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7th Century CE

The Seventh Century

+              The seventh century saw the rise of Islam, with the advent of Mohammed. The Shriners trace their origins to this age. Christology controversies kept the Church busy with the new ideas of Monothelitism and the Monophysites. The major concern was the Persian invasions which captured Jerusalem, instilled Islam, and persecuted Christianity. This is the Dark Ages of Western history. The cult of St. Anne, mother of Mary, arises in the East in this century.

600?       The Mabinogion[1] [Welsh tales]

600         Bodhidharma begins teaching what is known as Zen Buddhism.  The main concept is that enlightenment is an experience of sudden awakening called satori as opposed to a gradual learning and adaptation to a religious tradition.

600         Leander of Seville, Spanish Father [death, wrote: The Training of Nuns and the Contempt of the World, Sermon of the Triumph of the Church for the Conversion of the Goths]

600?       ?: Gospel of the Seventy

600?       Celtic tales: Mabinogion

600         St. Gregory I: To Eulogius, Patriarch of Alexandria

600         Venantius[2] [death, wrote Poem on Easter[3]]

600         Valentinian Hermetics in Constantinople

600         St. Columbanus of Bobbio[4]:  Boat Song[5]

600?       Arabic Gospel of the Infancy of the Saviour[6]

601         St. Gregory I: To Theoctista, Sister of the Emperor Maurice

601         St. Gregory I: To Bishop Quiricus of Georgia

601         St. Gregory I: To St. Augustine [English Church]

602         St. Desiderius of Vienne is murdered by Queen Brunhild.

602         Persian invasion of the Byzantine empire

602         Venantius Fortunatus: Pange lingua gloriosi [Good Friday Liturgical hymn]

604         St. Gregory the Great [Pope, death, Dialogues[7]]

604         Sabinian becomes the sixty-fourth bishop of Rome, a supporter of the clergy, as opposed to the monks.

604         St. Augustine of Canterbury [death, reference St. Bede: Ecclesiastical History[8] Book One, Chapters 23-34 and Book Two, Chapters 1-3]

606         St. Colman of Cloyne [death]

607         Boniface III becomes the sixty-fifth bishop of Rome.

607         Emperor Phocas declared that the See in Rome is the head of all the churches.

608         St. Boniface IV becomes the sixty-sixth bishop of Rome, supporter of the monastic orders.

609         St. Boniface IV dedicates Pantheon to the memory of all Christian martyrs.

610         Muhammad: The Koran [9] [As Muhammad could not write, the collection of oral teachings known as the Qur’an[10] or Koran was preserved by his followers.  The teachings were relayed from the divine book of his visions of the angel Gabriel.  It has been noted by some scholars that this text was based on the "Word of Qure" goddess writings, edited by several redactors over the next century before reaching its final form. The references to Jesus and Christianity relate to Essene and Gnostic texts, opposing the Catholic Christian concept of Jesus being a divine being.]

610         Bubonic Plague in China coast.

611         Persion invasion of Antioch

613         St. Theodore of Sykeon [death, The Life of St. Theodore of Sykeon[11]]

614         Persians capture Jerusalem, give it to Jews for 3 years, and take away what was called the "True Cross", which was recovered by Emperor Heraclius and returned to Jerusalem.  Antiochus Strategos account[12].

615         St. Deusdedit becomes the sixty-seventh bishop of Rome, otherwise known as Adeodatus I, a supporter of the clergy.

615         St. Columban [death, Irish monastic founder in France, Italy, and Switzerland, Jonas of Bobbio wrote Life of St. Columban[13]]

616         Mellitus, archbishop of Canterbury, is driven from his see by the East Saxon king.

619         St. Deusdedit I [Pope, death]

619         Boniface V becomes the sixty-eighth bishop of Rome, a supporter of the clergy, known for his concern for the poor.

