TORn's "There's room for a little more" Geeky Observations List


The Lord of the Rings Observations Lists - inspired by the films of Peter Jackson

by the Discussion Board Members of (TORn)

Updated 1/28/07

(double asterisk items ** are from the extended dvd)


 Return to index

Here is an out of order collection of observations for all three films on interesting tidbits, costumes, music, songs, calligraphy, cast's last scenes and gifts, injuries, multiple duty, switched lines, The Red Book writings, inscriptions, cameos, homage to other films, references in other films/books/tv/etc.


        1.    LotR Running times

FotR               178 Theatrical                       208 Extended

TT                   179 Theatrical                       223 Extended

RotK               200 Theatrical                       250 Extended

2.       All the films were released on a Wednesday:

The Fellowship of the Ring – December 19, 2001

The Two Towers – December 18, 2002

The Return of the King – December 17, 2003

3.        All variations of the story's title are mentioned.  "The Lord of the Rings" is spoken by Sam who also says, "There and Back Again: A Hobbit's Tale" (spoken by Frodo in Rivendell as well).  Elrond says, "You shall be 'The Fellowship of the Ring'"; Saruman and Galadriel say, "There is a union now between 'The Two Towers'"; Gandalf says, "You cannot deny 'The Return of the King.'"

4.        Nearly all of Gandalf's names are mentioned in the film:  Gandalf Greyhame, Gandalf the Grey, The Grey Pilgrim, Gandalf the White, Ill-news, The White Wizard, Láthspell, Gandalf Stormcrow, Grey Fool, Old Greybeard, Mithrandir, Gandalf my old friend, White Rider, and just plain ol' Gandalf.

5.        Notice the elements in the key scenes when Frodo and Sam held-helped each other throughout the trilogy?  Sam's drowning, the Nazgûl at Osgiliath, "I can carry you" and Frodo's fall in Mount Doom.  They're the FOUR ELEMENTS –water, wind, earth and fire. 

6.        Aragorn's names used in the films:  Dúnadan, Estel, Ranger of the North, Strider, Elessar, Isildur's Heir, Longshanks, Son of Arathorn.

7.        Final count: Frodo falls 34 times!  Some sibs kept a tally of how many times Frodo falls down in all three films.  Our total count was 34.  We didn't count falling to his knees when he dove through the tunnel head first in Shelob's lair, sliding down hills or jumping under tree roots.

8.        Once we get past the prologue material in each film, the first main character we see is Frodo (theatrical version).

9.        The phrases "trust" then "come on" are used two times in TTT.  Frodo says it to Gollum at the Forbidden Pool, then Gollum says it to Sam and Frodo as they leave for the Crossroads.

10.     Pippin must have said, "I'm hungry" or "I'm starving" about 4 times.  Sometimes he says softly in the background, or someone else is speaking, so you have to sort of be listening for it.

11.     Back in the 1970’s George Allen & Unwin posthumously published a poem by JRRT - “Bilbo’s Last Lay” (later changed to ‘Bilbo’s Last Song’ for the American market!).  This initially appeared as a poster (now rarely found), with the lines printed over a highly-evocative painting of the lateen-rigged ship sailing out of the harbour, between the cliffs, into a setting sun.  This is exactly the scene PJ has created.

12.     Denethor, Saruman and Sauron stay in their towers and let others do the fighting.  This is their great mistake and ultimate cause of their downfall.  In the book, Denethor puts it this way: "[The Dark Lord] uses others as his weapons.  So do all great lords if they are wise..., or why should I sit here and think, and watch and wait..."

   The wise of Middle-earth (Gandalf, Aragorn, Théoden) don't do this - they put their own lives on the line and lead from the front. Gandalf refers to the folly of Denethor's attitude when he replies to Denethor's words above: "the Captain of Despair does not press forward, yet. He rules rather according to the wisdom that you have just spoken, from the rear, driving his slaves in madness on before."  That's exactly how Saruman operated too, staying in his tower and sending his orcs and Uruk-hai to do his dirty work.

   In the movie both Denethor and Saruman eventually fall from their Towers.  Sauron's crumbles around him. In the end, it seems, you can't win if you let others do the fighting for you - you have to get out there yourself and fight for what you believe in.

13.     Flaring of nostrils is a mostly unconscious physical reaction to an emergency . The extra intake of oxygen, like the increased heart rate or the rise in adrenaline prepares us for a flight of fight situation.  The Balrog flares just before stepping on the bridge; Aragorn when he takes up Andúril; Faramir when he hears the harsh words of his father; Frodo when he spins around on Sam, "What do you know about it? NOTHING!" They SEEM very calm and composed, but underneath....

14.     Not only Frodo's face is pale at the end, but his clothing, too.  All light blue and silvery, very symbolic of his passing from the world.

15.     When Frodo farewell's his friends, it isn't abbreviated--a quick hug, and then another quick hug.  This is leave-taking in real time---the way we all say goodbye to beloved friends and family---not a movie goodbye.  PJ stayed with that scene and did not shorten it in any way allowing us to linger and share the emotion.

16.     As Frodo turns and smiles, the blue of his eyes lighten up and shimmer ever so slightly then return back to the deep blue just before he nods and turns away.  It's easier to see on the big screen.

17.     Boromir's prediction comes true.  "They will find you.  They will take the ring... and you will beg for death before the end."  He wasn't begging, but at Sammath Naur... he felt he wanted it.

18.     Galadriel taught Frodo psychic connection (exchanging thoughts).  First when they enter the woods of Lothlórien, then on the flet, then again at the mirror where he's grown enough to speak to her in return.  This connection made his vision of her possible in RotK when he swoons after fighting Shelob and Gollum.

19.     The line "follow me" is said three times in Fellowship:

-Merry says it to the hobbits as they run for the Bucklebury Ferry

-Sam says to Gandalf after getting caught eavesdropping "...if you follow me."

-Elrond says it to Isildur.

20.     The entire Fellowship is very protective towards the hobbits.  Just as they are preparing to battle the cave troll, they hurry the hobbits to Gandalf, and he hurries them to the back where he stands in front of them to guard them. The formation looks like this: in the front are Aragorn, Boromir, Legolas and Gimli as the main fighters. Behind them is Gandalf, also ready for battle, but his main purpose seems to be protecting the hobbits. Behind Gandalf are the four hobbits, but they too are ready for battle. It kind of reminds me of Merry's comment "I would be ashamed to be left behind when all my friends have gone into battle." The hobbits want to do their share.

21.     Merry and Pippin are very protective towards Frodo. During the Nazgûl attack on Weathertop, they get in front of him so that the Ringwraiths would have to get through them first. After Sam is knocked down, Merry and Pippin form up again in front of Frodo. This happens again in Moria. During some part of the cave troll fight, Merry and Pippin hurry Frodo behind a pillar and guard him with their swords.

22.     Merry and Pippin seem to have a bit of a vengeful streak. Whenever someone they love has been hit, they charge the enemy in revenge.  When they think Frodo has been killed by the cave troll, they charge making "charging" noise at full force at the cave troll. They do the same when Boromir is mortally wounded. They attack making the charging noise prepared for vengeance.

23.     There is different morale on the Orc side of the battle and Men's side of the battle. During the scene where the orcs in Moria are sent to the "diversion", their captains are very degrading towards their troops and call them names such as "maggots," and so forth. The men on the other hand seem to have a higher morale. Whenever Théoden, Éomer, or Aragorn speaks to their soldiers, they always have encouraging words, and give meaningful reasons to their men to fight, even when the situation is hopeless.

24.     Have you noticed the family resemblance between Boromir and Denethor?  Don't know if Noble purposely did this or not, but when you see Denethor drawing back furious that the beacons have been lit, his expression is identical to Boromir's as they travel down the river after he and Aragorn have had their discussion about the wisdom of taking the Ring to Minas Tirith--after the "I wouldn't lead the Ring within a hundred leagues of your city" line. 

25.     Gollum: "...We forgot the taste of bread, the sound of trees, the softness of the wind..." Frodo: "...I can't recall the taste of food, nor the sound of water, or the touch of grass..."

26.     When Frodo draws his sword on Gollum that Peter said they matched (purposely) to Alan Lee's painting; look at Elijah's eyes!  The pupils are dilated like someone's would be that is riled or in danger.  This was a shot done in regular lighting, then changed through grading to an evening shot, and normally his eyes are not dilated like that in film lighting... outside is even less... his eyes seem quite sensitive to bright sunlight (noticed it in several films).  He's so in the scene, even his instinctive reflexes are responding as if it were real.  Plus, he's holding Sting in his left hand (to match the painting) so he can hold Gollum's hair.  That had to feel awkward.  (Holds it in his right hand when he has Sam pinned down later).

27.     **FotR/RotK—the shot of the map that bridges the prologue to Bilbo in Bag End, pans from Misty Mountains to Shire/the shot of the map that bridges the last scene of coronation in Minas Tirith looks like the same map only panning from Gondor.

28.     **The 9 kings in prologue are all at least 50+ years-old.  Why no younger kings?  This may be a nod to the Second Age when Sauron cultivated the creation of his Nazgûl by seducing some kings of men (some of whom became “Black” Númenórean?) with promises of immortality.  It would make sense that older kings would go for immortality as they got closer to the end of their reign.

29.     Boromir's shield is in the scene with Legolas and the pitcher in Lothlórien. We go to Aragorn talking to Boromir and his doubts. Well, the shield is in the same position when Pip asks "Where's Frodo" at Amon Hen. It's a bit of foreshadowing.

30.     The pinecones lying around Bag End are called durians.  The durian is a large, spiky fruit from Asia.  Apparently they taste like breadfruit.

31.     Regarding the book Aragorn is reading in Rivendell is "The Lay of Leithian" is the tale of Lúthien and Beren that Aragorn sings to himself (see The Lays of Beleriand).  "The Wisdom of the Eldar" is probably conceived as a series title, and this volume is the Tale of Beren and Lúthien.

32.     Many of you may remember the amount of speculation a year or so ago on these boards as to what the book that Aragorn is holding in the Rivendell scene with Boromir might be.  A trivial subject, yet it generated a great deal of discussion and speculation -- many swore it had to be Bilbo's book, that they could read his name clearly, and a lot of people put their eyesight in jeopardy scanning their TV screens trying to make out the mysterious letters of the title.  After scanning the gorgeous photos on the Home page of the Nieman-Marcus window display, and on the third page noticed a book that looked vaguely familiar -- I checked the FotR DVD, and sure enough, by some coincidence, it turns out it's THE book.  So there's the mystery of just what Aragorn was reading solved.

33.     Déagol is very excited when he catches his fish. Surely as river folk, these hobbits spend a lot of time fishing. Déagol's ability to hold his breath underwater suggests a great familiarity with water and fishing. My observation then is that this spoor of river hobbit is a simple folk, easily pleased, easily emotive.

34.     As Frodo kisses Sam's forehead before he goes aboard the ship, it mirrors the kiss of blessing Galadriel gave him as he prepared to leave Lórien.  The Hobbits leave the Elven Lands with a blessing from the Queen of the Elves, and then that blessing is passed on from the recipient then to the one who will remain as Frodo leaves with the Elves this time. 

35.     It's interesting to note that, despite Sméagol's initial joyous reaction to the Ring, the early transformation shots show him in complete anguish, weeping and wailing.  Apparently, mere possession of the Ring isn't enough to make him happy early on, which can be taken as a sign that there's still a part of Sméagol in him. As he loses himself to the Ring, he becomes calm and content.

36.     You should not quench a blade in water as that will make it brittle. You temper a steel blade using oil instead to make it "tough". Those "elves: were actual swordsmiths from Lyons' shop.  Modern smiths use temperature controlled salt baths whose liquid base is still primarily water.  Modern Japanese smiths still use water to quench their blades as well. Oil *is* used, but oil is more forgiving as you say to prevent blades from becoming too brittle and hence fracture during the quenching process - however, a skilled smith can use water to quench a blade.

37.     The Uruk-hai's swords were being made in Isengard--the whole real forge where they were made was made up to look like a cavern in Isengard and the forge-workers made up as orcs. Even the craftsmen who made the weapons got to be onscreen!

38.     Merry's preparing to leave for battle on a small white pony, Stybba.  It's the same one he is riding from Edoras with a huge grin on his face.  He is still riding Stybba when they return to the Shire - and when they ride to the Grey Havens.  Stybba was the name of the pony Théoden gifted to Merry in the text.

39.     You can see the destroyed Dome in Osgiliath, the “Dome of Stars."  Its description is:  The great dome that lay in the heart of the ancient Gondorian capital, Osgiliath, and from which the city took its name (“Fortress of Stars”). The Palantir of Osgiliath was held beneath its starred vault.”

40.     The eyes of people who are under strong Ring influence have the iris rolled to the top of the eye with much white visible at the bottom of the eye - see Frodo and Isildur in the Sammath Naur. In his opening scene with Gandalf and Pippin, and periodically through the pyre scene, Denethor's eyes are rolled back like this - and almost no one else has such an expression anywhere in the film.  Bilbo's eyes bulge as he pets the ring while talking with Gandalf... "my own, my precious."

41.     The sheep we see as Gandalf and Pippin leave Edoras, and again in the Shire, have black faces. Sheep native to New Zealand do not have black faces. PJ had them imported from England because that's where Tolkien's history was set and he wanted them to be authentic, even though we only see them for a few seconds (from a Cinefex article).

42.     The two movie title frames are quite different. FotR is green, lush, full of life and TTT is cold, almost colorless, pending doom. Also the capital T’s in TTT are made to look like towers and thus some of the other characters are different in the title such as the hobbits.

43.     Regarding the statue inside the gates.  The stance of the horse means the ruler/leader died from injuries resulting from battle.  If the horse is standing on all four feet, the ruler/leader died of natural causes.  If the horse's two front feet are raised and rearing, the ruler/leader died in battle.

44.     Opening and closing scenes:

1.  FotR's first action scene starts near a location looking at Mount Doom and ends with Frodo and Sam looking toward Mount Doom.

2.  TTT action begins with a mountain flyover (Misty Mountains) and ends with a mountain flyover (Ephel Dúath)

3.  RotK's action begins looking at a watercraft (Déagol/Sméagol's boat) and if you ignore Sam's epilogue end looking at a watercraft (Cirdan's ship at the Grey Havens)

4.  If you consider the first scene in FotR to be in the shire the last scene of RotK ends in the Shire!

45.     Aragorn's symbol is fire and Arwen's is water -- which is not surprising, since the elves have the whole sea thing going for them, not to mention Galadriel's mirror and swan-boat. When we first meet Aragorn, in the inn at Bree, we see the firelight reflected in his eyes. He drives off the Nazgûl at Weathertop with fire. That magnificent shot of the beacons culminates in a shot of his watching face -- as Gandalf says, hope is kindled. And Aragorn looks as though someone set a fire under him, as fast as he runs up those steps!  Arwen, on the other hand, raises the water at the ford to wash away the Nazgûl.  And when Aragorn is floating along unconscious, he has a vision of her protecting him. She gives him the Evenstar on a bridge.

46.     Scenes which almost exactly mirror John Howe's art: Frodo and Sam on the rock above the flowing lava when the eagles appear, Shelob hovering over Frodo, Gollum crouched on all fours (Andy says he fashioned his Gollum movement after that picture), and Bag End.

47.     Scenes which almost exactly mirror Alan Lee’s art:  The stirrup-cup scene with Aragorn and Éowyn; The Tower of Cirith Ungol poking over the ridge line as Frodo staggers up the final stretch in the path (just before Shelob stings him); A side-on view of the middle levels of Minas Tirith, with close details of the buildings, and Frodo capturing Gollum and saving Sam; Barad-dûr; Rivendell; Orthanc; Helm's Deep; Moria; Bree; Lothlórien at the mirror; The Grey Havens; Minas Tirith, Zirak-zigil, etc.

48.     At Dunharrow, Elrond telling Aragorn that he comes on behalf of "one whom I love" emphasizes that the Arwen-is-sick scenario was to get Elrond up and moving, not Aragorn.

49.     The lines "I give Hope to men" (Elrond) "I keep none for myself" (Aragorn) are from appendix A, only it's Gilraen's (Aragorn's mother) line to Aragorn the last time she sees him.  It is also engraved in her headstone in Rivendell.

50.     Places where the last line of one scene provides a perfect segue for what follows (almost a subliminal set-up).  1. Right after Éowyn says "Why should Merry not fight for those he loves", Elrond rides up the road to Dunharrow to challenge Aragorn to action "on behalf of one I love".  2. Gandalf’s speech to Pippin about death (white shores etc…) immediately precedes Witch-king's attack on Théoden.

51.     From beginning to end, differences expand between Merry and Pippin, as well, in emphasizing various demonstrations of the "Fool of a Took" mentality, eventually to drive home just how much both of them (especially naive Peregrin) changed over their whole trip and how their relationship changed. Merry's talk to Pippin in Fangorn didn't only serve to get his friend to recognize the dire implications of the Ents' response, but to show that Merry was still the more mature of the two. This continues with his response to Pippin in "Return of the King" after the palantir incident ("Why did you have to look? Why do you always have to look?!") and demonstrates that Merry is aware of the difference in maturity (as he is in the book), and that he is protective of Pippin. This underlines a reversal of role (first hinted at by Pippin's treatment of Merry before the dealings with Grishnákh, but obviously not as dramatic a development in Pippin) when Pippin finds Merry after Pelennor. " [which, along with things like his holding Pippin back from a ledge in Moria (EE bit, IIRC),] Left out because it's Pippin that hold Merry back.

52.     There's a contrast of the way the fell beasts pick up people and throw them down, and the way the eagles pick up Frodo and Sam so tenderly.

53.     In RotK when Gandalf yells, "Peregrine Took" as Pippin runs down the stairs of Minas Tirith, take a look at his belt buckle.  The insignia is the same as the Robotech Defense Force in the Macross Saga.

54.     As Aragorn, Théoden, Gandalf, et al arrive at Isengard, Théoden is not riding Snowmane in that scene or as the approach Edoras in the fly-by shot. The horse playing Snowmane (Snoworries, it was called!) went lame before the ride out from Helms Deep, so Théoden had to ride the brown horse. Naturally he had to keep the same horse for the ride to Isengard and back to Edoras for continuity purposes. Nice to see Snowmane back for the rest though.

