3.01 Arches

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Greco-Roman triumphal arches, gates and gateways are concrete monuments which are generally constructed in the shape of an archway. Although they vary in size and shape, a majority of triumphal monuments consist of two massive piers which are ultimately connected at the top by an arch. According to modern historical accounts, the two key elements of the triumphal arches (i.e., the round-topped arch and the square entablature) were common architectural elements in Ancient Greece. During the times of the Roman Republic, the Greek arch was applied to a wide variety of structures, including triumphal monuments which were erected to commemorate Roman victories on the battlefield. As evidenced, triumphal arch have become one of the most influential and distinctive types of architecture associated with Ancient Rome.

Modern Greco-Roman Arches 
Although the Roman Empire allegedly fell 1,683 years ago (despite never being defeated militarily), a total of 144 Greco-Roman triumphal monuments have been identified thus far in over 40 countries spanning every continent on the globe. In order to hide their true origins, affiliation and purpose, Greco-Roman triumphal arches, gates and gateways have been given local names and histories to mask Rome’s triumph over the Earth and their brutal domination over all mankind. If and when a truly anti-Roman military force invaded a Roman city, region or country, these celebratory triumphal arches would have naturally been the first structures targeted and destroyed. Historically speaking however, these Roman arches have mysteriously been preserved and celebrated, not destroyed.


African Arches

A total of 12 Greco-Roman triumphal arches, gates and gateways have been identified in Africa thus far:
Algeria: Arch of Caracalla (Djémila); Arch of Trajan (Timgad); Gambia: Arch 22 (Banjul); Ghana: Independence Arch (Accra); Libya: Arch of Marcus Aurelius (Tripoli); Magna Arch of Septimus Severus (Leptis Magna); Marble Arch (Ra's Lanuf); Roman Arch of Marcus Aurelius (Tripoli); Morocco: Triumphal Arch (Volubilis); and Tunisia: Arch of Alexander Severus (Dougga); Arch of Septimius Severus (Dougga); Triumphal Arch of the Tetrarchy (Sbeitla).

European Arches
Aside from Italy and France, a total of 27 Greco-Roman triumphal arches, gates and gateways have been identified in Europe thus far: Austria: Heidentor Pagan Gate (Petronell-Carnuntum); Belgium: Menin Gate (West Flanders); Parc du Cinquantenaire (Brussels); England: Admiralty Arch (London); Arno's Court Triumphal Arch (Bristol); Corinthian Arch (Stowe House); Euston Arch (London); Marble Arch (Westminster); Newport Arch (Lincoln); Wellington Arch (London); Germany: Brandenburg Gate (Berlin); Brandenburg Gate (Potsdam); Propylaea (Munich); Siegestor (Munich); Türkentor (Helmstedt); Greece: Arch of Galerius and Rotunda (Thessaloniki); Arch of Hadrian (Athens); Ireland: Fusiliers' Arch (Dublin); Portugal: Arco da Porta Nova (Braga); Arco de São Bento (Lisbon); Rua Augusta Arch (Lisbon); Spain: Arc de Berà (Tarragona); Arc de Triomf (Barcelona); Arco de la Victoria (Madrid); Roman Arch (Medinaceli); and Switzerland: Zürich Hauptbahnhof (Zürich); Roman Arch (Zürich).


Eastern European & Russian Arches
A total of 14 Greco-Roman triumphal arches, gates and gateways have been identified in Eastern Europe and Russia thus far:
Croatia: Arch of the Sergii (Pula); Hungary: Stone Gate (Vác); Macedonia: Porta Macedonia (Skopje); Moldova: Triumphal Arch, (Chişinău); Romania: Arcul de Triumf (Bucharest); Russia: All-Russia Exhibition Centre (Moscow); General Staff Building (Saint Petersburg); Iberian Gate and Chapel (Moscow); Narva Triumphal Gate (Saint Petersburg); Poklonnaya Hill Arch (Moscow); Red Gate (Moscow); Triumphal Arch (Moscow); Triumphal Gate (Moscow); and Ukraine: Triumphal Arc (Kamianets-Podilskyi).