620         St. John the Almsgiver, the Alexandrian patriarch, called Father of the Poor for his great charity, death

622         Mohammad moves from Mecca to Medina after the hostility he was receiving there became unbearable.

625         Honorius I becomes the sixty-ninth bishop of Rome. He was a supporter of the monastic orders, had a quest for converting Jews to Christianity, restored St. Peter's. He was criticized in his apparant acceptance of Monothelite doctrine that Christ had two natures but only one divine will, as opposed to a separate but united human soul. This doctrine was a compromise in the East between the Church and the Monophysites, which Honorius was exposed to by St. Cyrus, bishop of Alexandria. Honorius concluded that the same Word acted in both the spiritual and physical natures of Christ, and therefore their argument could be seen as true. The upcoming Third Council of Constantinople didn't accept this compromise because of the abuse it would encourage in those already of a Monophysite theology. The apparant split of the pope and council were of points of view and of education on the issue at hand. The pope seemed to have been caught in a trap of words, which in themselves may be seen as true from one angle and heretical from another point of view. This then is not an historical proof against the infallibility of the papacy, as some claim it to be.

626         Persian Muslims invade the Byzantine empire.  Theodore Syncellus: Homily on the siege of Constantinople[14]

627         King Edwin of Northumbria [Britain] converted to Roman Catholicism by Paulinus.

630?       St. Fredceric [death, parish priest at Vlierzeele]

630         Mohammed: Hadith[15] [Islamic Law going through several redactions to the 800's at which time the collections of rules numbered 600,000. This coincided with Mohammed's invasion of Mecca with an army of ten thousand. The directive to conquer the world for Islam had begun.]

632         Mohammed, Arab philosopher, fonder of Islam[16] [death. From this time the Islamic world has been divided into the Shiites who followed Ali and the Sunnis (Umayyads) who followed Abu Bakr.

632         Fatima, daughter of Mohammed [death]

634         Muslims take Bethlehem.

634         St. Sophronius of Jerusalem: Synodal Letter

635         Northumbria converted to Celtic Christianity by Aidan of Iona.

635         Fructuosis of Braga, Spanish Father: Rule for the Monastery of Compludo

636         Braulio of Saragossa, Spanish Father: Life of St. Emilian

636         St. Isidore, archbishop of Seville [death, Doctor of the Church, theologian. wrote Etymologies in 20 volumes, Chronicon[17]. Here ends the Patristic Age of the Church in the West.]

638         Emperor Heraclius: Ecthesis [Monothelite doctrine]

638         Severinus becomes the seventieth bishop of Rome, a supporter of the clergy. He refused to accept Ecthesis and the emperor's Monothelite doctrines.

638         Muslims take Jerusalem: St. Sophronius, patriarch of Jerusalem, exiled; the remains of the Temple destroyed.

640         St. Gall, monestary built on the place of his death in Switzerland [death]

640         John IV becomes the seventy-first bishop of Rome, a supporter of the clergy. He defended Honorius while he condemned monothelitism.

640         St. Columbanus of Bobbio [death, Jonas of Bobbio wrote Life of St. Columban[18]  Known for his love of wild animals.

640         Hilda and Caedmon:  The Dream of the Rood[19]

641         ?:  The Life of St. John the Almsgiver[20]

642         St. Oswald, king of Northumbria [death]

642         Library of Alexandria is completely destroyed by Muslims, after having suffered at the hands of the Romans and the Christians, the loss of ancient sacred texts to the world can never be restored.

642         Theodore I becomes the seventy-second bishop of Rome. He was against monothelitism, and excommunicated Patriarch Paul for his support of it.

646         Ancient Arabic Order of Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, a secret order begun at Mecca, which was taken by the Knights Templar Crusaders and is today a form of Masonry (the Shriners).

648         Emperor Constans II: Typos edict, banned discussion of the number of wills of Christ, persecuted the Church.

649         Hiouen-tsang [Buddhist writer and translator]

649         St. John Climacus [death, monk]

649         St. Martin I becomes the seventy-third bishop of Rome. He was the first pope of his age to be consecrated without the permission of the emperor, being anti-monothelite.

