+ The seventh century saw the rise of Islam, with the advent of Mohammed. The Shriners trace their origins to this age. Christology controversies kept the Church busy with the new ideas of Monothelitism and the Monophysites. The major concern was the Persian invasions which captured Jerusalem, instilled Islam, and persecuted Christianity. This is the Dark Ages of Western history. The cult of St. Anne, mother of Mary, arises in the East in this century.
600 Bodhidharma begins teaching what is known as Zen Buddhism. The main concept is that enlightenment is an experience of sudden awakening called satori as opposed to a gradual learning and adaptation to a religious tradition.
600 Leander of Seville, Spanish Father [death, wrote: The Training of Nuns and the Contempt of the World, Sermon of the Triumph of the Church for the Conversion of the Goths]
600? ?: Gospel of the Seventy
600? Celtic tales: Mabinogion
600 St. Gregory I: To Eulogius, Patriarch of Alexandria
600 Valentinian Hermetics in Constantinople
601 St. Gregory I: To Theoctista, Sister of the Emperor Maurice
601 St. Gregory I: To Bishop Quiricus of Georgia
601 St. Gregory I: To St. Augustine [English Church]
602 St. Desiderius of Vienne is murdered by Queen Brunhild.
602 Persian invasion of the Byzantine empire
602 Venantius Fortunatus: Pange lingua gloriosi [Good Friday Liturgical hymn]
604 Sabinian becomes the sixty-fourth bishop of Rome, a supporter of the clergy, as opposed to the monks.
606 St. Colman of Cloyne [death]
607 Boniface III becomes the sixty-fifth bishop of Rome.
607 Emperor Phocas declared that the See in Rome is the head of all the churches.
608 St. Boniface IV becomes the sixty-sixth bishop of Rome, supporter of the monastic orders.
609 St. Boniface IV dedicates Pantheon to the memory of all Christian martyrs.
610 Muhammad: The Koran  [As Muhammad could not write, the collection of oral teachings known as the Qur’an or Koran was preserved by his followers. The teachings were relayed from the divine book of his visions of the angel Gabriel. It has been noted by some scholars that this text was based on the "Word of Qure" goddess writings, edited by several redactors over the next century before reaching its final form. The references to Jesus and Christianity relate to Essene and Gnostic texts, opposing the Catholic Christian concept of Jesus being a divine being.]
610 Bubonic Plague in China coast.
611 Persion invasion of Antioch
614 Persians capture Jerusalem, give it to Jews for 3 years, and take away what was called the "True Cross", which was recovered by Emperor Heraclius and returned to Jerusalem. Antiochus Strategos account.
615 St. Deusdedit becomes the sixty-seventh bishop of Rome, otherwise known as Adeodatus I, a supporter of the clergy.
616 Mellitus, archbishop of Canterbury, is driven from his see by the East Saxon king.
619 St. Deusdedit I [Pope, death]
619 Boniface V becomes the sixty-eighth bishop of Rome, a supporter of the clergy, known for his concern for the poor.
620 St. John the Almsgiver, the Alexandrian patriarch, called Father of the Poor for his great charity, death
622 Mohammad moves from Mecca to Medina after the hostility he was receiving there became unbearable.
625 Honorius I becomes the sixty-ninth bishop of Rome. He was a supporter of the monastic orders, had a quest for converting Jews to Christianity, restored St. Peter's. He was criticized in his apparant acceptance of Monothelite doctrine that Christ had two natures but only one divine will, as opposed to a separate but united human soul. This doctrine was a compromise in the East between the Church and the Monophysites, which Honorius was exposed to by St. Cyrus, bishop of Alexandria. Honorius concluded that the same Word acted in both the spiritual and physical natures of Christ, and therefore their argument could be seen as true. The upcoming Third Council of Constantinople didn't accept this compromise because of the abuse it would encourage in those already of a Monophysite theology. The apparant split of the pope and council were of points of view and of education on the issue at hand. The pope seemed to have been caught in a trap of words, which in themselves may be seen as true from one angle and heretical from another point of view. This then is not an historical proof against the infallibility of the papacy, as some claim it to be.