55.     The eye over the entrance to the Paths of the Dead doesn't just signify traitors; the whole reason the Dead didn't fulfill their oath to Isildur is because they were Sauron worshipers.  From "The Passing of the Grey Company," --Aragorn speaking: "When Sauron returned and grew in might again, Isildur summoned the Men of the Mountains to fulfil their oath, and they would not: for they had worshipped Sauron in the Dark Years."

56.     There are quite a few close-up shots where McKellen is riding Demero, the close-up horse, and there he is going tackless. The horse in those shots is being guided by hand signals from his trainer, off camera, so McKellen didn't have to worry about anything other than staying on. Generally they didn't have him riding at anything other than a walk, although he did say he had to trot at least once.  Where Shadowfax is galloping, charging up stairs, etc., it's Basil Clapham who is filling in for Gandalf.

57.     The Wilhelm scream can be heard as an Elf falls off the wall at Helm's Deep, when Faramir's men are attacked during their retreat and when Legolas attacks the Southrons on the oliphaunt.  

58.     Sauron, Isildur, Gollum, and Frodo wear the Ring on the Index Finger (Sauron on his right hand, everyone else on their left—except when Frodo was escaping Boromir and when the Ring fell onto his finger at the Pony)

59.     The opening scene with the worm immediately reminds us of the scene in the TT EEE in which Gollum slurps up a worm.  A much larger worm than the one he uses to bait his hook, at that.  I thought that it represented the ring leading to Gollum's devolution into a more primitive state.  Where once he used worms to get food, now worms *are* food.

60.     There is a lot more detail about Pippin in the appendixes than Merry, including the dates of his marriage, birth of his son, and the date he became Thain.  I assume that this information is where the geeky observation list assumed that Pippin was next to get married. I think differently. Both Merry and Estella are considerably older than Pippin and Diamond. Isn't it more likely that Merry and Estella married before Pippin and Diamond?  (Also, Pippin is not even of age in the book, and Diamond, being five years his junior, is certainly not of age, whereas, both Merry and Estella would be in this part of the "story.")  This is just a geeky observation about the appendixes and geeky observation list. In the movie, I think it is most appropriate that Pippin of all people, catch the bouquet, because responsibility, maturity and all those things we associate with marriage are not what we have come to expect from Pippin.

61.     There's a suggestion of a relationship between Frodo's choice and the fate of the Ring. NOTICE THAT THE RING DOES NOT SUCCOMB to the fires until Frodo decides to live. In fact, there is a moment just as we see complete resignation in Frodo's eyes when the inscription on the Ring shines forth as though in victory. As soon as Frodo grabs Sam's hand, the Ring dissolves in the fire. 

62.     The chapter title "The Evenstar" is used in both the FotR and TTT dvds.  In FotR, it is the scene where Arwen and Aragorn are talking on the bridge.  In TTT, it is the scene where Aragorn has his Rivendell flashback.

63.     Lembas in general: Lembas is symbolic. It sustains them.  Sam telling Frodo he's rationing for the trip home underlines the importance of Frodo's task. One: Frodo already understands on some level that there will probably not be going back-- yet he has a bit of hope left.  Two: lembas represents the elves' light and aid.  Later it aids Sam to turn around and go back to Frodo when he finds it at the foot of the stairs.

64.     Stealing lembas: Since the Ring has a hold on both Sam and Gollum, it's easy to understand how Frodo and Gollum would assume Sam would want it as much as them--especially someone who has been as close a proximity as Sam has been to the Ring. But taking the Ring-- is one thing. Others have tried. Stealing life is another. That is why Gollum sets up Sam by destroying the lembas. Notice what Sam is doing as he wakes and stands up asking Gollum what Gollum's sneaking around doing, Sam is tightening his belt. He has starved himself to give his food to Frodo (This makes Sam's earlier words more meaningful-- "I'm not hungry for lembas" Frodo now interprets this differently: I'm not hungry because I'm already stuffed with it, instead of the truth, I'm saying I'm not hungry and giving mine to you.), but it keeps Sam going even though he's not eaten it.

65.     It's been commented on that Frodo pulls a drowning Sam out of the water in FotR, and that this scene is mirrored when Sam pulls Frodo away from the river of lava.  Also, RotK begins with Déagol pulled into the water and Sméagol apparently fairly unconcerned.  This is one hobbit who *doesn't* take risks for his friend. Perhaps if he'd been a less selfish [proto-]hobbit he might have been less susceptible to the Ring's evil influence.

66.     Peter asserts that all the time the hobbits are journeying to Mount Doom they move left to right across the screen.  But when the four hobbits return to the Shire, and then go to the Grey Havens, they're moving from right to left!  The journey is over, in other words... and the Grey Havens lie to the west.

67.     It could be that Mortensen's singing of the "Et Eärello" coronation verse is in a style from the Kalevala, which is one of the root works Tolkien used for inspiration.  Mortensen showed up in New Zealand with a copy of the Kalevala, not the LotR, under his arm.  The Kalevala was sung or chanted, in the old days before it was written down.  I think what he is doing by chanting the lines is gently changing our perspective from 'present' into the past, as if a bard or minstrel was telling the story.  Sam had earlier asked whether their story would be told later, and I think this was a way of saying it had already passed into legend.

68.     Viggo Mortensen bought both his horses (playing Hasufel and Brego).  When the last pickups were done, they were shipped to California.  (After filming Hidalgo, he also bought that horse).  He also bought Jane Abbott's horse (Asfaloth) when he heard she couldn't afford to buy him and gave him to her as a gift.

69.     At the Black Gate when Sam said something about "another way into Mordor" he pronounced "Mordor" a little bit like Frodo did back at Bag End with the "r's" sounding more like "l's".  Maybe this was the way the hobbits back in the Shire said it because they said it so seldom.

70.     Something that stood out was that the Fellowship is encircled, at least once in each movie, by their foes ... or potential foes.  In FotR, they are surrounded by orcs in the Great Hall. In TTT, they are surrounded by the Rohirrim army while crossing the plains of Rohan. Finally, in RotK, they are surrounded by Sauron's army at the Black Gate. This seems to follow the overall theme of the ring (also a circle) and its attempt to ensnare them in its grasp.

71.     Considering PJ’s fascination with WWII, I find the Orc boats used to enter Osgiliath very similar to the landing craft used during the Normandy landings – the front of the boats falls down to make a ramp just as the WWII craft did.  Ramps fall the same way from the Orc towers at Pelennor.

72.     In the book when Sam gets back to home from the Havens, it says '...and there was yellow light, and fire within..." - now it could be purely coincidence, but the door of the hobbit hole of Sam and Rose is yellow in the film. Also the book says that he was accepted (of course) and in the film Rose comes to meet him outside - as if she knew he was coming home. And finally: the film ends with little Elanor on Sam's lap as the book ends too along with the line already mentioned.

73.     The hobbits lost clothes during the Quest, especially Frodo and Sam. (I thought in Frodo's case that this was symbolic of his "dehumanization." He loses his jacket after the rabbit stew scene. He loses his vest before going into Shelob's lair, and he lost some more when he was captured. You can also see the "lost clothes dehumanizing" syndrome in the opening Sméagol becoming Gollum sequence. As he becomes more "Gollumized," he loses more and more clothes.

74.     In FotR, our first shot of the last homely house had it dripping in sunlight, gold and joyous chorus. Just like it should be, a refuge for the elves, a place still untainted by the darkness growing in the outside world.  Then in TTT, we visit Rivendell and it now has a much cooler, lamenting color to it. Many more blues and silvers are used, contrasting to the yellows and golds in the first film. The elves are leaving their home on Middle-earth to venture into the West. The music is still angelic, but softer now, almost as if a lullaby were being sung.  Finally, we see Rivendell in RotK as Arwen rides up to confront her father. The entire ford is clouded in mist, all of Rivendell is an eerie brown and gray color, suggesting that life has left this place. It's almost as if we have wandered into a dream of a place that has past.

75.     In FotR, when Pippin is hit with the apple Aragorn threw, he looks up wondering where it came from. Pippin does this same thing when he finds the apples in the TTT EE at Isengard. He looks up as if wondering where the apples came from.

76.     One of Wood's favorite scenes featured only hobbits; Jackson conceived it after the script was written and shot it after wrapping up the action. This vignette depicts Sam and Frodo and their fellow veterans of the quest, Merry and Pippin, exchanging glances of comradely understanding during a night of merriment at their favorite pub.

77.     ** On the TTEEdvd extras: In the "Atlas" section, when Gandalf's journey is traced on the map, a dotted line goes from Zirak-zigil to Lothlórien, showing Gwaihir's route!

78.     **"Bilbo was doing splendidly. This was the sort of stuff they like: short and obvious" with Faramir's comment to Boromir in Osgiliath: "Good speech - nice and short!"

79.     Re: the banner of Rohan falling at Aragorn's feet as he enters Edoras.  Tolkien frequently uses changes in the wind to represent significant turning points in the story.  As the banner blows off the staff, the wind in that scene changes as Aragorn approaches. The banner seems to be caught in the crosswind, and it changes in mid-air.  The banner falls near Aragorn's feet and the wind seems to be blowing at his back as if pushing him onward to bring change to Rohan.

80.     "Simbelmynë" is Old English for "eternal remembrance" -- or, as Tolkien phrases it, "evermind."

81.     Pippin rides with Aragorn (the future King of Gondor) in Isengard and with Gandalf to Gondor; and he enters service for the Steward of Gondor.  Merry rides behind Éomer in Isengard, with Éowyn to the battle of Pelennor Fields and again with Éomer to the Black Gate, as befits a squire of Rohan.

82.     Elijah was so tired from the strain of the shoot, he'd sometimes actually fall asleep during sleeping scenes in the film (gotta be tired if you can sleep on rocks—whether real or foam).

83.     Frodo/Elijah closes the story with narrative.  Peter, Philippa and Fran had originally said in the FotR commentary that Galadriel/Cate did the narration for the opening and closing of the story.

84.     Did you ever notice that Théoden makes a big statement...just before the other shoe drops? In TTT it was "Is this the best you can do?" just before the wall is blown.  In RotK, after the first charge and the Orc battalions have been routed, he claims victory saying "Make safe the city" just before the mûmakil brigade appear.

85.     On July 18th, 1940, in a radio address, Winston Churchill is quoted: "The battle of France is over, the battle for Britain is about to begin." (Reflected by Gandalf after the Battle of Helm's Deep)

86.     It was its handler's death that sent the Oliphaunt (poor creature) out of control. Mûmakil are apparently controlled by pulling ropes or cords passed through holes in their ears. When the handler was killed, he fell off to the left side of his mount's head, but hung there, tangled in the cord.  The relentless pull on its left ear was what sent the Mûmak careering off to the left.

87.     At the end of FotR, Frodo says, "Sam, I'm glad you're with me" and at the end of RotK, he says "I'm glad to be with you, Samwise Gamgee." In FotR, Frodo's words follow the scene where he pulls Sam out of the water; in RotK, it's the reverse; Sam has been the one to pull Frodo out.  It's like a nice verbal and visual bookends to the tale -- and how with those lines and the two "hand" scenes capture what these two characters have meant to each other and so much of the heart of the story.

88.     Regarding Gollum's biting, Andy Serkis said in his book that he based some of Sméagol's personality on his daughter, who bit her little brother quite maliciously when she was two and he was just a baby.

89.     During the "End of All Things" scene, in which Sam mused about his dear Rosie...  The very first moment since taking that fateful step in the Shire that he's thought of himself, and we can see just how great his sacrifice has been.  Then we see Frodo reaching the same realization and acknowledging it. 

90.     Sméagol says at one point "yes, kill them—we’ve done it before" implying he'd only killed once before (Déagol)—yet in the Hobbit we learn of the many, many orcs he’d killed, and later when he’s talking to himself at the pool, he talks about orcs not tasting very nice…do they not count?

91.     In Appendix F Tolkien says Sméagol is an equivalent for 'Trahald' = burrowing, worming in - possibly alluded to by the scenes showing Gollum holding worms in both TTT and RotK.

92.     There's a running "late" gag from the other two films (FotR Frodo saying to Gandalf, "you're late" as he rides up in his cart and then in TTT Legolas saying "you're late" to the disheveled Aragorn at Helm's Deep). In RotK, it is the orc with the skull helmet who says "late as usual, pirate scum" when the Corsair ships arrive.

93.     There's no Dwarf tossing joke this time.

94.     Aragorn's expression just after the coronation kiss with Arwen.  His eyes are moist as he smiles in relief.  There's tenderness and joy and wonder (disbelief?), but there's also a pain.  It's as if he's only now letting himself feel the dreadful heartache of being apart from Arwen.

95.     Paying careful attention to Aragorn's fall off the cliff, its main purpose was to provide character moments (and oddly, the supposed lack of character moments is a complaint of some who've seen the film). The reactions of Legolas, Gimli, Théoden and Éowyn are the focus here (I loved Gimli's "He fell," to Éowyn, and Éowyn's shock); not only when they lose him, but when he returns. His fall is also a metaphor, of course; Aragorn = hope. Hope is apparently lost, and then hope returns. It's a metaphor for the entire movie. And Gimli sees Aragorn's return as a manifestation of Aragorn's luck; Legolas is matter-of-fact: "You're late." Éowyn realizes she's falling in love. It gives us a closer peek at their characters.

96.     Peter ran with the Olympic Torch when it came through New Zealand, so is that why he had the Uruk-hai carrying an Olympic-type torch to blow the wall?

97.     Business is talked about throughout: What business does a man, a dwarf and an elf have in the Riddermark; It's not its business (Gollum says twice… once when Frodo presses him about who he is and once when Sméagol/Gollum is interrogated by Faramir).  It's also mentioned in FotR (What business brings you to Bree?  Our business is our own.)  and in The Hobbit by Bilbo when talking with the Elves ("...what may be your business?"  "Whatever it is, it's my own, my good elves.")

98.     During The Two Towers, Gandalf is called (or refers to himself as) Gandalf Greyhame, Gandalf the Grey, The Grey Pilgrim, Gandalf the White, The White Wizard, Láthspell, Gandalf Stormcrow, and just plain ol' Gandalf.  In RotK, the Mouth of Sauron calls him Greybeard.  The only name he isn't called is his Istari name Olórin.

99.     At the stewed rabbit scene, it opens with Frodo and Sam looking forlorn. There are tears welling up in Frodo's eyes when Gollum drops the rabbits. Sam looks dejected and upset; perhaps over an argument. Then Sam comes over to Gollum and says, "make him sick you will." as if to break the tension between he and Frodo and bring things back to normal between the two of them. Frodo looks up gratefully with tears welling up. Then the scene cuts to Frodo stooping very close to Sam, just behind his shoulder as he bends over the pot, as if to say that everything is all right now between them.

100.  On the tapestry at Meduseld, it shows a Rohan warrior stooping over a prone individual. It was behind Éowyn at sword practice. The tapestry is indeed of Léod... he's the one who's prone. The man standing over him is Eorl the Young, the first King of Rohan, his son. Felaróf the horse had just thrown Léod off. Instead of killing him, Eorl made the horse pledge his life to him. In return, Felaróf would only have to let the King or his sons ride him. When the Eorlingas came to Gondor's aid, it was Felaróf that led them through shadows and darkness and light. Thus the legend stands in Rohan, founded by Eorl.   Tom Shippy says tapestries are important because they appear in Meduseld but not in the Citadel. He believes the intent is to portray Gondor as a higher, but older and colder civilization.

101.  Each of the three Men - Aragorn, Boromir and Faramir - have a moment when they are sitting alone at night, sorrowfully thinking of someone they love, when their reveries are interrupted by another character. Aragorn in the Midgewater Marshes is thinking of Arwen when Frodo asks him about her; Boromir in Lothlórien is thinking of his father when Aragorn urges him to rest; Faramir in the cave at Henneth Annun is thinking of Boromir when his lieutenant approaches to tell him they've found Gollum.

102.  Several people are referred to (or refer to themselves) as the "son of ...;" but in every case, the names are alliterative, either by first initial, or syllabically. Aragorn, son of Arathorn; Éomer, son of Éomund; Théoden, son of Thengel; Haleth, son of Háma; Gimli, son of Glóin.  Neither Frodo (son of Drogo) nor Samwise (son of Hamfast) are named along with their fathers, though they are named so in the book at least once.

103.  Aragorn's flashback to his talk with Arwen just before the departure of the Fellowship is a direct echo of their romantic interlude on the bridge in FotR. This time, however, the shadows that surround them are harsher and more furtive, and their words less passionate. The colours and lighting are also much sharper; Arwen wears a brighter dress of purple with silver patterns, as opposed to her softer, beaded, pale ivory number on the bridge.  Aragorn, of course, is also offering the pendant to Arwen, instead of the other way around.  It gives us an example of another facet to their relationship -- that whenever they're together, it's not always romance and poetry. Nice contrast, if meant.

104.  Haldir is a very minor character in the books.  The movie elevates him as a commander of Elves, second in command to Celeborn and Galadriel.  In the book, he mentions some others in Lórien of the same rank as him, who run around gathering news, as well as his brothers Rúmil and Orophin who don't speak 'English', representing the common tongue.  He is literally, just one captain among many in Lothlórien.  He just happened to be the one who ran into the Fellowship.  Meaning that he could have died in the Dol Guldur battles.

105.  Look at the flying overhead shot of the Uruk-hai running across the plains of Rohan, it's during the day but just before the scene where they're cutting the trees down at night. Look to the extreme left and you can see another group just coming into the shot and moving towards the Uruk-hai, maybe it's the Mordor orcs. I would guess that this is just before the Uruks meet the Mordor orcs and maybe we'll get an extra couple of shots on the extended version. It can't be the Rohirrim because it's too early.

106.  The title "The Two Towers" appears as Sam and Frodo are seen struggling over the rocky terrain. The movie is very much about alliances between two strong powers who are stronger together (Sauron and Saruman, Théoden and Éomer, Elves and Men, etc.) To see the two tiny hobbits struggling under the banner The Two Towers is an ironic reminder, as Gandalf says at the end of the film, that the most important alliance is dependent on "two little hobbits somewhere in the wilderness."