650         Anaias of Shiak [death, Autobiography[21], Easter[22], Christmas[23]]

649         Lateran council against monotheliteism and Typos edict.

650         Uthman ibn Affan:  Qur’an[24] [also transliterated as Koran, the finalized version replaced all previous versions which were destroyed, though some earlier versions managed to survive.]

650?       ?:  Beowulf[25] [The Old English classic epic]

650?       Sebeos:  History[26] [History of Armenia in the 500s and 600s]

650         Severus Sebokht: Description of the Astrolabe[27], On the Constellations[28]

650?       Tibetian Buddhism forms, with the unique belief that the Dalai Lama is the successive embodiment of Bodhisattva Chenresi.

651         St. Aidan, first bishop of Northumbria, England, founder of Lindisfarne monestary [death]

651         Braulio of Saragossa, Spanish Father [death, complied the list of the books of Isidore, also 44 letters survive

652         Fructuosis of Braga, Spanish Father: To King Receswinth

653         Emperor Theodore Calliopas arrests St. Martin, he spent the rest of his life in exile and starving; also St. Maximus the Confessor arrested and tortured to death.

654         St. Martin I [Pope, death]

654         St. Eugene I becomes the seventy-fourth bishop of Rome.

654         Icanhoh monestary is built by St. Botolph, England.

654         St. Cedd becomes archbishop of Canterbury.

655         St. Eugene I enters communion with Patriarch Peter while making a compromise in hopes of Church unity which the clergy would not allow.

657         St. Vitalian becomes the seventy-fifth bishop of Rome, who worked to improve relations with Emperor Constans II and Patriarch Peter.

660         Fructuosis of Braga, Spanish Father: General Rule for Monestaries

662         St. Maximus the Confessor [death]

664         Synod of Whitby summoned by King Oswy: Roman Catholicism favoured over Celtic Christianity

664         Peterborough abbey consecrated in Mercia [English]

664         St. Hadrian of Canterbury sent by pope to England, became abbot of SS. Peter and Paul at Canterbury

664         The plague in England

664         St. Gertrude [death, established hospices for travellers]

664         Hsuan-tsang [death, translated Sanskrit Buddhist texts]

665         Fructuosis of Braga [death, Spanish Father]

668         St. Vitalian consecrates St. Theodore of Tarsus as archbishop of Canterbury to reorganize the English Church

668         Constantine IV becomes emperor with St. Vitalian's support.

668         Theodosius: Hypomnesticon

669         St. Theodore of Tarsus becomes archbishop of Canterbury

670         St. Benedict Biscop founds a monastery in northern England

672         Adeodatus II becomes the seventy-sixth bishop of Rome, a monk.

673         English: Council of Hertford

675         Pact and Monastic Agreement of Galicia

675         Local Council of Toledo[29] [rejected by most Orthodox.]

676         Donus becomes the seventy-seventh bishop of Rome.

678         St. Agatho becomes the seventy-eighth bishop of Rome. He was a monk who succeeded in restoring relations with the East and caused the East to abandon monothelitism.

679         St. Adamnan [becomes Abbot of Iona, wrote Life of St. Columba, Founder of Hy[30]  He convinced the Irish to not take women or children as prisoners of war, which became known as the Adamnan's law.]

680         Council of Rome, preparation for the great debate in the East of Catholic responses to monothelitism

680         St. Bathildis [death], founder of abbey of Corbie and the royal Chelles nunnery

680         Third Council of Constantinople[31] [Sixth Ecumenical Council, Against Monothelism, Sergius, Pyrrhus, and Macarius]

680         Mamikonean, John:  The History of Taron[32]

681         Shandao (Zendo) [death, wrote:  Liturgy for Birth (Ojoraisan)[33], Kisamboge[34], Three Refuges[35], Chinese Master inherited by Japanese Tradition of Pure Land Buddhism]

682         St. Leo II becomes the seventy-ninth bishop of Rome.

683         St. Leo II [Pope, death]

684         St. Benedict II becomes the eightieth bishop of Rome.

685         John V becomes the eighty-first bishop of Rome.

685         Aldrid becomes king of Northumbria, England

686         Conon becomes the eighty-second bishop of Rome, a compromise of pro-Peter clergy and pro-Theodore militia.

687         Theodore becomes the eighth anti-pope, supported by the Roman militia.

687         St. Cuthbert of Lindisfarne [death, St. Bede wrote Life of St. Cuthbert[36], he inspired his followers to created the Lindisfarne Gospels, the cherished British collection of calligraphy and manuscript painting.]