627 King Edwin of Northumbria [Britain] converted to Roman Catholicism by Paulinus.
630? St. Fredceric [death, parish priest at Vlierzeele]
630 Mohammed: Hadith [Islamic Law going through several redactions to the 800's at which time the collections of rules numbered 600,000. This coincided with Mohammed's invasion of Mecca with an army of ten thousand. The directive to conquer the world for Islam had begun.]
632 Fatima, daughter of Mohammed [death]
634 Muslims take Bethlehem.
634 St. Sophronius of Jerusalem: Synodal Letter
635 Northumbria converted to Celtic Christianity by Aidan of Iona.
635 Fructuosis of Braga, Spanish Father: Rule for the Monastery of Compludo
636 Braulio of Saragossa, Spanish Father: Life of St. Emilian
638 Emperor Heraclius: Ecthesis [Monothelite doctrine]
638 Severinus becomes the seventieth bishop of Rome, a supporter of the clergy. He refused to accept Ecthesis and the emperor's Monothelite doctrines.
638 Muslims take Jerusalem: St. Sophronius, patriarch of Jerusalem, exiled; the remains of the Temple destroyed.
640 St. Gall, monestary built on the place of his death in Switzerland [death]
640 John IV becomes the seventy-first bishop of Rome, a supporter of the clergy. He defended Honorius while he condemned monothelitism.
642 St. Oswald, king of Northumbria [death]
642 Library of Alexandria is completely destroyed by Muslims, after having suffered at the hands of the Romans and the Christians, the loss of ancient sacred texts to the world can never be restored.
642 Theodore I becomes the seventy-second bishop of Rome. He was against monothelitism, and excommunicated Patriarch Paul for his support of it.
646 Ancient Arabic Order of Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, a secret order begun at Mecca, which was taken by the Knights Templar Crusaders and is today a form of Masonry (the Shriners).
648 Emperor Constans II: Typos edict, banned discussion of the number of wills of Christ, persecuted the Church.
649 Hiouen-tsang [Buddhist writer and translator]
649 St. John Climacus [death, monk]
649 St. Martin I becomes the seventy-third bishop of Rome. He was the first pope of his age to be consecrated without the permission of the emperor, being anti-monothelite.
649 Lateran council against monotheliteism and Typos edict.
650? Tibetian Buddhism forms, with the unique belief that the Dalai Lama is the successive embodiment of Bodhisattva Chenresi.
651 St. Aidan, first bishop of Northumbria, England, founder of Lindisfarne monestary [death]
651 Braulio of Saragossa, Spanish Father [death, complied the list of the books of Isidore, also 44 letters survive
652 Fructuosis of Braga, Spanish Father: To King Receswinth
653 Emperor Theodore Calliopas arrests St. Martin, he spent the rest of his life in exile and starving; also St. Maximus the Confessor arrested and tortured to death.
654 St. Martin I [Pope, death]
654 St. Eugene I becomes the seventy-fourth bishop of Rome.
654 Icanhoh monestary is built by St. Botolph, England.
654 St. Cedd becomes archbishop of Canterbury.
655 St. Eugene I enters communion with Patriarch Peter while making a compromise in hopes of Church unity which the clergy would not allow.
657 St. Vitalian becomes the seventy-fifth bishop of Rome, who worked to improve relations with Emperor Constans II and Patriarch Peter.