107.  "Mearas" is plural -- the corresponding singular is "mearh." (It's an Old English word for horse -- our modern word "mare" is derived from it.)

108.  The armies of Gondor and Rohan are differently organized. We see Gondorian moving around Osgiliath in ordered companies, yelling orders. The Riders, by contrast move on more non-verbal commands, Gamling's arm wave, Éomer's spear pointing. The Rohirrim, however have been trained in spectacular combat- shooting on horse, firing their bows laterally (Warg scene), charging down steep slopes etc.  In contrast, the Rangers have to kneel to fire their longbows.

109.  All three of the story lines of the Fellowship are accused of being orcs or spies. First Aragorn/Gimli/Legolas are called "spies" by Éomer, then Merry and Pippin are called "little orcs" by Treebeard, and then Frodo and Sam are called "orc spies."

110.  We hear some music playing when Frodo and Sam are in the culvert; when Frodo is shown first, we hear some birds chirping (or frogs? crocking). Then there is complete silence when Frodo reaches for the Ring, and then it begins thrumming to him. I somehow seem to connect the sounds from the mountain to the Ring's increasing influence on Frodo. It seems as though - the mountain is responding to the Ring's power.  Then, shortly after Sam (the good force) wakes up, we don't hear (for lack of a better word) the violent-Orodruin sounds (responding to and representative of the evil force).

111.  No one calls Aragorn Strider after they arrive in Rivendell except Sam.

112.  After the Paths of the Dead, Aragorn is always associated with the theme of Gondor in the soundtrack.  Shows that he has finally accepted his destiny.

113.  As Frodo kisses Sam's forehead before he goes aboard the ship, it mirrors the kiss of blessing Galadriel gave him as he prepared to leave Lórien.  The Hobbits leave the Elven Lands with a blessing from the Queen of the Elves, and then that blessing is passed on from the recipient then to the one who will remain as Frodo leaves with the Elves this time.  And it is when the one who has last received the blessing returns home to his wife and children, then and only then, as once again the blessing rests with one who has chosen life, does the end come.

114.  Fellowship ends with a the hobbits continuing on their journey, the Two Towers ends with the hobbits walking on towards Mordor, the Return of the King ends with Sam's closed door.  The end.

115.  Frodo's hugs: In FotR, when Frodo greets his cousins in Rivendell, he hugs Merry first, Pippin second. When Frodo awakes in the House of Healing, and the hobbits come bouncing onto his bed, he hugs Merry first, Pippin second.  At the Grey Havens, Frodo hugs Merry first, Pippin second.

116.  Each culture has its own design theme. Hobbit buildings and artifacts have a rustic, English Arts & Crafts-influenced design. Bag End is probably the best example of this. Elvish buildings and artifacts have a more sophisticated design, very much influenced by Art Nouveau. You can see this in just about everything in Rivendell. Saruman's study and throne room (for lack of a better term) are very ornamental and Gothic. The Orcs have a very crude design ethic that places raw function over form. (Just like the bad guys in those movies where the future is very dark and grim.) Rohirrim artifacts (helmets, spears, etc.) have a very Anglo-Saxon look to them; their buildings seem to be influenced by Gothic and Viking designs. I haven't seen enough of Gondor to get a good feel for the design theme for that culture.

117.  Gandalf held drinks five times: With Frodo at the table at Bag End discussing the ring; at Bilbo's party watching Merry and Pippin; at in the library at Minas Tirith; at Isengard with Saruman; he never held a cup at Bag End with Bilbo, but there was one in front of him on the table.

118.  Gandalf smokes nine times: In cart with Frodo; on stoop w/Bilbo; Bilbo's party; waiting for Frodo after Bilbo leaves; in the library at Minas Tirith; with Frodo at the table in Bag End discussing ring; in Rivendell waiting for Frodo's to reawaken; resting at the foothills of Caradhras; thinking about which door to take in Moria ((holds a pipe talking w/Elrond, but doesn't smoke it))

119.  Merry was constantly eating apples: At Bilbo's party stealing fireworks; at the foothills of Caradhras learning how to sword fight; at Weathertop getting his dagger from Aragorn; at Rivendell when reunited with Frodo; and he catches, but doesn't eat, an apple outside Bree in the wild.

120.  It looks like there's references of the players personalities in the film: Elijah roughing up his clothes when packing (admits to being messy); Sean Bean's saying Narsil is still sharp referencing his Sharpe series; maybe Orlando surfing down the stairs on a shield from him snowboarding and watersurfing all the time (?)

121.  Peter Jackson began production on the Lord of the Rings Trilogy in the August of 1998: Maybe it had something to do with Tolkien's 25th anniversary? He died on September 6, 1973 and 25 years later would be September 6, 1998. Maybe this is how PJ decided to celebrate the anniversary of the passing of the creator of true literature.

122.  There are many uses of "round" patterns during the prologue: rings of water rippling in a pool, a shot of trees seen from the view of spinning slowly beneath the branches, the flaming ball of the sun sinking below the horizon. The scenes invoke the passage of time but also the round shape of the ring. Later, when Frodo senses the Ringwraith on the road we see a sort of ring-like dilation effect of the scenery. (Maybe portraying the power of the ring reaching out to the riders or the rider is invisible)

123.  Pippin's face is usually so expressive, but he is absolutely stone-faced on Weathertop as he holds his new sword.  All the others unsheathe their swords, looking at them with various expressions of wonder and worry. But for Pip, it seems to be the first time he really starts to understand just what this adventure will demand of him.  Frodo is again, the one who seems to understand more than the rest that they will probably need the swords, Merry looks like a kid with a new toy, Sam looks a wee bit confused, and Pippin, well, hey, he's Pippin. /g/ (Interestingly enough, Billy Boyd has fenced competitively, so of them all he at least knew how to use a sword. He talks about the difficulties of learning to fight like a hobbit when he already knew somewhat about fencing to begin with.)

124.  The peacock, symbolic of immortality and incorruptibility, seems to be a recurring motif. The quiver that Legolas is given has a peacock embossed on it.  Some of the swirly Rivendell architecture is reminiscent of the peacock's tail feathers. Elrond's chair at the council has that fan-tail shape as well. A white peacock is briefly visible as Legolas runs down the stairs (and it can be seen in one of the stills that was not in the movie). Side note: I thought the peacock thing was weird -- to me they symbolize vanity. However, I recently found out they also are symbolic of incorruptibility and eternal life. So it's an appropriate symbol for the Elves.

125.  On one of the specials when they show the hobbits at Weathertop, it looks like they're carrying some stashed goods... Pippin is awkwardly (very tired) carrying a small keg – it's also spotted in another source the keg is strapped on top of the baggage on Bill (not in the film, though). Well, in the film when the hobbits are collapsing onto the ground next to each other upon arrival, you can see the keg on the ground in front of Pippin's feet.

126.  **Some familiar names found along with other charter members at the end of the official credits.

1)       Alan Lee

2)       Craig J. Parker (is this our Craig?)

3)       John Rhys-Davies

4)       Richard Taylor

5)       Sean Astin

6)       Hank Mortensen (Viggo's son)

7)       Billy Boyd

8)       Dominic Monaghan

9)       Mark Ordesky

10)    Barrie Osborne

11)    Peter Jackson

12)    Christopher Lee

13)    Elijah Wood

14)    Sir Ian McKellen

15)    Brian Sibley

127.  The banners during the Battle of the Last Alliance show the white horse on the green field of Rohan's banner and the seven stars over the crown, which is above the white tree of Gondor's banner.  However, given that Rohan was not founded until Third Age 2510. From Third Age 1977 to 2510, the "Horse Lords" lived in Éothéod, a region between the misty mountains and north-western Mirkwood. Prior to that, they lived in "the vales of Anduin, between the Great East Road and the Gladden Fields."  So - while there may well be a banner of white horse on blue field in the prologue, it is not a banner of Rohan, which will not exist as a country for over 2500 years, unless it's an early variation of their present banner.

128.  Regarding Gondor's cultural "trademarks"...Tolkien mentioned that Gondor was akin in a certain way with Byzantium (faded yet still imposing echo of Rome) I'd suggest that the Gondorian architecture, at least, is somewhat Romanesque (post-Roman cathedrals built during the "Dark" Ages), with *somewhat* Byzantine domes and cupolas.

129.  Frodo holds out the ring several times during FotR.  In Bag End when he picks it up from the floor and takes it after Gandalf pulls it from the fire, after escaping the wraith on the road, with Galadriel and Aragorn, on the shore of Parth Galen, with Sam on the balcony in Rivendell.  He only holds it twice in TT; while he's petting it in the marshes and holding it up to the Nazgûl in Osgiliath.  He holds it twice in RotK; when Sam's sleeping in the culvert and when he's trying to throw it into the lava.  It passes between him and others several times.

130.  Boromir and Aragorn use their swords differently. Boromir's sword is a broadsword, which means a lot of slashing. You can see that when he stabs an Uruk at Amon hen, he can't pull the sword out right away. He needs to tug at it a bit.  Narsil, on the other hand is a greatsword, like Excalibur.  Aragorn uses its thinner blade to thrust as well as slash.

131.  Sam prepares food for Frodo 5 times:  **Camping when the Wood Elves pass; at Weathertop; at the foothills of Caradhras; **on Anduin, and in Ithilien.

132.  At Galadriel's Mirror, as she says, "Things that were, things that are, and some things ... that have not yet come to pass..." notice her arm movements.  When Galadriel says "things that were," she lowers her arm ... as if delving into the past.  When she says "things that are," she raises her arm ... as if returning to the present.  Then, when she says "and some things that have not yet come to pass", she stops pouring the water out. There's only a trickle left, perhaps, but she stops it, *as if things have not yet come to .... *single drop*.

133.  When the hobbits are in the forest just before the Bucklebury Ferry scene, they see a Black Rider on a hill against the moonlight.  This is similar to the scene in the book where the hobbits (minus Merry) see a Black Rider the morning after their visit with Gildor.  And as in the book, it is Sam who first sees the Rider, gives a shout, and grabs Frodo's arm (watch closely).

134.  When Aragorn has pulled Frodo into a room and then the rest of the hobbits burst in, Sam is completely focused on taking on Aragorn, so to speak. Sam's the most threatening-looking of the hobbit bunch, and has his fists and an insult ready ("I'll have you, Longshanks!") when he jumps inside.  After Aragorn resheathes his sword and gives his line about the little hobbit's stout heart, we see a shot of Sam again.  Although he's still maintaining his fight stance, his eyes flicker to Frodo!

135.  The color grey is sort of a mix of white and black. So conceivably, one who is grey could stand as a sort of intermediary between the two.  In that role, the ideal is to be a sort of bridge between darkness and light, leading those who are in darkness and shadow into light.  Gandalf's role changes dramatically after he goes from the Grey to the White. He's more open in his use of power, and does more to stir the foes of Mordor into action than he did before.  Could his role as Gandalf the Grey have been to be that bridge? To lead those who have fallen under the Shadow back to the light? He goes around inspiring others to great things, and sets the stones rolling, but doesn't actively participate much. To me he stands as a bridge and a means of passage out of the Shadow.  Once he becomes Gandalf the White, he no longer attempts to gently guide. Those who are allied with the Shadow (Gríma, Saruman) he brings down. He spares little time for Denethor who has succumbed to dark despair, choosing instead to aid the defense of the city instead. (which has its own consequences re: Faramir and Denethor later.)

136.  From the scene in TTT when Treebeard is talking to Pippin and Merry: Treebeard: "...They come with fire, they come with axes.  Gnawing, biting, breaking, hacking, burning! Destroyers and usurpers, curse them!"  This is a clever reference to a passage from In the House of Tom Bombadil in FotR: '...Tom's words laid bare the hearts of trees and their thoughts, which were often dark and strange, and filled with a hatred of things that go free upon the earth, gnawing, biting, breaking, hacking, burning: destroyers and usurpers....'

137.  There's a sunburst on the (headstall? Don't know tack terminology) leather face covering of Théoden's horse. It seems that, with the exception of the shields, it's the insignia of the royal house of Rohan.  You only see it in connection with the King - Éomer's helmet, the Hall of Meduseld, the cloak clasp and crown of Théoden, Théoden's chair, the banners in his hall [specifically the one directly behind his chair]. The only time you see that sunburst not in connection with the royal family is on the shields of the guards of the main door to Meduseld.

138.  Dialogue coaches had gone to the trouble of giving people from Rohan slightly different accents from people from Gondor. The Rohan accent has a very hard, pronounced "R."

139.  When Gandalf says, "Frodo suspects something." And Bilbo answers, "'Of course he does. He's a Baggins, not some Bracegirdle from Hardbottle!"   This is an intentional slur (on the part of the scriptwriters) referring to Lobelia Sackville-Baggins. After the Scouring of the Shire, when Lobelia is released from the Lockholes, the story says she returned "to her own people, the Bracegirdles of Hardbottle."

140.  Ian Holm has the same line as Frodo in the BBC Radio version as Bilbo in the movie.  And if you don't keep your feet, there is (there's) no knowing where you might be swept off to."

141.  ** In the Osgiliath flashback sequence, certain bits of dialogue are used repeatedly to enforce links between events.  Denethor's line about "A chance for Faramir, Captain of Gondor, to show his quality" is repeated in Henneth Annun when Faramir decides to take the Ring to his father, showing the motivation for him to do so. That line is also echoed by Sam when Faramir lets the hobbits go, showing the real test of Faramir's character: Condemning himself for the good of Middle Earth. Boromir also uses the line, "Remember this day, little brother" twice, once when they're drinking together, and once again when he rides off for Rivendell, enforcing how what was a joyous reunion has become a regretful farewell.  Also, when Faramir is delivering his speech over the dead Southron soldier, his voice nearly breaks several times. He is very obviously barely holding back grief--the dead soldier probably reminds him of Boromir, and how he fears he will never know how or why his brother died.

142.  Each disk of the Extended Editions begins with a shot of a different desk. Bilbo's, Saruman's, Denethor's, Théoden's, and Frodo's.

143.  Twice Éomer makes "size" jokes/comments: in TT, when the Rohirrim meet the 3 hunters, he says to Gimli, "I would cut off your head, dwarf, if it stood a little higher from the ground." Then, in extended RotK, he says to Éowyn of Merry, "I do not doubt his heart; only the reach of his arm."  It's interesting that he takes 2 size-related jabs at people.

144.  Denethor, Saruman and Sauron stay in their towers and let others do the fighting.  This is their great mistake and ultimate cause of their downfall.  In the book, Denethor puts it this way: "[The Dark Lord] uses others as his weapons.  So do all great lords if they are wise..., or why should I sit here and think, and watch and wait..."  The wise of Middle-earth (Gandalf, Aragorn, Théoden) don't do this - they put their own lives on the line and lead from the front. Gandalf refers to the folly of Denethor's attitude when he replies to Denethor's words above: "the Captain of Despair does not press forward, yet. He rules rather according to the wisdom that you have just spoken, from the rear, driving his slaves in madness on before."  That's exactly how Saruman operated too, staying in his tower and sending his orcs and Uruk-hai to do his dirty work.  Both Denethor and Saruman eventually fall from their Towers. Sauron's crumbles around him. In the end, it seems, you can't win if you let others do the fighting for you - you have to get out there yourself and fight for what you believe in.

145.  The doors of Orthanc and the doors of the Tomb of the Stewards are similar in design. Works symbolically and literally, as Orthanc is supposed to be Númenorean-inspired.

146.  Gandalf's fall from the bridge at Khazad-dûm, he is falling in a very Crucifix like pose, feet together and arms straight out.  It's to hint that he fell intentionally in order to continue to fight the Balrog and spare the Fellowship. He doesn't fall, he lets go, and this body language is intended to imply this. In FotR, before we understand that the Balrog is not neutralized by this fall, we can interpret Gandalf's position as a bit of symbolism by the filmmakers. In TTT, we realize that it isn't just a symbol of what Gandalf has just sacrificed, but also a sign of his intentions to continue this sacrifice, and the giving himself over to the battle that will likely end him. It's very effective in both cases.

147.  In the scene of  'Merry's Courage', our dear Hobbit, while he is speaking out his so touching thoughts and feelings to Éowyn, is at the same time munching on a piece of bread or other food of some kind; quite a hobbity thing to do indeed!!!
   But suddenly, the trumpet calls everybody for the early departure just decided by Théoden; hearing this unexpected call, both Éowyn and Merry freeze; and then we see this incredible sight: a Hobbit apparently in his good mind, willingly and unhesitantly putting down the morsel he was eating, and abandoning it half-eaten then and there!!!  This is in my eyes as much a heroic deed, in hobbity terms, as Merry's next gesture: to grab instead of that food his helmet, put it on resolutely, look intently into Éowyn's eyes, and say: 'To battle!' - soon echoed by Éowyn herself, galvanized by his courage.

148.  There are similarities between Gandalf's fall in Moria and Aragorn's fall during the warg battle. Both are pulled down by a creature, engineered by dark forces, within the context of an Orc attack.  Gandalf and Aragorn both fall into water.  Both creatures die.  Both Gandalf and Aragorn lie with their arms stretched out before they both take a deep breath and regain consciousness.  In the book, Gandalf is borne away by Gwaihir; in the movie, Aragorn is borne away by Brego.



1)       Snaga (just a mouthful) gets it from the Uruk-hai.

2)       Gandalf, as he charges into the waiting Pikemen takes off one poor orc-head just as it goes into slow motion.

3)       Legolas with his fighting knives does some kind of twirl, then a head goes flying.

4)       Aragorn in Moria after the orcs break through the door.

5)       Aragorn just after he and the Elves charge the Uruk-hai coming through the breech in the wall.

6)       Aragorn fighting the Uruk-hai on the causeway

7)       Aragorn during the warg attack.

8)       "Aftermath" category:  The three hunters find the head of an Uruk-hai on a spike.

9)       "Implied beheading" category:  The Black Rider swings at the hobbit on the street "Who goes there?"