French Arches

A total of 17 Greco-Roman triumphal arches, gates and gateways have been identified in France thus far:
Arc de Carpentras (Carpentras, France); Arc de Triomphe (Paris); Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel (Paris); Arch of Germanicus (Saintes, Charente-Maritime); Arch of Glanum (Provence); Place Stanislas (Nancy); Pont Flavien (Saint-Chamas); Porte d'Aix (Marseille); Porte de Paris (Lille); Porte Désilles (Nancy); Porte du Peyrou (Montpellier); Porte Mars (Reims); Porte Saint-Denis (Paris); Porte Saint-Martin (Paris); The Porte Noire (Besançon); Thiepval Memorial (Thiepval); and Triumphal Arch of Orange (Orange).



Italian Arches

A total of 32 Greco-Roman triumphal arches, gates and gateways have been identified in Italy thus far:
Arch of Augustus (Aosta); Arch of Augustus (Fano); Arch of Augustus (Rimini); Arch of Augustus (Rome); Arch of Augustus (Susa); Arch of Constantine (Rome); Arch of Drusus (Rome); Arch of Drusus (Spoleto); Arch of Gallienus (Rome); Arch of Hadrian (Santa Maria Capua Vetere); Arch of Janus  (Rome); Arch of Septimius Severus (Rome); Arch of Titus (Rome); Arch of Trajan (Ancona); Arch of Trajan (Benevento); Arco dei Gavi (Verona); Arco della Pace (Milan); Arco della Vittoria (Genoa); Bolzano Victory Monument (Bolzano); Lombardia Milano (Milan); Piazza della Repubblica (Florence); Porta Capuana (Naples); Porta del Popolo (Rome); Porta Garibaldi (Catania); Porta Garibaldi (Milan); Porta Nuova Gate (Milan); Porta San Giovanni (Rome); Porta Sempione (Milan); Porta Ticinese (Milan); Roman Arch (Trieste); Roman Arch Orvieto (Umbria); and Triumphal Arch (Florence).


Middle Eastern Arches
A total of 10 Greco-Roman triumphal arches, gates and gateways have been identified in the greater Middle East thus far: Egypt: Gateway of Ptolemy III Euergates I (Luxor); Iran: Azadi Tower (Tehran); Persepolis (Shiraz); Jordan: Arch of Hadrian (Jerash); Lebanon: Triumphal Arch (Tyre); Syria: Arch of Latakia (Latakia); Arch of Septimius Severus (Palmyra); and Turkey: Forum of Theodosius (Istanbul); Hadrian's Gate (Antalya); South Gate (Anazarbus).


U.S. Arches
A total of 19 Greco-Roman triumphal arches, gates and gateways have been identified in United States thus far:
Confederate Memorial Gateway (Hickman, Kentucky); Dewey Arch (New York, New York); Grand Army Plaza (New York, New York); Hurlbut Memorial Gate (Detroit, Michigan); Memorial Arch (Huntington, West Virginia); Memorial Arch (Palo Alto, California); Memorial Arch of Tilton (Northfield, New Hampshire); Millennium Gate (Atlanta, Georgia); National Memorial Arch (Chester County, Pennsylvania), Newport News Victory Arch (Newport News, Virginia); Pacific Arch (Washington, D.C.); Pennsylvania State Memorial (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania); Roosevelt Arch (Gardiner, Montana); Rosedale World War I Memorial Arch (Kansas City, Kansas); Smith Memorial Arch (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania); Soldiers' and Sailors' Arch (Brooklyn, New York); Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Arch (Hartford, Connecticut); Victory Arch (Newport News, Virginia); and Washington Square Arch (New York, New York).


Other Arches
A total of 13 Greco-Roman triumphal arches, gates and gateways have been identified in Australia, Canada, Chili, India, Laos, North Korea, Philippines and Venezuela: Australia: Arch of Victory (Ballarat); Norfolk Island Jail (Norfolk Island); Canada: Peace Arch (Surrey, British Columbia); Royal Military Memorial Arch (Kingston, Ontario); Welsford-Parker Monument (Halifax, Nova Scotia); Chile: Arco Británico (Valparaíso); India: Gateway of India (Mumbai); India Gate (New Delhi); Laos: Patuxai (Vientiane); North Korea: Arch of Triumph (Pyongyang); Philippines: Arch of the Centuries (Manila); Porta Mariae (Naga City); and Venezuela: Arco Federacion Libertador (Caracas).