660 Fructuosis of Braga, Spanish Father: General Rule for Monestaries
662 St. Maximus the Confessor [death]
664 Synod of Whitby summoned by King Oswy: Roman Catholicism favoured over Celtic Christianity
664 Peterborough abbey consecrated in Mercia [English]
664 St. Hadrian of Canterbury sent by pope to England, became abbot of SS. Peter and Paul at Canterbury
664 The plague in England
664 St. Gertrude [death, established hospices for travellers]
664 Hsuan-tsang [death, translated Sanskrit Buddhist texts]
665 Fructuosis of Braga [death, Spanish Father]
668 St. Vitalian consecrates St. Theodore of Tarsus as archbishop of Canterbury to reorganize the English Church
668 Constantine IV becomes emperor with St. Vitalian's support.
668 Theodosius: Hypomnesticon
669 St. Theodore of Tarsus becomes archbishop of Canterbury
670 St. Benedict Biscop founds a monastery in northern England
672 Adeodatus II becomes the seventy-sixth bishop of Rome, a monk.
673 English: Council of Hertford
675 Pact and Monastic Agreement of Galicia
676 Donus becomes the seventy-seventh bishop of Rome.
678 St. Agatho becomes the seventy-eighth bishop of Rome. He was a monk who succeeded in restoring relations with the East and caused the East to abandon monothelitism.
679 St. Adamnan [becomes Abbot of Iona, wrote Life of St. Columba, Founder of Hy He convinced the Irish to not take women or children as prisoners of war, which became known as the Adamnan's law.]
680 Council of Rome, preparation for the great debate in the East of Catholic responses to monothelitism
680 St. Bathildis [death], founder of abbey of Corbie and the royal Chelles nunnery
682 St. Leo II becomes the seventy-ninth bishop of Rome.
683 St. Leo II [Pope, death]
684 St. Benedict II becomes the eightieth bishop of Rome.
685 John V becomes the eighty-first bishop of Rome.
685 Aldrid becomes king of Northumbria, England
686 Conon becomes the eighty-second bishop of Rome, a compromise of pro-Peter clergy and pro-Theodore militia.
687 Theodore becomes the eighth anti-pope, supported by the Roman militia.
687 St. Cuthbert of Lindisfarne [death, St. Bede wrote Life of St. Cuthbert, he inspired his followers to created the Lindisfarne Gospels, the cherished British collection of calligraphy and manuscript painting.]
687 Paschal becomes the ninth anti-pope by using political pull.
687 St. Sergius I becomes the eighty-third bishop of Rome. He introduced "Lamb of God..." in mass.]
689 Kilian martyred, an Irish monk
690 St. Theodore of Canterbury [death]
692 Emperor Justinian II: Quinisext council: 102 canons. St. Sergius refuses to support this.
694 Council of Toledo causes a persecution of Jews, confiscating property and forcing the baptism of their children.
+ The eighth century saw a further break between the papacy and the Byzantine government. The rise of Iconoclasm in the East was a factor. A new alliance was made with the Franks which gave birth to the papal state. The kingdom of Charlemagne gave new political power to the papacy. This is the Dark Ages for Western culture.
700 Eucharistic miracle of Lanciano
700? Aldheim translates Psalms into English
700? Tantric Buddhists: Prajnopaya-viniscaya Siddhi
700? Tantric Buddhists: Hevajra Tantra
700? Mandaeans: Ginza
700 Shikshananda [Buddhist writer and translator]
701 St. Sergius I [Pope, death]
701 John VI becomes the eighty-fourth bishop of Rome.
704 St. Adamnan of Iona [death]
704 Khalid ibn Jazid [death, Islamic]
705 John VII becomes the eighty-fifth bishop of Rome. He added a chapel for the Blessed Virgin Mary to St. Peter's.
705 St. Bosa, English [death]
705 St. Bertilla of Chelles [death]
708 Sisinnius becomes the eighty-sixth bishop of Rome.
708 Constantine becomes the eighty-seventh bishop of Rome. He restored relations with Justinian II, accepting some of the Quinisext canons.
709 St. Aldhelm [death]
709 St. Wilfrid of York [death]
711 Emperor Philippicus Bardanes supports the monothelite position with violence.
713 Emperor Anastasius II returns oecumenical faith.
713 Hui-neg [death, Buddhist Zen master, his teachings preserved in Liu-tsu-ta-shih fa-pao-t'an-ching.]
714 St. Guthlac [death, monk of Peterborough, England]
715 St. Gregory II becomes the eighty-eighth bishop of Rome, a monastic.
717 Paramartha [Hindu writer and translator of ancient Buddhist Sanskrit texts into Chinese, including the Crown Sutra (Surangama) from the First Century AD] .
