova Scotia, Canada, the Coady International Institute, the Millennium Centre, and the Schwartz School of Business all feature Greco-Roman columns. Of the 2,774 four-year collegiate institutions in the United States, a majority of them feature Greco-Roman columned architecture, including the most prestigious (e.g., the Great Dome at MIT (Cambridge, Massachusetts); Columbia's Low Memorial Library (New York, New York); Harvard Memorial Church (Cambridge, Massachusetts); Harvard’s Widener Library (Cambridge, Massachusetts); Texas A&M Academic Building (College Station, Texas); and Yale’s Woolsey Hall (New Haven, Connecticut). Greco-Roman columns and a Roman dome are featured in the logo of the University of Virginia and whose campus in Charlottesville, Virginia is home to at least 6 buildings featuring Greco-Roman columns (i.e., Alderman Library, Alumni Hall, Madison Hall, Monticello, Randall Hall, and the Rotunda).

Other Columns (Modern) 
A total of 22 modern Greco-Roman columned structures have been identified in Australia, Brazil, China, Columbia, Cuba, Guatemala, Iran, the Philippines, Turkey and Singapore thus far: Australia: Emily McPherson College of Domestic Economy (Melbourne, Victoria); General Post Office (Perth, Western Australia); State Savings Bank Building (Martin Place, Sydney); Brazil: Faculdade de Direito da Universidade (São Paulo); Monumento a Ramos de Azevedo (São Paulo); University of São Paulo (São Paulo); China: Great Hall of the People (Bejing); Shanghai Exhibition Centre (Shanghai); Colombia: Capitolio Nacional (Bogotá); Cuba: National Capitol Building (Havana); Guatemala: Estrada's Temple of Minerva (Guatemala City); Iran: Iranian Parliament Building (Tehran); Philippines: Don Enrique T. Yuchengco Hall (Manila); Enrique M. Razon Sports Center (Malate); St. La Salle Hall (Manila); Turkey: Column of Arcadius (Istanbul); Column of Constantine (Istanbul); Column of Justinian (Istanbul); Column of Marcian (Istanbul); Column of the Goths (Istanbul) Temple of Artemis (Istanbul); and Singapore: Old Supreme Court Building (Singapore).