687         Paschal becomes the ninth anti-pope by using political pull.

687         St. Sergius I becomes the eighty-third bishop of Rome. He introduced "Lamb of God..." in mass.]

689         Kilian martyred, an Irish monk

690         St. Theodore of Canterbury [death]

692         Emperor Justinian II: Quinisext council: 102 canons. St. Sergius refuses to support this.

692         Trullan Synod of Constantinople [37]

694         Council of Toledo causes a persecution of Jews, confiscating property and forcing the baptism of their children.

696         John of Nikiu:Chronicle[38] [Adam to the Islamic expansion into Egypt]

The Eighth Century

+              The eighth century saw a further break between the papacy and the Byzantine government. The rise of Iconoclasm in the East was a factor. A new alliance was made with the Franks which gave birth to the papal state. The kingdom of Charlemagne gave new political power to the papacy. This is the Dark Ages for Western culture.

700         Eucharistic miracle of Lanciano

700         St. Anastasius the Sinaite [death, Greek Apologist, wrote:  Concerning the Holy Fathers in Sina[39]]

700?       Avenging of the Saviour[40]

700?       Aldheim translates Psalms into English

700?       Tantric Buddhists: Prajnopaya-viniscaya Siddhi

700?       Tantric Buddhists: Hevajra Tantra

700?       Mandaeans: Ginza

700?       ?:  The Fight at Finnsburh[41] [Old English poem]

700?       ?:  The Lament of Deor[42] [Old English poem]

700?       ?:  The Wanderer[43] [Old English poem]

700?       ?:  The Seafarer[44] [Old English poem]

700         Shikshananda [Buddhist writer and translator]

701         St. Sergius I [Pope, death]

701         John VI becomes the eighty-fourth bishop of Rome.

704         St. Adamnan of Iona [death]

704         Khalid ibn Jazid [death, Islamic]

705         John VII becomes the eighty-fifth bishop of Rome. He added a chapel for the Blessed Virgin Mary to St. Peter's.

705         St. Bosa, English [death]

705         St. Bertilla of Chelles [death]

708         Sisinnius becomes the eighty-sixth bishop of Rome.

708         Constantine becomes the eighty-seventh bishop of Rome. He restored relations with Justinian II, accepting some of the Quinisext canons.

709         St. Aldhelm [death]

709         St. Wilfrid of York [death]

711         Emperor Philippicus Bardanes supports the monothelite position with violence.

712         Japanese Shintoists: The Kojiki[45] [Records of Ancient Masters]

713         Emperor Anastasius II returns oecumenical faith.

713         Hui-neg [death, Buddhist Zen master, his teachings preserved in Liu-tsu-ta-shih fa-pao-t'an-ching.]

714         St. Guthlac [death, monk of Peterborough, England]

715         St. Gregory II becomes the eighty-eighth bishop of Rome, a monastic.

716         St. Bede:   Lives of the Abbots of Wearmouth and Jarrow[46]

717         Paramartha [Hindu writer and translator of ancient Buddhist Sanskrit texts into Chinese, including the Crown Sutra (Surangama) from the First Century AD] .

718         "Our Lady of Montserrat, France," a carving attributed to St. Luke, one of the "Black Madonnas" is the patroness of marriage and childbirth and dates back to this year.