718 "Our Lady of Montserrat, France," a carving attributed to St. Luke, one of the "Black Madonnas" is the patroness of marriage and childbirth and dates back to this year.
719 St. Pega [death, sister of St. Guthlac]
720 St. Odilia [death, blind orphan who was healed at his baptism at age 12, became a Benedictine monk]
721 St. John of Beverly [death]
729 St. John of Damascus: The Fount of Knowledge
730 The East bans sacred images, Emperor Leo III, St. Gregory disapproves of this ban [iconoclasm]
730 St. John of Damascus: Apostolic Discourses against the Attackers of the Holy Images
731 St. Gregory III becomes the eighty-ninth bishop of Rome, denouncing iconoclasm and supporting the monastics.
732 The Islamic Arabs are exiled from France this year, settling in Spain. Spain becomes the center for European learning
733 St. Gregory gives support to Byzantine government during Lombard attack and gains the truce of Leo
733 St. Germain I [death, patriarch of Constantinople] 9 sermons survive, all concerning Mary.
735 St. Bede the Venerable [death, English abbot, historian, and astronomer, wrote Ecclesiastical History of the English People, Lives of the Abbots of Weremouth and Jarrow, Life of St. Cuthbert, and translated the Gospel of John into English. Benedictine, Doctor of the Church. He rejected Christianity's tolerance of paganism in England.]
739 St. Willibrord, English monk [death]
740 St. Ethelwald, entrusted with the Lindisfarne Gospels [death]
740 St. Andrew of Crete [death, archbishop of Gortyna, 24 known homilies survive]
741 St. Zacharias becomes the ninetieth bishop of Rome, gaining a truce with the Lombards. He was the first pope to not wait on Byzantine approval.
741 St. Eucherius [death]
743 Teutonic Council of Leptinnes codified the stance of Christianity again Paganism, with converts being required to renounce the gods Thor and Woden. Thor is the god that Thursday is named after. Woden is the god that Wednesday is named after.
747 Frankish Council asserts loyalty to Zacharias.
747 St. Petronax restores the Benedictine Order at Monte Carlo [death]
748 Hammam Ibn Munabbih [death, Islamic Hadith scholar]
749 Aistulf becomes king of Lombards, ending truce with Rome.
749 St. John of Damascus (Damascene) [death, Doctor of the Church, convert from Islam, a great library of his writings survive: Exact Exposition of the Orthodox Faith, Barlaam and Ioasaph., a story with parallels to the life of the Buddha, Disputation with a Manichaean, Dialogue Against the Manichaeans, Against the Heresy of the Nestorians, On Faith Against the Nestorians, On the Composite Nature Against the Acephali, Letter on the Thrice Holy Hymn, Against the Jacobites, On the Two Wills and Operations, Disputation Between a Saracen and a Christian, On Dragons, On Witches, Elementary Introduction to Dogma, Libellus on the Right Opinion, Exposition and Profession of Faith, On the Holy Trinity, Sacred Parallels, Eight Spirits of Evil, The Virtues and Vices of the Soul and Body, Holy Fasts, Universal Commentary, Nativity of Our Lady, homilies on the Dromition, homily on the Transfiguration, homily on Holy Saturday, homily on St. John Chrysosten, homily on St. Barbara, homily on the Withered Fig Tree, Book of Eight Tones, plus the above mentioned most famous works: The Fount of Knowledge and discourses Against the Attackers of the Holy Images. Here ends the Patristic Age of the Church in the East, St. John Damascene being considered to be the last of the early Fathers of the Church.]
750? Taoist Dragon Gate School: Teachings of the Golden Flower of the Supreme One
752 St. Zacharias [Pope, death]
752 Stephen II becomes the ninety-first bishop of Rome.
752 Stephen III becomes the ninety-second bishop of Rome.
753 Constantinople Synod [Image Controversy]
754 Pepin III, king of Franks: Donation of Pepin [guarantee to preserve the pope's possessions in the midst of Lombard attack, Stephen III anoints Pepin III]
755 St. Boniface [death (martyred by the Frisians), Apostle of Germany, cut down the sacred oak of Geismar, a pagan symbol, replacing it with a fir tree, which became the official Christmas tree.]