 MULTIPLE DUTY: cast work on more than one character


150.  Hugo Weaving plays Elrond and voices the one word uttered by Isildur... "No."

151.  Andy Serkis plays Gollum and the spoken words by the Black Riders and the 3 Uruk-hai and orcs that stop and talk as Aragorn, Legolas and Gimli pursue them (Man-flesh).  He also voices the Witch-king.

152.  Craig Parker played Haldir and voiced Gothmog and the skull-capped, catapult orc!

153.  Stephen Ure portrays Grishnákh in TTT and is Shagrat in RotK.

154.  Dom played the cave Gollum in the prologue of FotR and Merry the rest of the time.

155.  John Rhys-Davies portrays Gimli and does the voice for Treebeard.

156.  Lawrence Makoare plays Lurtz, the Witch-king and Gothmog. 

157.  Jed Brophy was the Warg-rider (Sharku?) who was battling with Aragorn when the latter went over the cliff in TTT, was the orc in the mob squabbling over whether to eat Merry and Pippin (Snaga) who said "just a mouthful", and the Rohirric soldier who found Théodred. He also was said to play various elves and riders.

158.  Tall Paul played Aragorn, Boromir, Legolas, the Guard climbing the tower stairs in Rohan, Gandalf, Strider, Éowyn, Éomer, and Arwen (anytime a scale to the hobbits was needed).




                FotR NON-ENGLISH DIALOGUE LINES (Credit for the following translations goes to the folk at


All lines in Sindarin unless stated otherwise.  Screen subtitles in "quote marks".  Translation given only if no subtitle, or if different from subtitle.  ** Lines from EE marked thus.



Galadriel: I amar prestar aen, han mathon ne nen, han mathon ne chae a han noston ned 'wilith.

"The world is changed; I feel it in the water, I feel it in the earth, I smell it in the air."


Elrond: Tangado haid! Leithio i philinn!

"Hold [your] positions! Fire the arrows!"



Ringwraith to Frodo: (Black Speech) Gû kîbum kelkum-ishi, burzum-ishi. Akha gûm-ishi ashi gurum.

"[There is] no life in-the-cold, in-the-dark. Here in-the-void only death."


Arwen: Frodo, im Arwen. Telin le thaed. Lasto beth nîn, tolo dan nan galad.

"Frodo. I am Arwen – I've come to help you. Hear my voice... Come back to the light."

[lit: Frodo…I [am] Arwen. I come to help you. Listen to my word. Come back to [the] light.]


Aragorn: Dartho guin Beriain. Rych le ad tolthathon.

"Stay with the Hobbits – I’ll send horses for you."

[lit: horses for you I will send.]


Arwen: Hon mabathon. Rochon ellint im.

"I'm the faster rider – I'll take him."

[lit: I will take him. I am the swifter rider.]


Aragorn: Andelu i ven.

"The road is too dangerous"

[lit: The road [is] very dangerous.]


Arwen: Frodo fîr. Ae athradon i hîr, tûr gwaith nîn beriatha hon.

"If I can get across the river… the power of my people will protect him."

[lit: Frodo dies. If I get across the river, [the] power of my people will protect him.]


Aragorn: Be iest lîn.

"According to your wish" / "As you wish"


Arwen: Noro lim, Asfaloth, noro lim!

"Ride fast, Asfaloth, ride fast!"


Arwen: Nîn o Chithaeglir, lasto beth daer; Rimmo nîn Bruinen dan in Ulaer! (repeated)

"Waters of the Misty Mountains, listen to the great word; flow waters of Loudwater against the Ringwraiths!"



Elrond: Lasto beth nÎn. Tolo dan nan galad.

"Hear my voice, come back to [the] light."


Arwen: A si i-Dhúath ú-othor, Aragorn. Ù or le a ú or nin.

"The Shadow does not hold sway yet. Not over you… not over me."

[lit: Till now the Shadow not masters, Aragorn. Not over you and not over me.]


Arwen: Renech i lú i erui govannem?

"Do you remember when we first met?"

[lit.: Do you remember the time when we first met?]


Aragorn: Nauthannen i ned Ôl reniannen.

"I thought I had strayed into a dream."


Arwen: "Gwennin in enniath. Ù-'arnech in naeth i si celich."

"Long years have passed. You did not have the cares you carry now."


Arwen: Renech i beth i pennen?

"Do you remember what I told you?"

[lit: Do you remember the word I told you?]


Gandalf : (Black Speech) Ash nazg durbatulûk, ash nazg gimbatul, ash nazg thrakatulûk agh burzum-ishi krimpatul.

One Ring to rule them all, One Ring to find them, One Ring to bring them all and in the Darkness bind them.


Aragorn: Havo dad, Legolas.

"Sit down, Legolas."


** Elrond: Anirne hene beriad i chên lîn. Ned Imladris nauthant e le beriathar aen.

"She wanted to protect her child… she thought in Rivendell you would be safe."



Saruman: (Quenya) Cuiva nwalca Carnirasse, nai yarvaxea rasselya!

"Wake up cruel Redhorn! May your horn be bloodstained!"


Gandalf: Losto Caradhras, sedho, hodo nuitho i ‘ruith!

"Sleep Caradhras, be still, lie still, hold [your] wrath!"


Saruman:(Quenya) Cuiva nwalca Carnirasse, nai yarvaxea rasselya taltuva notto-carinnar!

"Wake up cruel Redhorn! May your bloodstained horn fall upon the enemy heads!"



Gandalf:  Annon Edhellen edro hi ammen!

Gate of the Elves open now for me!


** Gandalf: Fennas Nogothrim lasto beth lammen.

"Doorway of the Dwarf-folk listen to the word of my tongue."


Gandalf: (Quenya) Ando Eldarinwa a lasta quettanya, Fenda Casarinwa!

"Gate of Elves listen to my word, Threshold of Dwarves!"


Gimli in Balin’s tomb: (Khuzdul) Kilmin malur ni zaram kalil ra narag. Kheled-zâram ... Balin tazlifi.

Apparently meaningless phrase imitating the sounds of Dwarf language.



Aragorn (Theatrical Edition only): Haldir o Lórien. Henio, aníron, boe ammen i dulu lîn. Boe ammen veriad lîn.

"Haldir of Lorien.  We come here for help.  We need your protection."

[lit: Haldir of Lorien.  Understand, please [lit. I wish], we need your support.  We need your protection."


** Haldir: Mae govannen, Legolas Thranduilion.

"Welcome Legolas, son of Thranduil."

[lit: Well-met Legolas, Thranduil-son]


** Legolas: Govannas vîn gwennen le, Haldir o Lórien.

"Our Fellowship stands in your debt, Haldir of Lórien"

[Our Fellowship [is] obliged [to] you, Haldir of Lórien.]


** Haldir: A Aragorn in Dúnedain istannen le ammen.

"Aragorn of the Dúnedain… you are known to us."

[Oh, Aragorn of the Dúnedain, you [are] known to us.]


** Gimli: (Khuzdul) Ishkhaqwi ai durugnul.

I spit upon your grave.


** Aragorn to Haldir (indistinct background dialogue on flet): Boe ammen veriad lîn. Andelu i ven. Merin le telim. Henio, aníron boe ammen i dulu lîn. Andelu i ven.

We need your protection.  The road [is] very dangerous.  I wish we come to you [?].  Understand, please"

[Lit: [I wish], we need you support. The road [is] very dangerous.]


** Celeborn: Le aphadar aen.

"You are being tracked."

[Lit: You are being followed.]


** Galadriel: Am meleth dîn i ant e guil Arwen Undómiel pígatha.

"For her love I fear the grace of Arwen Evenstar will diminish."

[Lit: For her love, the gift of life of Arwen Evenstar will dwindle.]


** Aragorn: Aníron i e broniatha, ad ae periatham athar i methid en-amar hen. Aníron i e círatha na Valannor.

"I would have her leave these shores and be with her people. I would have her take the ship to Valinor."

[Lit: I wish that she endures, even if we separate beyond the limits of this world. I wish that she sails to Valinor]


** Galadriel: Nadath nâ i moe cerich. Dan, ú-'eveditham, Elessar.

"There is much you have yet to do. We shall not meet again, Elessar."

[Lit: There are many things you [yet] need to do . But, we will not meet [again], Elessar]


Galadriel: (Quenya) Namárië


[Lit: Be in goodness]




"HI" – Sound made by first Black Rider's horse when the hobbits hide under the tree


Crab lice from Dublin – Crebain from Dunland!

Crablegs from Dunland – Crebain from Dunland!


Worse road to my city.

West road to my city.


Dwarven chant as the stairs in Khazad-dûm topple: Who got salami?  Who got salami? – (choral)


Who am I Gambling?

Who am I, Gamling?


Ripe meat off the bone.

Red meat off the bone.


Not alive.  Dead!

Don't escape in death.


His spirit will find its way to the whores of your fathers.

His spirit will find its way to the halls of your fathers.




161.  There's a touching memoriam/dedication at the end of the credits for:

1)       Bill and Joan Jackson (Peter's Mother and Father).

2)       Carla Fry (Executive in Charge of Production)

3)       Brent Robb (Assistant Production Coordinator)

4)       Brian Bansgrove (Supervising Chief Lighting Technician--Gaffer)  

5)       "In memory of our dear friend Cameron Duncan" (A teenaged NZ filmmaker lost to cancer.  The song Into The West was inspired by him)






162.  Sean Astin stepped on jagged glass/stick that went clear through his right foot during the Parth Galen scene when he runs into the water after Frodo.

163.  Both Viggo and Ian M. have injured/bloodshot eyes in some takes: Viggo on a river closeup FotR and Ian when fighting Saruman.

164.  Sean had the misfortune to be sitting under an 80-pound loom (a prop) that fell during filming at Rivendell and he was knocked unconscious.

165.  Sean was hurt when he slammed himself against the rock when the Black Rider fought him at Amon Sûl.

166.  Elijah stepped on glass on the day they filmed the hobbits following Strider from Bree.

167.  Ian McKellen needed a chiropractor after his wizard fight and disco spin.

168.  Dom was massively allergic to his elven cloak.

169.  JRD had constant skin inflammation and peeling from his allergy to the glue used on his prosthetics.

170.  Dom got a HUGE, titanium(esque) splinter in his foot when running onto the dock during the Bucklebury Ferry scene.

171.  Orlando broke some ribs when falling from a horse during the warg attack.

172.  Christopher Lee injured his finger on his right hand when it was slammed in a door.  He's wearing a bandage on it during his scene when he's calling up the Caradhras storm atop Orthanc.

173.  Billy got bitten on the rump by a horse, and broke his little finger while surfing.

174.  Viggo had to have some of his Moria shots without showing the right side of his face, which was badly bruised after getting hit in the face with a surfboard while surfing with the Hobbits.

175.  Alan Lee fell from the Amon Hen set during its construction and broke his left arm

176.  The stuntman who was shot in the stomach when the rope and anchor shot over the wall at Helm's Deep broke his leg when he fell.

177.  Barrie Osborne had the bridge of his nose broken when Billy hit him with a sponge-covered rock while filming Boromir's defence of the hobbits.

178.  Bernard Hill's (Théoden's) right ear was slashed when Bruce Hopkin's (Gamling's) sword was knocked against it (needing 6 stitches) during the fight at the gate.

179.  Bernard Hill broke his sternum as he got off his horse when arriving at Helm's Deep.

180.  Dom accidentally kicked the actor playing Shagrat (Stephen Ure) in the face when filming Fangorn Forest.

181.  Viggo broke his toe when he kicks the helmet outside Fangorn

182.  Jay Laga'aia, who plays Captain Typho in star wars Episodes II & III, broke his leg while filming fight scenes for "Return of the King."

183.  Billy had two fillings without any anesthetic, and "the pain was so much that my hobbit feet fell off.”  Apparently, Billy had an emergency appointment with the dentist, but because he had lines to deliver in the afternoon, asked that his mouth not be numbed. So agonizing was the drilling and filling, however, that he began to sweat so profusely that the glue holding his prosthetic feet on was washed away and they slipped to the floor.

184.  While filming the three hunters runner, each were nursing injuries (Viggo's broken toe, Orlando's broken ribs, Brett's (JRD's scale double) badly injured knee).

185.  Dom's foot was stabbed by Boromir's sword on the Khazad-dûm crumbling stairway.  Sean Bean thought he was putting the sword in its scabbard, but missed & hit Dom's foot.

186.  Viggo broke his tooth during rehearsal of Helm's Deep when he was hit in the mouth by a sword and asked to have it superglued on to finish the scene.  One of the producer's dragged him off to a dentist.

187.  Viggo had a close call when they were filming the post-cliff shots of Aragorn in the fast-moving water.  He got caught by the current against the rocks and was pulled and held underwater for several scary moments when he thought he'd not escape.  He finally kicked himself free.

188.  Billy's feet were so frozen during the Watcher in the Water scene, he almost asked to stop filming.  In the eedvd commentary, Sean says Billy's feet were the coldest throughout the filming.

189.  While filming Sméagol chasing a fish down the creek, Andy was nearly overwhelmed by the icy water as they filmed in the winter-frozen location.

190.  Brett had a bad boating accident on the "Anduin" while he was filming with Orlando - he had to be pulled out of the water by Orlando when their boat sank.

191.  A stuntman dislocated his shoulder when doing the hobbit tumble down the hill onto the wooded road.

192.  Thomas' neck (Déagol) was raw and red from multiple takes during the choking scene with Andy Serkis.

193.  Sean Astin had welts on the back of his neck from the orc whipping him when Frodo and Sam are captured in orc gear.

194.  Peter gets banged up doing numerous falls on the deck of the ship when he gets shot.

195.  Elijah suffered broken blood vessels in his face from the scene of Sméagol choking Frodo at Mt. Doom.




LotR has its fake death scenes! (Fake Death Syndrome).  Of the main characters, it's only Legolas, Galadriel & Elrond don't suffer from it!


196.  All four hobbits killed in their beds by Nazgûl (for all of 10 seconds).

197.  Frodo killed by cave troll in Moria.

198.  The Nazgûl that was burned at Weathertop/Amon Sûl.

199.  The Balrog and Gandalf dying in Moria when they fall.

200.  The Nazgûl drowning at Ford of Bruinen

201.  Frodo "dies" by the river in Arwen's arms

202.  Sam drowning


203.  Pippin killed by horse stomping on him.

204.  Merry and Pippin killed and burned in the pile by the Rohirrim (not by the Uruks).

205.  Aragorn killed by fall from cliff.

206.  Gimli when the wall blows up and he collapses.

207.  Aragorn when the wall blows up and he fall unconscious.

208.  Haldir when he… oops.  Nevermind.


209.  Faramir killed by the orcs of Osgiliath.

210.  Frodo killed by Shelob.

211.  Gollum killed by falling off the cliff.

212.  Aragorn has vision of Arwen dying.

213.  Merry "killed" on the battlefield.

214.  Éowyn "killed" on the battlefield.

215.  Frodo killed by falling off the precipice into the lava.

216.  Sam as he leaps over the lava and disappears... but he grabs onto the rock.




217.  Daniel Reeve was the LOTR movies' calligrapher and cartographer who got into LotR by writing to Peter Jackson to see if he needed an Elvish calligrapher. Reeve was a software developer by profession who was working in a bank and did calligraphy on the side.  He gave up his day job to devote himself to it full-time.  His writing appears in every aspect of the films… even labels on the fireworks, (on both scales), which would hardly be seen on the screen.

218.  The Red Book not only has the pages you see on screen being written by Bilbo and Frodo, but also contains their practice pages.  Ian Holm’s practice page and Elijah’s practice page. Elijah’s was line after line of him trying, in Frodo’s handwriting (as taught by Daniel), the line “the greatest thing he ever did”.   Near the bottom of the page, Elijah has written an apology, in the same hand, for getting the lines so crooked!

219.  When Reeve was tutoring Elijah, he was astonished to see he only had nine full fingers. He didn’t say anything but felt sympathetic that this young guy, so early in life, had lost half a finger through some accident.  He didn’t realize ‘til later that Elijah was wearing a prosthetic half-finger, with his real finger strapped underneath, practicing for how it would be in his writing scene!

220.  To be authentic with his Elvish translations, Reeve wrote up fifty book titles for the books in Elrond’s library, writing on the bindings with silver pen. Many are not seen on the screen, but they all have plausible titles, not anything silly like ‘Daniel was here’. So he chose various themes from the Silmarillion.  Two of the titles in Elrond’s bookcase are ‘The Captivity of Melkor” and “The Last Alliance”.

221.  Reeve wrote the scroll the “Kings of Númenor”, which can be seen in an alcove at Rivendell.

222.  Reeve designed the Elvish telescope (which can be seen in the LOTR Exhibition).

223.  Reeve aged various prop pages, such as Isildur’s writing the Book of Mazarbul.

224.  Some of Reeve’s workbooks contained things such as the original sign “No admittance except on party business”, the title and menu pages for the DVDs, and the style lettering for each character and place name, which he had to email to New Line who now use these on all their merchandising.

225.  Reeve didn’t only do lettering, he also came up with the content for some of the beautiful journals that appeared in the films, and page after page of writing that was barely seen, but was still completed for authenticity.

226.  Saruman’s journal has pages of notes pondering the nature of light and whether it can be split from colours, the optimum temperature and gestation time to birth Uruk-hai, and Nazgûl distance and flight times.

227.  Reeve created pages from the Houses of Healing describing the medicinal properties of mushroom, poppies, healing herbs, etc.

228.  Bilbo’s journal (the Red Book of West March), to give it that authenticity, the pages between the title page “There and Back Again”… and the final pages completed by Frodo… contain Bilbo’s diary.  It’s about twenty or so pages, telling the story of The Hobbit in a condensed, first-person narrative.

229.  When filming had finished, Elijah Wood wrote a letter to each of the Fellowship cast in the voice of Frodo to each person’s character, but subtly tying in the real person also.  He asked Daniel to write out these letters in genuine Frodo hand.  Daniel’s workbook contains probably the only copies.  Among some of the letters:

Frodo teases Merry about all the hobbit lasses of Wellington who will miss his company

Frodo thanks Pippin for his gift of laughter, and wishes him well in his ‘sport of the sea’.