719         St. Pega [death, sister of St. Guthlac]

720         St. Odilia [death, blind orphan who was healed at his baptism at age 12, became a Benedictine monk]

720         Japanese Shintoists: Nihon Shoki[47] [Chronicles of Japan]

721         St. John of Beverly [death]

722         St. Boniface of Crediton:  Oath of Loyalty to the Pope[48]

729         St. John of Damascus: The Fount of Knowledge

730         The East bans sacred images, Emperor Leo III, St. Gregory disapproves of this ban [iconoclasm]

730         St. John of Damascus: Apostolic Discourses against the Attackers of the Holy Images

731         St. Gregory III becomes the eighty-ninth bishop of Rome, denouncing iconoclasm and supporting the monastics.

732         The Islamic Arabs are exiled from France this year, settling in Spain. Spain becomes the center for European learning

733         St. Gregory gives support to Byzantine government during Lombard attack and gains the truce of Leo

733         St. Germain I [death, patriarch of Constantinople] 9 sermons survive, all concerning Mary.

735         St. Bede the Venerable [death, English abbot, historian, and astronomer, wrote Ecclesiastical History of the English People[49], Lives of the Abbots of Weremouth and Jarrow[50], Life of St. Cuthbert[51], and translated the Gospel of John into English. Benedictine, Doctor of the Church. He rejected Christianity's tolerance of paganism in England.]

739         St. Willibrord, English monk [death]

739         St. Gregory II:  Letter to Charles Martel[52]

740         St. Ethelwald, entrusted with the Lindisfarne Gospels [death]

740         St. Andrew of Crete [death, archbishop of Gortyna, 24 known homilies survive]

741         St. Zacharias becomes the ninetieth bishop of Rome, gaining a truce with the Lombards. He was the first pope to not wait on Byzantine approval.

741         St. Eucherius [death]

742         Kwang-dze (Chuang Tzu)[53] [Taoist]

743         Teutonic Council of Leptinnes codified the stance of Christianity again Paganism, with converts being required to renounce the gods Thor and Woden. Thor is the god that Thursday is named after. Woden is the god that Wednesday is named after.

747         Frankish Council asserts loyalty to Zacharias.

747         St. Petronax restores the Benedictine Order at Monte Carlo [death]

748         Hammam Ibn Munabbih [death, Islamic Hadith scholar]

749         Aistulf becomes king of Lombards, ending truce with Rome.

749         St. John of Damascus (Damascene) [death, Doctor of the Church, convert from Islam, a great library of his writings survive: Exact Exposition of the Orthodox Faith[54], Barlaam and Ioasaph.[55], a story with parallels to the life of the Buddha, Disputation with a Manichaean, Dialogue Against the Manichaeans, Against the Heresy of the Nestorians, On Faith Against the Nestorians, On the Composite Nature Against the Acephali, Letter on the Thrice Holy Hymn, Against the Jacobites, On the Two Wills and Operations, Disputation Between a Saracen and a Christian, On Dragons, On Witches, Elementary Introduction to Dogma, Libellus on the Right Opinion, Exposition and Profession of Faith, On the Holy Trinity, Sacred Parallels, Eight Spirits of Evil, The Virtues and Vices of the Soul and Body, Holy Fasts, Universal Commentary, Nativity of Our Lady, homilies on the Dromition, homily on the Transfiguration, homily on Holy Saturday, homily on St. John Chrysosten, homily on St. Barbara, homily on the Withered Fig Tree, Book of Eight Tones, plus the above mentioned most famous works: The Fount of Knowledge and discourses Against the Attackers of the Holy Images. Here ends the Patristic Age of the Church in the East, St. John Damascene being considered to be the last of the early Fathers of the Church.]

750?       Taoist Dragon Gate School: Teachings of the Golden Flower of the Supreme One

750         Ghewond: History[56]

752         St. Zacharias [Pope, death]

752         Stephen II becomes the ninety-first bishop of Rome.

752         Stephen III becomes the ninety-second bishop of Rome.

753         Constantinople Synod [Image Controversy]

754         Pepin III, king of Franks: Donation of Pepin [guarantee to preserve the pope's possessions in the midst of Lombard attack, Stephen III anoints Pepin III]

755         St. Boniface [death (martyred by the Frisians), Apostle of Germany, cut down the sacred oak of Geismar, a pagan symbol, replacing it with a fir tree, which became the official Christmas tree.]