756 The Papal State is born, Franks give Pentapolis and Emilia to the Roman Church.
757 St. Paul I becomes the ninety-third bishop of Rome, a pro-Franks candidate contested by the anti-Franks Theophylact.
757 Desiderius, Lombard king, attacks Papal State
759 St. Theodore of Studium [death, wrote: Selected Poems, with the Letter to the Poetess Casia]
760 St. Werenfrid [death, parish priest at Elst]
760 Padmasambhava: Bardo Thodol [Tibetian Book of the Dead]
761 St. Winebald, English missionary [death]
762 Manichaeism becomes the state religion of the Uigar Empire [China]
762 Li Po [death, Chinese poet]
763 St. Paul I organizes other churches to protest iconoclasm, the Byzantine persecution of image worshippers.
767 Franks: Synod of Gentilly [anti-iconoclasm]
767 Constantine becomes the tenth anti-pope when Duke Toto forces him into Lateran by soldiers as an act against the pro-Franks and St. Paul.
767 St. Paul I [Pope, death]
768 Lombards aid coup in Rome, Toto overtaken by Sergius
768 Philip becomes the eleventh anti-pope by Lombard force.
768 Stephen IV becomes the ninety-fourth bishop of Rome, restoring canonical order to Church lost after St. Paul I.
768 Charlemagne becomes king of the Franks.
770 Tu Fu [death, Chinese poet]
772 Hadrian I becomes the ninety-fifth bishop of Rome.
773 Charlemagne destroys the Lombard kingdom.
774 Charlemagne restores papal territories to Hadrian I.
776 Malik ibn Mighwal [death, Kuran teacher who taught the sayings of Jesus]
779 St. Walburga, English nun [death]
784 St. Virgilius, astronomer, geometer, anthropologist [death]
787 Abu Zayd Muhammad b. Abi’l Khattab Al-Qurashi
789 Charlemagne: Admonitio generalis [Education]
790 Bl. Gamelbert [death, parish priest at Michaelsbuch]
791 Vikings invade England.
791 Kobo Daishi: Zenshu [Japanese Buddhist]
793 Lindisfarne monastery attacked by Vikings.
795 St. Leo III becomes the ninety-sixth bishop of Rome. It is interesting to note that occultists considered him to be a master of black magic (see The Enchiridion).
797 ‘Abdallah al-Marwazi Ibn al-Mubarak [death, Islamic ascetic Hadith scholar, taught using the sayings of Jesus]
al-Zuhd 124: Jesus said: Blessed is he who watches what he speaks, who is satisfied with what he has, and is only ambitious about overcoming bad habits.
al-Zuhd 135: Jesus said: Do not speak a lot of words without mentioning God. If you do your heart will stiffen and being stiff will be far from God and unable to realize.
al-Zuhd 135: Jesus said: Do not consider the sins of others as if you were their lords. Consider them rather as if you were their advisors.
al-Zuhd 135: Jesus said: Two types of people—sick and well. Show mercy to the sick and thank God for the well.
al-Zuhd 283: Jesus said: Do not demand payment from those who are willing to receive your teachings. For what payment did you ever give to me? Do not allow the salt to become corrupt. Salt is what treats that which has become corrupt. But what if it is the salt itself that has become corrupt? Then there is no treatment for it.
al-Zuhd 284: Jesus said: The political rulers leave wisdom up to you. So you should leave the world up to them.
al-Zuhd 563: Jesus said: Take holy places to be your home. Take your houses to only be rest stops on your journey. Feast from the wilderness plants and in peace escape from the world.
al-Zuhd 627: Jesus said: If you are patient, misfortune disappears into ease. If you are a sinner, ease disappears into misfortune.
799 Paschalis and Campulus attempt papal coup, imprison St. Leo III, who escapes to Charlemagne who defends him against his false (?) accusers.