To Strider, Frodo makes mention of the Ranger’s love of pipeweed.
                  They are awesome and personal letters, and tie in both the theme of LOTR, Frodo taking leave of his dear friends…

and a thanks from one actor to another for the journey they’ve taken together.

230.  Reeve made various maps for LotR, including Bilbo’s map, a ‘Prologue’ map created for the screenshot, and some small geographical details of Middle-earth that are based on small details of Wellington’s coastline.  There’s a tiny peninsula that matches the peninsula of Miramar where Wingnut studios are based.

231.  Reeve has done lettering work on a LotR Monopoly game.  All the properties are Middle-earth locations.


SONGS / MUSIC – Thoughts on variations and themes

Actual songs and translations are found in Songs of Middle-earth List.


232.  Variations of FotR Argonath and Gollum music is playing during the Taming of Sméagol.

233.  Howard Shore was visiting NZ the same time Sir Edmund Hillary was visiting filming locations (first person to successful climb Mt. Everest).

234.  All the themes repeat and have variations throughout the three films. Except - the wonderful, majestic Dwarrowdelf theme.

235.  When Legolas is shield-surfing down the stairs, the music playing is a double-time version of the Fellowship hero theme.

236.  The music that plays when Aragorn rides to Helm’s Deep in TTT (after Brego rescues him) is very similar to (if not the same as) the Beacons music in RotK. Same scenario if you think about it – an urgent message to Rohan about imminent war.

237.  Listen to the music the first time Barad-dûr is shown in TTT (via Saruman's palantir). Sauron's theme sounds a bit different from its previous incarnations in FotR - it has a snake charmer's tonal quality to it. This got me thinking. Does Saruman see himself as the snake charmer and Barad-dûr the snake (with the Eye at the top the tower does look like a cobra in a ready-to-strike stance)? Or is Sauron himself the snake, hypnotizing and manipulating Saruman the hapless white rabbit to his will?

238.  In the final verse of "Gollum's Song", when Emiliana sings "When you face the end alone", the reverb is cranked up to give "alone" a noticeable echo.

239.  Characters who have sung in the trilogy are Pippin, Merry, Frodo (together at the Green Dragon), Pippin alone, Pippin and Merry, Aragorn, Éowyn, Gollum/Sméagol, Bilbo, Gandalf, and Arwen.

240.  When Aragorn tells Théoden to ride out, the hope theme (previously heard when the moth visits Gandalf onto of Orthanc) is sung without instruments (a capella). This hope theme can be heard when the Ents march to Isengard as well.

241.  The very first time we hear the Rohan theme song is when Aragorn, Gimli and Legolas first look out across the plains of Rohan.

242.  At the Grey Havens, when the fellowship arrives, and the camera pans down, the high strings in the score mimics gulls crying.  It actually sounds like gulls, but it's the music really.

243.  The change in music during Frodo’s ‘wheel of fire’ speech is stirring and subtle.  It follows a nostalgic notion while remembering the Shire. Even as Frodo talks of what he can’t remember, it tricks one with a continuation of that theme, that things aren’t too bad for Frodo.  Then on the very words “wheel of fire”, it suddenly turns ... into a minor chord... and we know his pain is real.  This happens again at the end as the hobbits meet Gandalf to leave for the Havens.

244.  We can hear the horns of four factions in TTT and FotR. Orc Horns, Elf Horns (very distinct, not made from animal horns), Boromir's ox-horn (a signal horn) and the Easterlings' greeting trumpets at the gate.  Saruman is greeted with a cascade of horns when he makes his speech. Note that the Uruk-hai don't blow any horns when attacking Helm's Deep.

245.  It seems that the music of a single trumpet represents Aragorn, the fiddle/violin represents Théoden or Éowyn, the flute represents Arwen, and the clarinet/whistle represents the hobbits.

246.  The pan-whistle plays primarily for Faramir (found most in RotK).

247.  There is a music score moment when Merry is telling Pippin about the Ents we hear the "moth" theme which develops into the storming of Isengard theme.

248.  Merry and Pippin have a different version of the Shire theme than Frodo. It's brief in TTT, and sounds a bit more Gaelic.

249.  The marching music for the Ents is a variation of the moth music in FotR (a "nature" theme).

250.  **On the TTeedvd only.  If you listen closely right after the "One of the Dúnedain" scene, as it starts into "The Evenstar" scene, you can hear the "Gondor theme" that is played during Boromir's speech at the Council, and during the "Sons of the Steward" flashback.  As far as I know, this is the first time in the movies that the theme has been associated with Aragorn. 

251.  **The FotR soundtrack's horn hunting-calls played when the Bruinen sweeps over the Black Riders are in the EE, played at low volume under the sounds of snorting and stamping.  As the choral music ends, and Arwen turns in the river, you hear those same random notes, suggesting the calls of many horns as huntsmen find their quarry. But they are not played on clear-sounding hunting-horns as on the soundtrack... just orchestral brass.

252.  The introductory LotR theme that is heard at the beginning of every film (while 'The Lord of the Rings' is announced) has been changed into a triplet version for RotK - perhaps to denote the third part of the trilogy?

253.  Re: the soundtrack "Evenstar"...  In the TTT, you first hear it when Aragorn is dreaming of Arwen, when Elrond is foreseeing Aragorn's death and you see Arwen standing by him, and then walking through the woods.  Also, with the solo, there is no break between the first and second part; but on the soundtrack, they are mixed it together.

254.  In the track "Forth Eorlingas," it begins with the chorales in Old English, and then the music ends up with Théoden riding out to meet the Uruk-hai, and Gandalf and Éomer appearing and riding down the hill with the Rohirrim. This is also the way it is in TTT sheet music. But in the movie, instead of the Old English chorales, leading up to the end, the music is the March of the Ents, and then Théoden rides out with his men and Gandalf comes.

255.  As Aragorn, Legolas and Gimli leave Dunharrow by the Dimholt path, there's a brief snatch of the Fellowship theme. It's much-reduced and set in a minor key, but it's definitely there.

256.  Just as PJ has gone for big emotions and unashamed earnestness, so has Shore. The score reminds me of old movie scores like the one to Gone with the Wind, although I believe the use of choirs/voices on a soundtrack is a more recent development (I remember how amazing it was when Excalibur used the Carmina Burana). The music has its classical resonance, too. Wagner has been mentioned a time or two, and I detect a bit of Brahms here and there. The music behind the beacons sequence reminds of Sibelius' The Moldau -- the music swirls around, then breaks out into the full Gondor theme. Shore does something similar in FotR. Right after the Fellowship leaves Rivendell we hear a swirly/airy passage, which then breaks into the full Fellowship theme as one by one Gandalf et al walk up between the big rocks.

257.  While Denethor is talking to Gandalf in the hall, you hear a hint of similar score piece when Saruman was talking to Gandalf about the Eye.

258.  The same music that we hear while we have that amazing shot when we fly up Minas Tirith to see Aragorn's coronation also plays as Barad-dûr falls down.  I'm not sure what the connection is supposed to be, but I call it The End of the Third Age theme (as the collapse of Barad-dûr and the Return of the King both signify the end of the Third Age and the beginning of the Fourth).

259.  When Aragorn sang the Quenya declaration of Elendil ("Et Eärello Endorenna...") at his coronation, he didn't just speak it, he sang it in a very haunting way, like a hymn, and gave it the respect that a true hymn deserves.

260.  When the Rohirrim arrive at Dunharrow, they are posting to the down-beat of the music.

261.  We hear a bit of "Into the West" when Gandalf is talking to Pippin about death; then the on Mount Doom right after Sam, "I can't carry the ring.  But I CAN carry you!"

262.  **Towards the end of the Éowyn "stew" scene, a subtle version of the Gondor theme is played (not in the theatrical version) as the scene dissolves into Aragorn sitting and thinking about Arwen.  I assume that this is because we hear about Aragorn's age, and how he is one of the Dúnedain, a descendant of Númenor, which makes sense since Gondor is in fact a reflection (albeit a pale one) of Númenorean times.

263.  On the (in)famous Éowyn "stew" scene: I like how Howard Shore composed a lighter version of the "Éowyn" theme for this scene -- it almost sounds girly and clumsy, which I think is very clever since the scene does depict a more girly side to Éowyn.  The "Éowyn" theme, by the way, is the one we first hear played just after Éowyn tells Wormtongue to leave her alone, when she runs out of the Golden Hall and stands on the platform. It is heard on the track "The Riders of Rohan" from TTT just before the Rohan theme begins.

264.  In the first scene of Frodo and Sam in the film (straight after Sméagol/Déagol) when the two Hobbits and Gollum are walking towards Mordor and the camera does that wonderful, slow pan up towards the Mountains, the music that plays is a slower, more emotive version of the music that plays when Frodo and Sam set out from Hobbiton at the beginning of FotR (from where Gandalf leaves them to the scene in the corn field).

265.  We can hear snatches of Gollum's song "We only wish/To catch a fish/So juicy sweet" as he bites into the fish ... but it's broken up in the stereo, so that a few words seem to come from one direction, the next word or two from another, the next from a third. It's as if we're in an auditory sense witnessing the fragmenting of Sméagol's personality.

266.  The motif we hear as Aragorn begins to think of Arwen is interesting because it is used in FotR at the beginning of the track "Anárion (theme for Aragorn and Arwen)" when we first see them together on the bridge.  This theme is interesting because if you listen carefully to the music in the *prologue* of FotR, you can hear this same theme briefly as Galadriel narrates: "But the hearts of men are easily corrupted", and we are shown Isildur with the Ring around his neck. It is for this reason that I call this motif the "Temptation of Men" theme as it is used not just for Aragorn but for Isildur also.

267.  In an interview, Howard Shore said that the two cast songs (Pippin's and Aragorn's) were recorded during principle photography, and he had to write his music around them. Pippin starts unaccompanied, but the orchestra comes in over it at the end (in an appropriate key).

268.  When Pippin begins to sing, he's in a different key than the beautiful music that comes before.

269.  On the RotK soundtrack, Éowyn's theme (deep flute played when Aragorn tells her he does not feel the same way - middle of Rohirrim piece) is almost identical, or at least fits with Faramir's theme (deep flute played when Denethor tells him he would rather have had Boromir live - think that is Steward of Gondor piece on soundtrack).  Maybe a foreshadowing of RotK EE Éowyn and Faramir's love story.  The same music is played when Elrond gives Aragorn Andúril in RotK as when Aragorn was talking to Boromir about the White City in Lothlórien in FotR.  The "Restoring Gondor's Lost Glory" theme that plays over Boromir's "silver trumpets" speech in FotR and over the reforging of Narsil in RotK also plays over Ngila Dickson's discussion of the way they incorporated some small elements of majesty into Aragorn's tattered costume, subtle hints of a noble past and future (in the wardrobe feature on the FotR EE). This is nice... fits very well with the other uses of the theme.

270.  The music when Merry and Pippin are trying to get Frodo to hide with them at Amon Hen is a variation of the marching song of the Ents as they head for Isengard in TT and the moth flying toward Gandalf on top of Orthanc in FotR.  Perhaps it's the "Help from unexpected sources" theme.

271.  **In the DVD that comes with the limited edition RotK soundtrack, Howard Shore is flipping through sheet music.  One was entitled "The Passing of the Grey Company."  It isn't in any of the lyrics on the DVD or on the album liner notes. It isn't mentioned anywhere at all.

272.  The tune of "Into the West" is used at various points.  When Gandalf is talking to Pippin about death it plays very softly as he says the line about "...a white shore and a far green country under a swift sunrise" - the description in the book of Frodo's glimpse of Valinor. Later, on Mount Doom, when Sam says, "I can't carry it for you, but I can carry you!" the theme rings out on the horns in a truly heroic theme. Beautiful. Howard Shore's score has been absolutely masterly, operatic in scale. I also like the way he and PJ will match a very dramatic and violent scene with quite delicate and poignant music, such as Pippin's song during that suicidal cavalry charge and the soaring voice of Renee Fleming when Mount Doom is raining fire and it really is the "End of All Things."  It is essential that we see Frodo choose life so that when he sails from the Havens we know that is only with Eru's blessing that he relinquishes life on Middle Earth. I do think it is important to make his decision to sail clearly different to a impulse to suicide and that moment when he reaches for Sam's hand establishes that beyond all doubt.

273.  In FotR, Frodo and Sam are hiking through the Shire with vigor. Near the beginning of RotK, Frodo, Sam, and Gollum are passing through that dead looking forest. Frodo and Sam are weary and trudging along, their vigor is gone. However, the same music is playing in both scenes!

274.  Gollum's song is/was a variation on the Shire theme, which is the main theme we hear throughout the first part of LotR.  It is played in many different voices/moods.  I like the idea of a musical connection between Bilbo and Gollum (and the Lonely Mountain map seems like a good place for one). 

275.  During the scene when Aragorn, Gimli, and Legolas are leaving the Rohirrim encampment, you hear the music that is generally associated with the Paths of the Dead. However, just before Théoden steps out of his tent to watch them go by, you can hear a strain of the Fellowship theme, which is then overwhelmed by the Paths of the Dead music.

276.  **During the "Heir of Númenor" scene, there is a nice string melody that plays under Gandalf's line: "The Ring remains hidden.  And that we should seek to destroy it has not yet entered their darkest dreams." This same little theme comes back in big fanfare style in RotK played as the foundations of Barad-dûr begin to crumble and the tower falls.  Gandalf talks about the eventual destruction of Barad-dûr while the music that accompanies that future scene plays in the background.

277.  [I've left this musical insight as is because it's so freakin wonderful!--gramma]  We frequently hear lines and see images from the films as the music is playing.  Nothing unusual about that, you say?  I agree. However, I've repeatedly found a particular FotR line of Bilbo's going through my head during one of the final tracks of RotK music, which I thought *was* a little odd. So, today I sat down with stereo and DVD player, both soundtrack CDs, and both movies, to figure this out. Here is what I discovered:  The same phrase of the Shire theme which plays in the FotR EE (Concerning Hobbits scene), *exactly* as Bilbo says "For things are made to endure in the Shire, passing from one generation to the next. There's always been a Baggins living here under the Hill, in Bag End, and there always will be", ALSO plays in RotK (Homeward Bound scene), *exactly* as we cut from the Green Dragon to Sam and Rosie's wedding kiss.  In fact, the rising "swell" in the music, which underlies Bilbo's words "For things are made to endure in the Shire" exactly matches the "swell" which is heard as we see the wedding kiss.  There's also a kind of fade, or dwindling, at the end of the phrase in each case (not an exact match, as the phrase is a little longer in RotK, but the fade is pretty darn similar).  In FotR we hear it as Bilbo wistfully says "...and there always will be.", and in the RotK scene it is heard as the camera cuts to Frodo (just before the fade to him wandering forlornly in an empty Bag End).  This subliminal (for want of a better word) musical link between these two scenes, whether it was deliberate or not, speaks to me of both: a) the hope, and promise of continuity, that Sam and Rosie embody (life *will* endure in the Shire, passing to the next generation etc); b) the bittersweet sadness of Frodo's passing, and the "ending" it signifies (there *won't* always be a Baggins under the hill, in Bag End).  For me this is just another example of the evocative power of Howard Shore's score.  I am even more grateful than ever for the rich emotional subtext he has added to these films.

278.  The music that plays over Gandalf's words to Frodo in Moria - "all we have to decide is what to do with the time that is given to us" - is repeated a number of times at moments of emotional crisis, and last of all during Frodo and Sam's farewell at the Grey Havens.  The same theme plays while Bilbo tries to tell Frodo that he is leaving (in the EE, at the party), and that the theme ends abruptly when Bilbo backs out and says instead "You'll be all right". This ties together the two partings (Bilbo and Frodo, Frodo and Sam) which despite the difference in tone are essentially the same (the effects of the ring have made it impossible for them to stay) - it was only after many readings of the book that I realized just how much sadness is hidden beneath Bilbo's "Mad Baggins" performance at the party, and I find that in the movie, this little EE scene between Bilbo and Frodo also captures that outwardly comedic but really profoundly sad element in Bilbo's leaving. When rewatching FotR after seeing RotK I have found this scene touching in a way I did not fully understand - Ian Holm's and Elijah's performances here are wonderful, but no doubt I was also unconsciously registering the musical theme.

279.  During the Council Of Elrond, precisely when Frodo says "I will take the Ring to Mordor!" you hear the theme that plays at the end of RotK, when the camera zooms away and we see the map of Middle Earth.  See?  Beginning of the journey - end of the journey!  It's called "Gandalf's wisdom" by some people.  It's the first few bars of The Breaking Of The Fellowship. The music for Gandalf at the Grey Havens is the piece that plays after Gandalf's fall in Moria, with the choir replaced by strings.

280.  Aragorn's motif (connection him to Gondor) follows the same musical pattern as Gondor's.  Sometimes blaring horns playing unisono (think of the grand sound when Aragorn faces the Uruk-hai at Amon Hen), sometimes with a dark elegance (think of Aragorn's introduction in Bree).

281.  In RotK, Aragorn's theme culminates in what we usually call the Gondor theme. The (say) second half of it is Aragorn's theme ("Minas Tirith" or Aragorn's coronation are prime examples).  Notice also that whenever the Gondor theme has to "describe" events that have nothing to do with Aragorn, Shore uses only the first half of it (Faramir's charge for instance, or when the catapults are unleashed). Basically, there are only three moments (as far as I can remember) when "Gondor" and "Aragorn" are played together:  the introduction of Minas Tirith (remembers the audience of Aragorn's connection with the "City of kings"), Aragorn fights on the Pelennor (the king is back)and at the coronation.

282.  When Gandalf is entering Hobbiton and you hear him singing "The Road Goes Ever On", the music there underscores Sir Ian McKellen's voice EXACTLY! With rhythm, tempo, everything.  The tin whistle that kicks in at the end even closes the song!  In the theatrical version the incidental music playing in the background plays a different tune, in the EE version the incidental music "sings along" with Gandalf.

283.  The music that plays after Pippin picks up the Palantir in Isengard is the same music that plays in FotR, when Boromir gives the ring back to Frodo and strokes his head (on Caradhras).  It makes a nice connection between these two "post-seduction" scenes.