756         The Papal State is born, Franks give Pentapolis and Emilia to the Roman Church.

757         St. Paul I becomes the ninety-third bishop of Rome, a pro-Franks candidate contested by the anti-Franks Theophylact.

757         Desiderius, Lombard king, attacks Papal State

759         St. Theodore of Studium [death, wrote:  Selected Poems, with the Letter to the Poetess Casia[57]]

760         St. Werenfrid [death, parish priest at Elst]

760         Padmasambhava: Bardo Thodol [Tibetian Book of the Dead]

761         St. Winebald, English missionary [death]

762         Manichaeism becomes the state religion of the Uigar Empire [China]

762         Li Po [death, Chinese poet]

763         St. Paul I organizes other churches to protest iconoclasm, the Byzantine persecution of image worshippers.

767         Franks: Synod of Gentilly [anti-iconoclasm]

767         Constantine becomes the tenth anti-pope when Duke Toto forces him into Lateran by soldiers as an act against the pro-Franks and St. Paul.

767         St. Paul I [Pope, death]

768         Lombards aid coup in Rome, Toto overtaken by Sergius

768         Philip becomes the eleventh anti-pope by Lombard force.

768         Stephen IV becomes the ninety-fourth bishop of Rome, restoring canonical order to Church lost after St. Paul I.

768         Charlemagne becomes king of the Franks.

768         St. David's Church in Pembroke:  The Welsh Annals[58] [chronicle begins, updated until around 1000 AD]

770         Tu Fu [death, Chinese poet]

772         Hadrian I becomes the ninety-fifth bishop of Rome.

773         Charlemagne destroys the Lombard kingdom.

774         Charlemagne restores papal territories to Hadrian I.

776         Malik ibn Mighwal [death, Kuran teacher who taught the sayings of Jesus]

779         St. Walburga, English nun [death]

784         St. Virgilius, astronomer, geometer, anthropologist [death]

787         Abu Zayd Muhammad b. Abi’l Khattab Al-Qurashi

787         Second Council of Nicaea[59] [Seventh Ecumenical Council, Regarding veneration of images:  condemns iconoclasm]

789         Charlemagne: Admonitio generalis [Education]

790         Bl. Gamelbert [death, parish priest at Michaelsbuch]

791         Vikings invade England.

791         Kobo Daishi: Zenshu [Japanese Buddhist]

793         Lindisfarne monastery attacked by Vikings.

795         St. Leo III becomes the ninety-sixth bishop of Rome. It is interesting to note that occultists considered him to be a master of black magic (see The Enchiridion).

797         ‘Abdallah al-Marwazi Ibn al-Mubarak [death, Islamic ascetic Hadith scholar, taught using the sayings of Jesus]

al-Zuhd 124:  Jesus said:  Blessed is he who watches what he speaks, who is satisfied with what he has, and is only ambitious about overcoming bad habits.

al-Zuhd 135:  Jesus said:  Do not speak a lot of words without mentioning God.  If you do your heart will stiffen and being stiff will be far from God and unable to realize.

al-Zuhd 135:  Jesus said:  Do not consider the sins of others as if you were their lords.  Consider them rather as if you were their advisors.

al-Zuhd 135:  Jesus said:  Two types of people—sick and well.  Show mercy to the sick and thank God for the well.

al-Zuhd 283:  Jesus said:  Do not demand payment from those who are willing to receive your teachings.  For what payment did you ever give to me?  Do not allow the salt to become corrupt.  Salt is what treats that which has become corrupt.  But what if it is the salt itself that has become corrupt?  Then there is no treatment for it.

al-Zuhd 284:  Jesus said:  The political rulers leave wisdom up to you.  So you should leave the world up to them.

al-Zuhd 563:  Jesus said:  Take holy places to be your home.  Take your houses to only be rest stops on your journey.  Feast from the wilderness plants and in peace escape from the world.

al-Zuhd 627:  Jesus said:  If you are patient, misfortune disappears into ease.  If you are a sinner, ease disappears into misfortune.