284.  The "Army of the Dead" motif sounds a lot like the Gondor motif, just mutated into a more dissonant piece.  Especially the first three notes.  Maybe the connection was intended to point out the relationship between the Dead and Gondor.

285.  Remember Howard Shore saying on the Symphony DVD that he wanted to give the Ring theme in a breath- like pattern?
Listen to the scene in Mount Doom, when Frodo stands on the cliff edge; the first two notes of the ring motif are repeated over and over like "breath in- breath out", rising, calming down ... you can't describe it, you have to listen for yourself!

286.  The fall of Barad-dûr is actually THE Barad-dûr theme only transformed into a major key; instead of its original chromatic / gypsy scale.

287.  The Gondor theme (which features predominantly during the Lighting of the beacons sequence) is first heard in the Council of Elrond when Boromir first talks about Gondor. The difference is that at CoE, the theme is played by unaccompanied horn solo, whereas in RotK it is fully orchestrated.

288.  The motif that plays at the fall of Barad-dûr and at Aragorn's coronation (also during the "Fallen King" scene) is actually a variation of "Andúril"... the theme that plays just after the "fellowship reunited" scene) when Merry shouts "Frodo!" and when the camera presents a wide shot of Minas Tirith for the coronation.

289.  The music that plays as Boromir talks to Aragorn while leaning against the tree is the same music that plays when Théoden talks to Éowyn about "duty" and "I would have you smile again" in RotK.  I think the music represents one person lifting up the spirit of another.  Aragorn tells Boromir that he fought bravely and has kept his honor, Théoden tells Éowyn not to worry about him and that she will live to see the days renewed.  This also plays as Frodo writes in the Red Book at the end.

290.  The music of Lothlórien is the same as some of the Barad-dûr/Mordor theme-showing that both of them hold danger.

291.  Now that all three movies are out, I love how in retrospect all of Howard Shore's music makes sense.  For instance, we hear the "Gondor theme" at the council of Elrond (when Boromir speaks of Gondor) and the instant that Aragorn is crowned.  In Fellowship and TTT, we are not yet "formally" introduced to the Gondor theme - only in TTT-EE during the Boromir flashback do we really hear it fully.  Much of the Isengard music is in 5/4 time... a sort of industrial 5/4 march for the trolls in RotK.

292.  Repetitions of many of the motifs:  As the hobbits wind their way home from Minas Tirith at the end of RotK, the music has a sort of "syncopated" beat -- I'm sure this isn't the right word, sorry, I can play it but I don't know the actual vocabulary -- that we hear during the Many Meetings scene in Rivendell. The two motifs are like bookends, Many Meetings and Many Partings. (I know those are both chapter headings in the books, but I'm not sure if the latter occurs in the movies.)

293.  At the end of the credits, listened to the very end of the score.  Howard Shore pays obvious (to any opera fan) tribute to Richard Wagner at the close of his own great opera: the end of the score sounds exactly like the end (and so also beginning) of the Ring of the Nibelungen, under that wonderful pencil sketch of the Ring.


SWITCHED LINES (lines given from one character in the book to a different character in the film)  


294.  "It is here (Minas Tirith) that the hammer will fall hardest" - Beregond to Gandalf

295.  "Ride to ruin, death..." - Éomer to Théoden.

296.  "Naughty little fly" - Bilbo in The Hobbit to Gollum

297.  "This is not the first hobbit...". Faramir's line given to Gandalf.

298.  Gimli lines given to others.  One: "They will break like water upon rock..." at Helm's Deep.   That became Théoden's line.

299.  "Do not let him speak; he will cast a spell on us" Gimli's line in Fangorn became Aragorn's.

300.  "Too long have you watched my sister" Éomer to Wormtongue in the TT movie was originally said by Gandalf to Éomer in the book.

301.  "Ride with me" – Aragorn's given to Théoden and also to Éowyn (picking up Merry)

302.  "Where is the horse and rider" – Aragorn's given to Théoden

303.  "Eat earth, dig deep, drink water" -- Tom Bombadil's given to Treebeard

304.  "...a hutch to trammel some wild thing in" – Gandalf's given to Gríma

305.  "...spoken to the darkness, the bitter watches of the night. When all your life seems to shrink." Gandalf's given to Wormtongue.

306.  "...rick, cot and tree" – Théoden given to Éowyn

307.  "...what was the man's name, where he came from and whether he was really evil of heart , or what lies...." -- Sam's thoughts given to Faramir's.

308.  "...unless my eyes are cheated by some spell." -- Guard of Rohan's given to Legolas.

309.  "Do you not know?" Éowyn's spoken to Faramir in the book, spoken to Aragorn in the film



       Words and images repeated in the trilogy.


310.  Frodo says, "I'm glad you're with me" when he and Sam break from the Fellowship, then says, "I'm glad to be with you" as they sit above the lava after escaping Mt. Doom.

311.  There is an interesting pattern in the movies about repeating one particular line, a line that in all of its occurrences carries important weight is the short but meaningful "not this time".  It occurs four times in the three movies:

1.        Frodo says it to Sam in FotR, when they're taking a rest by the riverside before Parth Galen. ("You can't help me Sam. Not this time.")

2.        Pippin says it to Merry in TT when they're riding on Treebeard and when Pip makes Treebeard stop and take them South instead of West, past Isengard. ("No we won’t. --Not this time.")

3.        Aragorn says to Gimli in RotK, before the Paths of the Dead when Gimli intends to follow him to the Dimholt Road. ("Not this time. This time you must stay, Gimli.")

4.        Gollum says it to Frodo in RotK, when Frodo manages to escape Shelob and Gollum tries to take The Ring from him. ("Got away, precious? Not this time. Not this time!").

312.  Théoden saying to Éowyn, "I know your face" in TTT at Edoras and in RotK at Pelennor Fields.

313.  The grumpy Hobbit in front of his home, (sweeping?) when Frodo and Gandalf ride by in FotR and when Frodo, Sam, Merry and Pippin return home in RotK.

314.  During the "Pyre" sequence, Denethor say, "Against the force that rises now in the east, there is no victory."   Saruman says the same thing to Gandalf in FotR.  By making this little connection, PJ compares two powerful men who used the Palantir and who got deceived by Sauron.

315.  Denethor's "The rule of Gondor is mine!" and Saruman's "Rohan is mine!" are very similar.

316.  When Merry and Pippin are headed to the stables after the Palantir encounter, Merry says "why do you always have to look."  Later, Éowyn tells Merry "she'll look after him", right before the battle.  When Pippin finds Merry on the battlefield, he tells Merry he's going to "look after him."  Not sure if this was intentional or not, but I link these three lines as follows -- Merry learned from his experiences that "looking" could be a good thing, and Pippin learned that "looking" could mean taking on responsibility, rather than just being curious. It's a good way to sum up how these two characters have grown in their time apart from each other.

317.  The delightful laughter that Gandalf and Frodo share in the FotR in the Shire and in RotK at the houses of healing.

318.  The characters say "SPEAK" in the trilogy.  Gandalf to Sam in Bag End; Faramir to the hobbits the hidden cave; Éomer to the Hunters in Rohan; Gandalf to Pippin in Edoras.

319.  Aragorn kneels to Frodo twice in FotR - when offering him his sword at the Council of Elrond, then when letting him go; and then, of course, he kneels to all of the hobbits at his own coronation.

320.  Frodo closing his hand on the ring in FotR--first in Bag End ("what must I do?) and at the end, on the shore at Parth Galen. Both are moments of courageous resolve, but the second time he really knows he's giving up his life.

321.  Arwen shuts Aragorn's hand when he wants to give her the Evenstar back. Aragorn then shuts Frodo's hand around the ring the same way, when he lets Frodo go.

322.  Elrond says, "It is time" to Arwen, then in RotK Arwen says, "It is time" to Elrond.  I like the way certain phrases are repeated in different contexts, like Théoden's "I know your face" to Éowyn when he's released from Saruman's control, then on the Pelennor Field.

323.  Fool! Gandalf calls Pippin this twice: when he knocks the skeleton into the well in Moria (FotR), and again after he borrows the palantir (RotK). "Fool of a Took!"  The: "Only a fool's hope" - When he calls himself a fool to Pippin as they stand on the balcony at Minas Tirith.  Boromir calls Frodo a fool for taking the ring to Mordor.

324.  On Mt doom, Sam whacks gollum with a rock to the head... and at the crack of doom, Gollum returns the favor.

325.  In TTT Frodo says to Gollum ''Come Sméagol, come to master'' and then in RotK Gollum says to Frodo ''Come master, come to Sméagol'' both are leading the other into a trap when they say it.

326.  Frodo looking back over his shoulder outside Moria, devastated at the loss of Gandalf.  Then, at the end of RotK, he looks back over his shoulder from the ship, smiling and at peace.

327.  Pippin looking up when he finds the first apple floating in flooded Isengard the same way he did when the apple hit him in FotR.

328.  In FotR, Frodo says "You're Late" when Gandalf arrives in the cart.  In TTT, Legolas says "You're Late" when Aragorn arrives at Helm's Deep (but it's in elvish).

329.  The grasping of Frodo & Sam's hands Frodo pulling Sam out of the river in FotR, Sam helping Frodo up after saying he doesn't think there'll be a return journey, Sam pulling Frodo from the Crack of Doom, and finally Galadriel reaching down to help him up in his vision after escaping Shelob in TT.

330.  The positioning and dialogue at the two Cracks of Doom scenes, one with Isildur & Elrond after capturing the Ring, the second with Frodo & Sam as Sam says they're going straight on.

331.  Frodo encouraging Sam to keep going when he reached the furthest he'd ever been in the Shire to Sam encouraging Frodo at the Crossroads when he felt he wouldn't be coming back.

332.  Crack of Doom from FotR's Prologue and RotK: Both are mirror images of each other.  In FotR, Elrond is the one at the very precipice, where Frodo is in RotK, while Isildur hangs back on the bridgeway, where Sam would later stand.

333.  The "Cracks of Doom" scene in RotK is almost exactly the same as the scene in FotR (dialogue-wise).  Elrond (FotR): "Isildur!...Cast it into the fire!...Destroy it!"  Sam (RotK): "Frodo!...Throw it in the fire!...Destroy it!" Sam then goes on to say "What are you waiting for?" but the previous statements were the same.

334.  King Théoden recognizing Éowyn as he is dying, in echo of when he recognized Éowyn coming out of Saruman's mental possession in TT.

335.  Aragorn saluting the king of the Dead under Dwimorberg with his sword as he saluted the group of Uruk-hai on Amon Hen near the end of FotR

336.  Bilbo wanting to touch the Ring one last time again, as he had said in Rivendell

337.  Legolas wearing the same type of elven-prince nehru jacket at Frodo's sickbed then at Aragorn's Coronation as he wore in Lothlórien.

338.  Possible parallel scenes: Frodo and Galadriel – when he collapses in Mordor and has a vision of Galadriel – his initial pitiful look changes to feisty determination when he decides to take her hand – I love the smile, or grin, she gives back at him – like “I KNEW you could do it!” Later, parallel moment to this hope-inspiring Galadriel scene – Sam and Frodo stop for a drink of water, and Sam says he doesn’t think there will be a return journey, and helps Frodo up by the hand,.

339.  The motif of Frodo "leaving Sam behind," Sam "losing" Frodo, Sam trying to "keep up" and related ideas. There are particular scenes where it's evident in FotR and, of course, it's most obvious toward the end of RotK, but the theme occurs repeatedly throughout the entire story.

--Sometimes it is just Sam trying to keep up:

*Gandalf says "Keep up, Samwise" as they leave the Shire

*In the cornfield, Sam says "I'd thought I'd lost you", and tells Frodo Gandalf has said "Don't you lose him, Samwise Gamgee"

--Sometimes Frodo inadvertently goes on ahead with Sam:

*Arwen's Flight to the Ford with Frodo, after which Sam "hardly leaves his side" while he's recovering in Rivendell

*At the Council, Sam has to exclaim "Mr. Frodo's not going anywhere without me!" to which Elrond replies "No indeed, it is hardly possible to separate you..."

--And sometimes their separation is a result of deliberate choice of Frodo's part:

*"Go back Sam, I'm going to Mordor alone" at Parth Galen (end FotR)

*"Go home" on the ledge of Cirith Ungol

--Then, there are the times Frodo has no choice.

*After Frodo is stung by Shelob, Sam sobs, "Don't go where I can't follow.

*Then Frodo is taken by the orcs into the Tower, leaving Sam behind again...

*The most horrific comes with "The Ring is mine" in the Sammath Naur.

Frodo is totally lost to Sam when he puts on the Ring.

*But then, at the very end, Frodo says goodbye to Sam at the Havens, "You don't mean that! You can't leave!"




340.  When Sean was injured at Parth Galen, despite the fact that he'd had stitches and his foot was swollen, he continued the next day with the filming the Black Gate scene.  At the end of that day, PJ presented him with a Maori walking stick, a gift from the crew for returning to work right away.  Sean says that, for once, he was speechless, and that the stick became "the single most unique and memorable treasure I brought home."

341.  Elijah's as Frodo:  "The last shot ... was too perfect, actually, because the last shot was one of the last scenes in the movie, where Frodo is in Bag End before he goes to the Grey Havens ... where he's writing the last bit of the book, and Sam comes and says, 'It's all over.'  And Frodo says, 'No, there's room for a little more.'  And it had this whole meaning tied into it. ... And everybody came on to see it, and I remember we did five or six takes, ... and Peter came over to me and broke down, like gave me a hug, and broke down on my shoulder.  It was so, so sad.  Everybody was crying.  ...And then each actor is then given an opportunity to give a speech.  And I was so overwhelmed and so many of the other actors had articulated their feelings so beautifully.  Dom [Monaghan (Merry)] and myself and Andy [Serkis (Gollum)] actually wrapped on the same day, and Dom gave his speech before mine, and he said some beautiful things and it came to me, and I was just like, "I don't know what to say to you guys!" My heart was just so filled with emotion. But it was amazing."

HIS GIFT:   The mounted map of the Lonely Mountain from Fellowship (a birthday gift from Peter and Fran); the Ring in a hand-carved wooden box; Sting, the last clapper board from the last scene, and the last pair of feet that he wore. 

342.  Sean's as Sam:   "It was ... [on the] plains and in slow motion, and Elijah's got to fall down, and so there was a lot of falling and getting up and falling and getting up ... and slow-motion turning and looking at the wind. And when it was over, [co-writer and second unit director] Fran [Walsh] didn't want it to be over. She wanted us to run over to the sound mixer and record this four-page speech of poetry that they could use, and she didn't really need to do it then, but I think she didn't want to let go of that moment. So we did that, and then we went into the Hobbiton set, which had been rebuilt for the scene for when the four Hobbits are back in the pub, and they're changed. So we went in there, and Peter said some really nice things about me and about my family, and everybody was there.

HIS GIFT:  "They gave me Sam's backpack, which I really wanted, and a sword and a pair of feet. And they gave my daughter the dress that she wore at the end of the movie [Astin's real-life daughter Alexandra plays Sam's young daughter]. And it was so funny, she held it up to her ... and it was so small compared to her body now."  He also got the last clapper board from the last scene.

343.  Andy's as Gollum/Sméagol:   "My last day on set was actually completing a scene, ironically, which ... we'd started shooting ... [on] my first day on the set, which was four years before. [That] was scene 558 on top of Mount [Doom], which was in Mordor. The Cracks of Doom. ... I have a shot with the fight sequence ... between Sam and Gollum and Frodo, and that was my first day on set. And the last day was 558B, which was the end of the scene, four years later, which is the tussle with Frodo and Gollum before they go over the edge. And that was the very, very last scene I shot on set.  But my real last scene, and this is how Pete works, was about three weeks ago. ... He was finally editing, he was in London, he was doing the music with Howard Shore, he was doing the final, final edit. And they just went, "We need a beat in this scene. There's a scene missing." And it's the beat where ... Frodo comes out of Shelob's tunnel, and he's just escaped a spider. And then Gollum jumps on top of him, and there's a fight, and there's a connected moment where Frodo says, "I'm going to destroy the Ring for both our sakes." And there's just a look, and there's a moment where Sméagol is looking and almost contemplating life without the Ring. ... And then he turns back into Gollum, and then he jumps on top of him. And Peter [said], "We need to shoot that moment." This was like 9 o'clock in the morning, and I had come in to do some looping. And it was like, "You want to shoot a scene?" So he's like, "Get down on the carpet." So I got down on the carpet, and Pete gets his video camera out, and he goes, "OK, and just, get yourself into it." ... And we shoot the scene, and we then shoot it a few times. And we get the moment, and he goes, "Right." And he goes to the computer, and he cuts into the picture ... [then] e-mails it to New Zealand [so] the animators [can] start working on it!"

HIS GIFT:   There were a number of rings that were made for this film. There are a number of key ... hero props. And Elijah was given one during the Fellowship, and I was given the one used predominantly on The Two Towers, which was a great, beautiful gift and a great thank-you from Peter and Fran.  He also got the last clapper board from the last scene.

344.  Ian McKellen's as Gandalf:   "The last shot this time around was quite recently in July, and I had done some generic fighting as Gandalf, which you see in the film.  Swinging the white staff ... knocking orcs out of the way.  And then little bits of that will be cut out.  There was no big deal.  And then Peter said, "That's the end of principal photography." But this time, when we finished, at the end of the day, the crew and anyone working on the film was invited to the reception that, in my case, took place after dark on the [terrace set], lit by flares of flames. ... And Pete said, Billy Boyd [Pippin] and I were leaving and, for both of us, he said how we'd got the part."

HIS GIFT:   His sword, Glamdring, and the last scene's clapper board. He also received the keys to Bag End and he also took one of the door handles (lizard shaped) from Orthanc.   

345.  Viggo's last shot as Aragorn/Strider:   "The very last thing where I wore my costume ... as with many scenes, I was running. It was a scene that will probably be in the extended version, ... an extension of the Paths of the Dead, where I'm speaking to the ghosts, and then all hell breaks loose. In the movie as you see it, there's a cut, and then you don't know what happens. And then you see that we succeeded in getting the army to come with us. But there's a bunch of other things that happen. In one of these sequences, I don't want to give it away for when you see it, but there's a big commotion, and Legolas, Gimli and Aragorn are running for their lives. ... In reality we were on this raised platform that was about this wide [indicates only a few feet] and we were sprinting and pretending to jump over all these obstacles, and then there was just the green screen everywhere. And when you see that scene, there will be all these hordes of armies of the dead and other things that I'm not going to tell you about that we're evading and dealing with.  I think that what everyone did on this job, starting with Peter, but also the people that he selected, was that it was such a long run, that even if you started out just out of nerves or just because that was tendency to just look after yourself, you ended up taking care of others around you. And everybody did the same thing in whatever way they could. Because that was not only the best way, but the only way to get through it. You could never really see the light at the end of the tunnel until the very end, there was so much to do. ... It's been all-consuming, unfortunately. ... [But] it was very much a team effort, and I think Pete counted on people taking care of themselves and taking care of each other when he was there and when he wasn't there, because it was too big a job for one person. You know when Aragorn says at the coronation, "This day is not for one man, but for all"? The experience was that way. It was the only way it could be done."

HIS GIFT:   "I was given the ranger sword, not the re-forged sword, but the one that I used on my first day of shooting in October of '99 that was really well worn and that I kind of took care of and used throughout. But the best thing I got was what we were talking about before, is this friendship with these people ... the memory of being in New Zealand and retelling the story with Peter. That's the thing I have that I'll remember most. I mean, if somebody steals the sword or it gets lost, you know what I mean? It's just a thing." Viggo brought home Hasufel and Brego.  He also got the last clapper board from the last scene.

346.  John Rhys-Davies' as Gimli/Treebeard:   "It's very peculiar ... because most of my stuff was always done without anybody else around. ... The penultimate day, my worst day, I was having such a problem with the actual prosthetic [makeup] that I don't know how I actually managed to get through the day without ripping it off. And I was really despondent about the prospect of one more day. ... It was completely unbearable. So I went to the doctor and I got some Valium, and I took eight aspirin and I took about eight Excedrins and some antihistamines and I floated through. The itch didn't seem to matter too much at all. But come the evening when we all get together for a drink and had to say goodbye to Gimli, I was suddenly moved to tears. ... Thinking, "Gosh, this is probably the last time I'm going to be here. It's a long way to go." And it's not often that you spend three years in one place on one project. And the New Zealanders are such lovely people.

HIS GIFT:   He got his axe and the last clapper board from the last scene. .

347.  Orlando as Legolas:  "I was the first person [to wrap] on my own. ... I was finished, ... and then Pete sort of ... shushed everyone up, and the stunt guys did a [Maori] hakka [chant], which was like amazing. And I completely forgot what I had to do, and I wasn't sure if I had to join in. So I was standing there, ... and I was like thinking, "Do I join in?"

HIS GIFT:   "I got my bow and arrows and quiver. ... [My bow] actually broke two takes before my last take in the entire movie! The bow that I'd been using for the whole movie, which is like, it's like a steel rod with like a rubber sort of effect as wood. And this thing is like, I mean, it's been 18 months. Two takes before last. It's like, "Oooeee. It's coming to an end."  He also got the last clapper board from the last scene.

348.  Liv as Arwen:   "My final day was the last scene where I'm kissing the King.

HER GIFT:  "I got a beautiful dress. I got the dress from this movie that's kind of red and blue ... [from] when I'm laying there dying. ... And I got my sword."  She also got the last clapper board from the last scene.

349.  Billy as Pippin:   "My very, very last shot ... was killing the orc that's about to kill Gandalf. I thought, that's a great shot to have shot. So the last shot ... was kind of looking at my sword with the blood on it, and I thought, "That's great."  I ran around and kissed everybody. Remember that? Yeah, I was really emotional. It kind of hit me quite hard, actually, because I didn't think it would."

HIS GIFT:  "I got my sword that I just stabbed the orc with. My last clapper board. Some feet."

350.  Dom as Merry:   "My last scene was actually quite boring. Um, going through the oliphaunt and slicing the [legs] with [a sword]. Which is blue screen. There was no one there. Everyone else was on Stage A, and I was on like Stage like D with Miranda. And we finished it and then I walked over to Stage A and saw Pete and Fran, and they knew that I'd wrapped. And we waited for Elijah to get wrapped. Elijah and I and Andy Serkis all wrapped on the same day.  So when we finished, we went into a huge stage, and they showed gag reel footage of myself and Elijah and Andy messing up our lines, and then they gave out gifts." Dom has a few pairs of hobbit feet.

HIS GIFT:   "I got my sword and my clapper board and my feet, just like Billy, and they gave you the opportunity to try an impossible task of summing up four years of your life in front of all these people.  Actually I nearly started crying when I was speaking, and then we all went out to a bar and got drunk."

351.  Ian Holm as Bilbo Baggins:  Ian Holm received a bronze cast of the scary, gollumesque Bilbo.

352.  Jane Abbott (stunt-rider for Arwen and Éowyn):  Jane received Asfaloth as a gift from Viggo.

353.  Cate Blanchett as Galadriel:  Cate received bronze replicas of her ears and her Galadriel ears from Weta.




354.  Billy celebrated his birthday with Orlando on the plane flying to NZ for the first time on August 28, 1999.

355.  Filming of the hobbits running down the rainy hill after escaping the Black Rider (before Bucklebury Ferry) was done on Peter's birthday (October 31, 1999).

356.  Filming of just before the orcs attack Osgiliath in RotK was done on Peter's birthday (October 31, 2000).

357.  Peter’s birthday was during  the filming Osgiliath and Faramir’s battle with Orcs last scenes shot (October 31, 2003)

358.  The hobbits meeting in the cornfield was shot on Elijah's 19th birthday (January 28, 2000).




359.  When Gandalf yells, "Peregrine Took" as Pippin runs down the stairs of Minas Tirith. Take a look at his belt buckle. The insignia is the same as the Robotech Defense Force in the Macross Saga.

360.  The Birds: FotR—the crows on the scarecrow and those that are spies of Saruman.

361.  Star Wars:  RotK—The Oliphaunt brought down and stumbling into the next one to take it down and Éowyn and Théoden's death speech (Éowyn: I'm going to save you.  Théoden: You already did.)

362.  An obvious "Star Wars" reference is the approach of the oliphaunts in RotK—much like the Imperial AT-AT walkers in "Empire Strikes Back".

363.  Pretty much any Western/Pirate movie:  The way Legolas, Gimli, and Aragorn elbow away the bad guys in Théoden's court as Gandalf approaches the throne for the first time in Edoras.

364.  PJ's Earlier movies:  Aragorn entering Edoras to warn Théoden of the coming troops echoes a scene in one of PJ's splatter films. I've not seen them, but the clips were played on top of each other at the conversation with PJ at Lincoln center.

365.  Before Arwen rides away with Frodo in FotR, doesn't Aragorn say 'As you wish' in Elvish?  If that is what he said, I'd call that a nod to The Princess Bride.

366.  When the Fellowship is boating down the Anduin, pursued by the Orcs in the forest, is a tribute to a scene in Deliverance.

367.  The picture used for promotion of Frodo is identical to a closeup of Elijah in The Bumblebee Flies Anyway.

368.  The signal from Minas Morgul, and its attendant sound effect, is much closer to the death ray from the alien ships that destroy New York and LA in "Independence Day."

369.  An obvious "Star Wars" reference is the approach of the oliphaunts in RotK—much like the Imperial AT-AT walkers in "Empire Strikes Back".

370.  After Aragorn has fallen off the cliff, floated to shore, climbed aboard Brego and is heading across Rohan to Helms Deep, a couple of those shots remind me of spaghetti westerns with Clint Eastwood.

371.  The shot of the road before the hobbits first see the Black Rider in FotR is taken from the Exorcist.

372.  The wooded road scene looks like it is filmed in the same place as a scene from Heavenly Creatures (when the girls are running in the forest).

373.  The battle rivalry and headcount between Legolas and Gimli can also be likened to the competitive headcount and helmet collection of Gaulish comic-book warriors Asterix and Obelix as they knock out the Romans with ease.  I’m sure the line “there’s plenty for the both of us” has also appeared there!

374.  While facing the Witch King, Éowyn sweeps off her helmet and shakes her hair loose in a gesture that reminds me of Diana Prince sweeping off her glasses and shaking her hair out as she transforms into Wonder Woman.

375.  The seeds of Gothmog’s physiognomy can be seen in Richard Taylor's early work – the aliens in PJ’s ‘Bad Taste’.

376.  With the Witch King’s “No man can kill me”... I keep thinking of Macbeth’s “no man of woman born”.

377.  When Shadowfax gallops away and Merry dashes to the top of the watchtower, to see his friends recede into the distance: didn't I see this once before, in (the original) Doctor Zhivago?

378.  When Sam is fighting off Shelob, at one point he's trapped on a ledge and tries to kick her away.  It's the same move Quint used on the shark at the end of Jaws (but for Sam, it works).

379.  When Frodo hugs everyone, I couldn’t help but think of The Wizard of Oz as he hugged Sam last—"and Scarecrow, I think I’ll miss you most of all!"

380.  Gimli falls off his horse during the retreat to Helm's Deep, which is a similar to a scene in "Lawrence of Arabia", where the Bedouin people are on the retreating march to Yenbo, and the character of Jenkins falls off his camel when it bolts suddenly.

381.  The people leaving Edoras looks like the shots of the people leaving the surrendered British fort in "The Last of the Mohicans."

382.  Gandalf and the wheeling stars looks like the moment near the end of "2001 - A Space Odyssey", when Dave enters the mysterious star portal.

383.  When Éowyn enters Helm's Deep, we catch a quick glimpse of two little boys playing with stick swords resembled a moment from "Battle of Britain" when, as civilians huddle in a London subway station to shelter from the German bombs falling overhead, we see two little boys running past, chasing after each other with model fighter planes.

384.  When Gandalf returns and Shadowfax rears up in front of the rising sun, I'm always reminded of Zorro (the 50's B&W television to be specific).

385.  The Three Hunters silhouetted against the sunset (sunrise?) as they run over the plains of Rohan... always makes me think of a similar shot in "Conan the Barbarian", where Conan and his friend Subotai are silhouetted against a similar sunset as they run over the plains.

386.  When the silhouette of the Fellowship walks on a hill resembles the pseudo-fellowship taking the baby to the big people in Willow.

387.  Aragorn strapping on his gear before the big battle resembles too many Rambo/Schwarzenegger-type movies to mention

388.  Uruk-hai head on a spike resembles the original "Planet of the Apes" and the scarecrows that marked the limits of the Forbidden Zone.

389.  Treebeard awakes... the slight "jerkiness" makes Treebeard look like a stop-motion animation character.  A Ray Harryhausen moment? (Talos, the giant bronze statue that comes to life in "Jason and the Argonauts")

390.  The Warg looking up and spotting Gimli, just before charging him resembles the buffalo bull looking up and spotting the young native boy, then charging at him, in "Dances With Wolves" (and both times, the character is saved when the animal is shot by someone else).

391.  Aragorn, Gimli and Legolas arrive at Edoras and are asked to turn over their plethora of weapons resembles "Mad Max 3: Beyond Thunderdome", where Mel Gibson's character is told to leave his weapons at the door, and spends the next minute piling guns, ammo, knives, crossbows and other assorted items onto the table.

392.  **As Brego is lashing about and screaming at the beginning of his first encounter with Aragorn, there is a particular neigh/scream that I believe was used in F. Coppola's The Black Stallion (either while Shetan is on the ship or when he's caught in the ropes on the island).

393.  Gollum’s final fall into the lava, with a crazed smile, looked like the final moment in the Ian McKellen film version of “Richard III”, when Richard’s falling off a building into a blazing fire, with a similar crazed ecstatic look on his faced.

394.  The mûmakil similar to SW "walker" sequence.  But this very successful sequence in RotK is exciting and stands on its own. It has similarities to SW, but is a sequence straight from the books, embellished and visualized well.

395.  Éowyn's two-sword charge through the legs of the mûmakil (when she gives the reigns to Merry) reminded me of the moment in “True Grit” when John Wayne takes the reigns in his teeth and charges with guns blazing in both hands.

396.  The "Elephant Man" orc lieutenant: Fairly obvious rendering of John Merrick's deformities, with the over-grown distorted face and useless left arm, this character (also felt to be "Goonies" -influenced).

397.  Wizard of Oz: It's said that every film contains an Oz reference, and RotK has more than a few. The entire Minas Morgul scene is heavily Oz-influenced, from the eerie greenish-castle, to the "winkies"/orcs issuing from it, to the "Surrender Dorothy!"-like signal that emanates from it, viewed by those in the Emerald City, err, Minas Tirith.

398.  Wizard of Oz: TTT-Outside of the Black Gate; outside of the witch's castle—RotK-the death of the Witch-king; the end of the wicked witch. The scene of the Witch-king's army leaving Minas Morgul was only missing the "oh-we-oh, OH-oh" marching chant in The Wizard of Oz.

399.  An obvious "Star Wars" reference is the approach of the oliphaunts in RotK—much like the Imperial AT-AT walkers in "Empire Strikes Back".

400.  Another Oz: The Witch-King implosion seems reminiscent of the Wicked Witch of the West's demise.

401.  Zulu: The Uruks in TTT stamping, chanting before rushing Helm's Deep. The buildup to the Battle of Helm's Deep was inspired by the film Zulu.

402.  2001: A Space Odyssey: The Havens scene contains elements of the denouement of 2001--a very old, wrinkled man "dies"/is reborn, followed by the image of a blue-eyed "baby" who looks straight at camera in a lingering shot. I'm fairly sure that Ian Holm's makeup was influenced by Keir Dullea's death scene make-up in 2001, and the shot of Elijah Wood's face by the "Star-child."

403.  2001: The low organ note played just before the Ring melts--similar to the organ note held in 2001 as the planets line up, and the monolith is seen.

404.  2001: A Space Odyssey was the tribute most obvious to me, in the depiction of Gandalf's straying "outside of thought and time." I don't think anyone who first saw 2001 in a theater could not be reminded of the amazing sequence in that movie.

405.  Gallipoli and Paths of Glory: PJ having Faramir's suicidal charge whilst Denethor stuffs himself is a nod to these fine WWI films.

406.  The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari: Elijah's makeup after being stung by Shelob is eerily reminiscent of the somnambulist Cesars's facial makeup in this great German film.

407.  Chitty-chitty Bang-bang: The orc that tries to stab Frodo, only to get stabbed by Sam, reminds me of the "child-catcher" in this film of the late 1960's.

408.  Sam in Osgiliath, shouting at Frodo in silence... looks almost exactly like that shot in the opening battle sequence of "Saving Private Ryan", where the young soldier is standing directly in front of Capt. Miller (Tom Hanks) and shouting at him, asking him what his orders are -- and Miller can't hear a thing.

409.  The overhead shot of the Nazgûl starting their dive down onto Minas Tirith looks like any number of shots from different WW2 films -- think of the dive bombers heading down toward the aircraft carriers in "Midway", or the Stukas strafing the boats in "Enemy at the Gates".

410.  The overhead shot of the Nazgûl diving onto Minas Tirith is similar to the overhead shot as the gulls gather to attack the town in "The Birds"

411.  As Frodo is entering Shelob's lair. As he looks in, PJ uses a classic "Hitchcock" effect that makes the opening look warped. It is the same effect that Frodo had on the road in the Shire just before they encounter the first Black Rider and hide under the tree roots

412.  The potato-orc commander in RotK (Gothmog), who takes one small step aside from the huge chunk of rock flying toward him, seemed a bit like Robert Duvall's character in "Apocalypse Now", the only soldier who pays absolutely no attention to the mortar rounds exploding around him on the beach.

413.  When Aragorn, Legolas, Gimli and Gandalf arrive at the doors of Meduseld, it resembles the Mad Max shot from "Thunderdome" where Max first arrives at Bartertown -- "No weapons allowed."

414.  In Howard Shore's score near the end of the track "Samwise the Brave": twice you can hear the signature two-note leitmotif for the movie Jaws.

415.  The battle rivalry and headcount between Legolas and Gimli can also be likened to the competitive headcount and helmet collection of Gaulish comic-book warriors Asterix and Obelix as they knock out the Romans with ease.  I’m sure the line “there’s plenty for the both of us” has also appeared there!

416.  While facing the Witch King, Éowyn sweeps off her helmet and shakes her hair loose in a gesture that reminds me of Diana Prince sweeping off her glasses and shaking her hair out as she transforms into Wonder Woman.

417.  The seeds of Gothmog’s physiognomy can be seen in Richard Taylor's early work – the aliens in PJ’s ‘Bad Taste’.

418.  With the Witch King’s “No man can kill me”... I keep thinking of Macbeth’s “no man of woman born”.

419.  Bakshi's adaptation with Proudfoot/Proudfeet, the hobbits hiding under the tree, and the attack by the wraiths in the Prancing Pony (standing round the beds, ready to strike).

420.  There's an homage to The Hobbit with the stone trolls.

421.  From Peter's website:  "I don't think Peter Jackson's many salutes to the old film-makers have been acknowledged let alone analyzed. But wait: you can bet there will be biographies and studies published ere long telling us what inspired every moment of the trilogy."

422.  Wilhelm scream --when an Elf falls off the wall into the midst of the Uruk-hai and when the Haradrim falls from the oliphaunt fighting Legolas... they give a yell that's been used in films for decades!  It's called the Wilhelm scream.

423.  A salute to Ray Harryhausen when Merry and Pippin jump onto the cave troll and throw rocks at their enemies.

424.  When the wargs are attacking and Aragorn grabs the lance and charges resembles the scene in "The Charge of the Light Brigade" where Errol Flynn, on horseback, grabs a lance and attacks Surat Khan. The two scenes are identical. It could be a tribute to director Michael Curtiz

425.  Théoden's line "so it begins" is a direct Bablyon 5 reference (a great scifi series from the mid-nineties), but have no idea if PJ has ever *seen* Babylon 5.

426.  The elder hobbit Proudfoot at the Long Expected Party just as the Bakshi animated version has it: The scene where the feet are on the table and the hobbit yells, to correct Bilbo: "ProudFEET."