799         Paschalis and Campulus attempt papal coup, imprison St. Leo III, who escapes to Charlemagne who defends him against his false (?) accusers.

[1] http://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/mab/index.htm

[2] http://www.bartleby.com/65/ve/Venantiu.html

[3] http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/0709.htm

[4] http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/columban.html

[5] http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/columban1.html

[6] http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/0806.htm

[7] http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/gregory_00_dialogues_intro.htm

[8] http://www.ocf.org/OrthodoxPage/reading/St.Pachomius/bede.html

[9] gopher://ccat.sas.upenn.edu:3333/11/Religious/Islam/Quran%09%09+

[10] gopher://ftp.std.com/59/obi/book/Religion/Quran.DOS/quranrk.zip

[11] http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/theodore-sykeon.html

[12] http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/antiochus_strategos_capture.htm

[13] http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/columban.html

[14] http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/theodore_syncellus_01_homily.htm

[15] http://www.sacred-texts.com/isl/hadith.htm

[16] http://www.sacred-texts.com/isl/index.htm

[17] http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/isidore_chronicon_01_trans.htm

[18] http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/columban.html

[19] http://www.umilta.net/hilda.html

[20] http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/john-almsgiver.html

[21] http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/ananias_of_shirak_autobiography.htm

[22] http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/ananias_of_shirak_on_easter.htm

[23] http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/ananias_of_shirak_on_christmas_02_text.htm

[24] gopher://ftp.std.com/59/obi/book/Religion/Quran.DOS/quranrk.zip

[25] http://www.pitt.edu/~jegst61/beowulf.html

[26] http://www.virtualscape.com/rbedrosian/seb1.htm

[27] http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/severus_sebokht_astrolabe_01_trans.htm

[28] http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/severus_sebokht_constellations_02_trans.htm

[29] http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/toledo.txt

[30] http://www.usu.edu/~history/norm/columb~1.htm

[31] http://www.piar.hu/councils/ecum06.htm

[32] http://www.virtualscape.com/rbedrosian/jm1.htm

[33] http://www.ne.jp/asahi/pureland-buddhism/amida-net/raisan.htm

[34] http://www.fogbank.com/sbrc/library/webdocs/kisamboge.html

[35] http://www.ne.jp/asahi/pureland-buddhism/amida-net/kisamboge.htm

[36] http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/bede-cuthbert.html

[37] http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/3814.htm

[38] http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/nikiu2_chronicle.htm

[39] http://www.bright.net/~palamas/sgpmwb/anastas.htm

[40] http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/0814.htm

[41] http://www.pitt.edu/~jegst61/finssburh.html

[42] http://www.pitt.edu/~jegst61/lamentdeor.html

[43] http://www.pitt.edu/~jegst61/wanderer.html

[44] http://www.pitt.edu/~jegst61/seafarer.html

[45] http://www.sacred-texts.com/shi/kojiki.htm

[46] http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/bede-jarrow.html

[47] http://www.sacred-texts.com/shi/index.htm

[48] http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/boniface1.html

[49] http://www.ocf.org/OrthodoxPage/reading/St.Pachomius/bede.html

[50] http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/bede-jarrow.html

[51] http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/bede-cuthbert.html

[52] http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/g2-martellet.html

[53] http://www.sacred-texts.com/tao/sbe39/sbe39.htm

[54] http://dfw.orthodox.net/saint_nicholas/fathers/exactidx.htm

[55] http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/OMACL/Barlaam/

[56] http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/ghewond_01_history.htm

[57] http://www.ocf.org/OrthodoxPage/reading/St.Pachomius/Greek/theopoem.html

[58] http://www.pitt.edu/~jegst61/annales.html

[59] http://www.piar.hu/councils/ecum07.htm