427.  Bakshi homage of the hobbits hiding under the tree.

428.  Jackson's version of the Black Riders stabbing fake hobbits in Bree is an homage to Bakshi's version of the same scene.

429.  Errol Flynn goes up the side of a castle on a rope many, many times, as Robin Hood.  Another wall scaler is the Scarlet Pimpernel... so does Aragorn with Gimli in tow.

430.  The Watcher in the Water music is reminiscent of 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea.

431.  Gandalf's and Éomer's charge down the slope is somewhat like the scene from Man from Snowy River.

432.  The death of the cave troll reminds me just a tad of King Kong's death.

433.  Orcs pounding their shields is very much like Zulu.

434.  The star-field shots after Gandalf kills the Balrog reminds me very much of similar shots in Stanley Kubrick's movie, "2001: A Space Odyssey."

435.  Gandalf walking calmly through the fight between the Hunters and Gríma's henchmen is also seen in The Great Race with Tony Curtis and Jack Lemon.

436.  When the Elves are leaving Rivendell, and they are cloaked and hooded, they are carrying lit lanterns as they cross over a bridge. We see their figures with the lights like little glowing balls in front of them. This reminds me of a scene in the Disney cartoon Fantasia.  In the sequence, "Night on Bald Mountain," at the end of the "night," we see figures that are cloaked and hooded carrying lit lanterns as they cross over a bridge. Maybe this is PJ's homage to Disney, although I've never read anything about PJ wanting to do an homage to Disney.

437.  In "The Shining" when Jack Torrence is driving to the Outlook Hotel, there is an aerial shot of tree-clad mountains, wreathed in mists.   It is so reminiscent of the prologue to FotR with Galadriel's voice over telling how Gollum took the Ring far under the Misty Mountains.




438.  Coronation observations:

-Arwen's clothes change into spring colors (bright spring green), as a symbol of her new beginning, as Aragorn's queen.

-Éowyn goes from dark or white (cold) to sunny bright yellow also spring colors symbolic of her emotional change.  Also Faramir looks more like a prince than a warrior.

-Éomer has on much richer and fancier clothing and armour at the Coronation.  He looks like the King

-Legolas wears a crown for the first time denoting his royal status.

-Aragorn's royal clothes are much less rich than Théoden's or Éomer's, except in Arwen's vision of her son where Aragorn is better dressed.

439.  The costumes seem to echo certain aspects of the characters. When Arwen returns to Rivendell and makes her decision to remain, her dress changes colour from blue with white sleeves to a dark plum colour with blood-red sleeves. Is this to show she has chosen mortality - red is the colour of life (blood) and death?

440.  When Aragorn sang the Quenya declaration of Elendil ("Et Eärello Endorenna...") at his coronation, he didn't just speak it, he sang it in a very haunting way, like a hymn, and gave it the respect that a true hymn deserves. At first I didn't understand what he was saying, but then a sort of shiver went through me when I figured it out. It is one of my most vivid and most haunting memories of the movie. I thought it to be one PJ's greatest gifts to those of us who have read the books. I also like how he left the phrase untranslated. It makes it seem more mysterious.

441.  The colour red, specifically maroon, seems signify command/royalty throughout the film.  Théoden wears it (King of Rohan), Boromir wears it (Heir to the Stewardship also head of Gondor's armies), Haldir wears it (in his role as emissary for the Elves and leader of the army) as does Aragorn (the comment made about Aragorn's other shirt, helped me put this together!) both as Aragorn and Elessar (the funeral).

442.  Frodo and Pippin have collarless shirts, and Sam and Merry have shirts with collars; Pippin is the only one of the hobbits who doesn't wear a vest. Sam's is grey (pin striped, Frodo's is burgundy, and Merry's is yellow); each of the hobbits Shire cloaks close a different way (ties, buttons, etc.) and are different colors; Pippin's the only hobbit wearing a scarf.

443.  Pippin has a side bag slung across his shoulder and Merry has a backpack. Frodo has a backpack and Sam is loaded down with a huge backpack, 2 pans, one ladle, a cooking pot, a water bag hangs down below, a bedroll and there are sausages strung around the outside of all. He's also carrying a side bag over his shoulder. He can still keep up with the rest hauling three times their load.

444.  While the orcs in Moria and in the prologue all seem to have very individualized arms and armor, as though they scavenged or made it all themselves over time, the orcs coming out of Isengard are an "insta-army": most of their weapons and armor was made at the same time, and is more uniform.

445.  While Boromir’s horse wears heavy, elaborate tack, Legolas’ horse and Asfaloth are lightly bridled and saddled, with the same sort of buckles on their bridles (and all the elven horses seen so far have been grey). The Nazgûl horses look like they took hours to be readied - all chains and straps and leather, with the straps on the bridle buckling upside-down (with the ends of the strap pointing up instead of down) - and like it was done carelessly: the fabric of the hood under their head armor is rucked up and wrinkled.

446.  The green velvety thing with the silver embroidery is what Faramir was wearing under his armor on the charge; you can see the skirt of it quite clearly when he rides out of the gate.  Also, if you look closely at the scene where he's being laid on the pyre, you can see a hole in the right shoulder where he was shot, with a dark patch (bloodstain) around it.  Boromir had a similar garment under his armor in the TTT flashback, but his was black instead of green.  The theory is that the different colors are to show what companies they belong to--Boromir was Captain of the White Tower, while Faramir is Captain of the Rangers.

447.  Faramir's pyre costume: Before taking the charge, Faramir is wearing his Ranger costume of leather jerkin and green tunic. I've not particularly noticed what his tunic under his armor was like during the charge to Osgiliath, but when they bring the litter up, his armor is removed and the arrow shafts are broken off (not removed) and stabilized by some bandages. Then later when placed on the funeral table, the shafts are gone and he's dressed in a velvet looking tunic with silver embroidery on the collar. Is that what he wore under his armor or was he later re-dressed for his funeral?

448.  Burgundy with gold trim is the color of Kings. We see this color/costume note in Théoden in TTT and Aragorn in TTT (during Arwen's vision of his death). In RotK, we see the costume detail on Aragorn under is royal armour as he rides to the Black Gate and on Éomer in Aragorn's coronation scene.

449.  The green velvety thing with the silver embroidery is what he was wearing under his armor on the charge; you can see the skirt of it quite clearly when he rides out of the gate.  Also, if you look closely at the scene where he's being laid on the pyre, you can see a hole in the right shoulder where he was shot, with a dark patch (bloodstain) around it.  Boromir had a similar garment under his armor in the TTT flashback, but his was black instead of green.  The theory is that the different colors are to show what companies they belong to--Boromir was Captain of the White Tower, while Faramir is Captain of the Rangers.

450.  Gondorian helmets— We already know about the White Tree guards with wings on their helmets and that Faramir's helmet is more elaborate than the regular Gondorian soldier helms; but Pippin's helmet is different from both.  Pip's helm has a floral/ivy motif going around the whole "face area" and there aren't any wings just some "feathers" above the nose guard.  You can see this well at the Black Gate.  Now, regarding the helmet at the exhibit: It had some gold inlay along the nose guard and the tips of the wings actually came off the helmet but stayed close to the point of the helmet. These helmets are worn by the guards you see in Rath Dinen and you also see them walking behind Aragorn at the coronation when he is greeting the people. I believe these are the actual Guards of the Citadel.

451.  The garment Gandalf wears at the end of the film is suspiciously like a bishop's or celebrant's cope, the mantle worn during much of a more serious church service in the liturgical churches, replaced during the celebration of Communion with the chasuble or Communion vestment, then redonned for the recessional.  Again ties the story back to Tolkien's own RC roots and the spiritual leadership that Gandalf symbolizes as one of the Maiar.

452.  The armor that Aragorn wore at the coronation was old.  It had shadowy tracings on it that were almost erased from repeated polishing, and the fittings were worn.  One imagines that this is the armor that the past kings wore, however long ago that was, and the stewards were wearing the armour and waiting for the return of the king.

453.  From a sewing web site: Rosie's Wedding Outfit: The bodice looked like a buttercream/light gold silk dupioni with an inserted silk brocade panel in the middle of hand embroidered flowers (in silk). It had a princess waist, with a point in the center front.

454.  Rosie wears a narrow flower wreath as her wedding crown. It is made of small white roses, yellow flowers (primroses?), something purply-blue that might bemyrtle blossoms. Buttercream ribbons trailing down on the sides by her ears. Her necklace has a rose that looks hand painted.





455.  John Howe and Alan Lee are two of the kings shown in the prologue (second from the end of each row) 

456. Fran and Peter's children, Billy and Katie Jackson: They're hobbit children listening to Bilbo's story at the party in FotR; they're Rohan Children in the caves at Helm's Deep; they are children Faramir passes at Minas Tirith on the way back to Osgiliath; they also look like two of the children at Sam and Rosie's wedding.

457.  Peter is Albert Dreary, the burping Bree hobbit holding a carrot.

458.  Peter stands in as the voice of Bilbo in The Fellowship of The Ring when Gandalf first knocks at Bilbo's door.


                TWO TOWERS

459.  Eldarion is played by Jed Brophy's son Sadwyn (when he was 5 years old).

460.  Peter throwing a spear out the window at the Uruk-hai with the battering ram at Helm's Deep. (Two Towers)

461.  Barrie Osborne is the rock thrower seen right after Peter.

462.  Fran Walsh throws a rock down on the Uruk-hai right after the little boy (just after Barrie's toss).  She's wearing a heavy helmet.

463.  Dan Hennah and Alan Lee are standing behind Aragorn as he and Legolas argue about the Rohan-folk's fear

464.  There's another soldier standing along the wall as the Elves march by...I think it's Daniel Falconer (WETA designer/sculptor.

465.  Haleth, son of Háma is Philippa Boyen's son, Calem and Viggo's son, Henry are in the "Give me your sword" scene in Helm's Deep (the boys are standing together just before Aragorn calls Haleth over).  Calem is also on the wall in HD, next to the guy who accidentally shoots the first arrow and kill the first Uruk-hai.  Henry (Hank) Mortensen's cameos in TT and RotK as described by Viggo at a Wellington media roundtable on November 30, 2003: "He played a little boy in the battle of Helm's Deep."

466. The actual WETA metal forgers were put into orc costumes and worked the hot metal in that scene  There's a strange orc with the long dark dreadlocks-style hair that you can glimpse working on the molten iron of the "sword molder" has got to be the guy with that same style of hair seen in Chapter 6 of the WETA Workshop documentary.

467. **There is a brief shot of a corsair ship, with Peter Jackson swaggering around the deck in full pirate garb.  He actually had a considerably longer appearance filmed, including a fight scene which ended with him being killed by Legolas

468. Peter has a sort of cameo in the soundtrack. When Éowyn seems to disappear from the edge of Edoras as Aragorn looks up a second time, Peter hits the gong which is heard at that moment.  He was trained and rehearsed on how to do it just right.  He was also delighted because it was done at Abbey Road where the Beatles recorded their music.

469. Fran and Peter's children, Billy and Katie Jackson:  Rohan Children in the caves at Helm's Deep.

470. One of the Gondorian guards at the Beacon at Minas Tirith is Christian Rivers (WETA art director).

471. The boy from Star Wars: Episode 2 that played Boba Fett as a kid (Daniel Logan?).

472. Mike Horton (editor for TT) has a cameo as the Sword Sharpener at Helm's Deep when Théoden is making his "horse and rider" speech.



473. Royd Tolkien was the ranger passing out the spears in Osgiliath just before the orc attacks, and he was wearing Strider's wig.

474. Henry (Hank) Mortensen's cameos described by Viggo at a Wellington media roundtable on November 30, 2003: "... we were doing reshoots for the last movie he was playing – I fought him actually – he played an orc.  The stunties really took to him; he's pretty good with martial arts... and I think he can actually do all the knife work faster than Orlando at this point.  He played – one scene he was a Gondorian – so he was on my side.  And then the next thing I know I'm running this gauntlet and he's the first in line with this meat cleaver.  Fortunately the choreography called for me to duck and him to miss and Gimli to take him out.  Because he probably would have finished it..."

475. Sean Astin's daughter plays Elanor, daughter of Sam and Rosie.

476. Sarah McLeod's (Rosie) daughter, Maisie McLeod-Riera plays baby Frodo, son of Sam and Rosie.

477 John Howe appears as a Gondorian soldier.

478. Fran and Peter's children, Billy and Katie Jackson:  They are children Faramir passes at Minas Tirith on the way back to Osgiliath; they also look like two of the children at Sam and Rosie's wedding.

479. During the Meduseld drinking game, Howard Shore is beside the keg and sound mixer Michael Semanick is beside him. Shore is visible in the background in a few other shots.

480. Peter served as a stand-in for Sean Astin in the shot where Sam steps into frame and we see his hand holding Sting, challenging Shelob. 

481. Our own TORn Staffer Quickbeam is standing on the wall watching Faramir and his men ride back to Osgiliath.

482. Bret Mackenzie appears as an 'elf escort' to Arwen going to the Havens before she returns to Elrond -- Figwit speaks!

483. Very last shot filmed for The Lord of the Rings was stunt coordinator Kurt as Gondorian guard spotting the orcs crossing the riving... he's shot and rolls down the stairs dead... They immediately wrapped the film and the party started.

484. Philippa Boyens is one of the torch carriers as Denethor opens the Stewards tomb doors.  She's on our left in the back.

485. Did Ngila Dickson make a cameo in "The Return of the King?"  There is a woman in the scene where Faramir and his men are riding through Minas Tirith to meet their doom at Osgiliath that looks like her.

486. **There are 6 production-team members on the Corsair Ship.  The one with his hand on the harpoon-thing and screaming, is Gino Acevedo (senior prosthetics supervisor). Standing right behind the harpoon (second from the left) is Richard Taylor (head of Weta), Rick Porras (co-producer/director), and Andrew Lesnie (Director of Photography).  Peter's the Corsair shot by Legolas.




                               In Rivendell and at Bag End

         The names of the thirteen Dwarves that went with Bilbo on his original adventure can just be seen written on the very left-hand edge of one of the pages, outside the body of the text. The small glimpses of "The Hobbit" can be read if you freeze-frame the pages. 


        In Frodo's Red Book, take a look at the left-hand page... it looks as though there was a possible reference to Bilbo's age (133) – confirmed.


        This is what I've made out from Frodo's entry to the Red Book of Westmarch... PLEASE help correct or fill in the blanks:



                                                    Left Page


                                                        it                            [...]day this Thursday he

                                                        will                         [...]y-one!  I think I

                                                                                        [on]ce more in Rivendell

                                                                                        [...]h me,  ...  he

                                                                                        [...]nd elanor

                                                        my                            [...]nd see me on

                                                                                        his diary so

                                                        though                       [...]gis while I am


                                                        ...                              myself and I must

                                                          re[...]                        [be]fore ending

                                                        my t[ime]

                                                      Legolas                        elves who chose to

                                                        fa[...]                            and stay in Middle-

                                                        earth                            [...]nds of Lorien.

                                                        g[...]                            glittering caves


                                                                                        hindered by the

                                                                                        [ma]rk which

                                                                            Right Page


                                                        and Sam... what can I say about

                                                           did Sam?

                                                         Samwise Gamgee was elected mayor of 

                                                        Hobbiton and although it took all of his 

                                                        courage. He finally asked for the hand 

                                                        of fair Rosie Cotton in marriage. It was the bravest 

                                                        thing he ever did.



   After this Frodo briefly flicks to the first page, which is written in Bilbo's handwriting:


  " How can I begin the telling of this unbelievable and strange adventure. It was a lovely Spring morning [April 25] when who should turn up but Gandalf! It had been."


(more inscriptions in the soon-to-be completed Weapons list)


The Ringspell


Three Rings for the Elven-kings under the sky,

Seven for the Dwarf-lords in their halls of stone,

Nine for Mortal Men doomed to die,

One for the Dark Lord on his dark throne

In the Land of Mordor where the Shadows lie.

One Ring to rule them all, One Ring to find them,

One Ring to bring them all and in the darkness bind them

In the Land of Mordor where the Shadows lie.




TV Shows:  

-Saturday Night Live:  Elijah and Ian McKellen both host the show.

-Superbowl:  A spoof of Gollum lusting for a Superbowl Ring by Chris Kataan as Gollum.


Law and Order:
-One of the judges' names is 'Judge Mellon'. I want her as a judge.
-In CI, there was a case about this uber geek... he attended many conventions... including 'Hobbit gatherings'.


-In one of the episodes, when the Simpsons are out on a ranch and are having a picnic, 'Cleany' comes out to gather the leftovers. He crawls out of the wagon, quickly gathers it all to him, and hisses 'My Precious'... much love.


Gillmore Girls:
-Rachel [my best friend] told me about this... but in one episode they held a Lord of the Rings party! How cool is that...


South Park:
-South Park once had an LOTR spoof. Which is awesome.


Foster's Home for Imaginary Friends:
-In one episode, they completely reenacted Helm's Deep... with hilarious results. I was cracking up so much, it was fabulous.


-In Spy Kids II, in the outtakes, the boy takes one of the pieces of gold and hisses 'My Precious'.
-The Longest Yard:  Adam Sandler – "Now listen here, Mr. Frodo... Don't get short with me!"


-Dennis Miller made a reference to Legolas and shooting his arrows.


-TBS (Turner Broadcasting) had a full battery of ads when they showed The Lord of the Rings films.
-The Verizon telephone company with the guy who says, 'Can you hear me now?  At one point he was on Shadowfax.
-And also remember when they were promoting LOTR on those Pringle packages?  I do believe there were a couple commercials on that...



Inkheart: There are a gazillion references to LOTR in this book. A woman in the book mutters something about going on an adventure 'like those two short people, off to a scary place'... or something like that. Also, the main character and her dad use Tengwar to give each other secret messages.





-Dave Barry wrote a spoof about TTT.

-Heart of the City has extensive cartoons on LotR and The Hobbit




Do you think Aragorn's knife given to him by Celeborn (in the film) could be Angrist?  Beren had it in the Sil, and it was broken... but it would follow with the historic detail throughout the film they may pay tribute to it.