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Toponym Template

This template shows the current format used for toponym records.
(Changes from older formats are made when records are updated.)

Administrative Status (e.g. District, Region or Country Capital) where applicable
Heterographs Spelling variations (*) 
Allonyms Different names used (*)

Map Facilities: The inline Google Map shown above, which is centred on the record place, is shown for quick reference, and may not show the toponym. But by switching to satellite image and using the zoom-in button (+) the settlement should become visible. On the maps linked in the following table (a) the 1962 map will show the toponym where a 1962 heterograph is given, (b) the IndexMundi (IM) map will show a pointer at the given location, (c) the Wikimapia (WM) map may have user-added data.


District & Map (GSS)
1962 map square 
Sat. Map: IM    WM Administrative District (linked to GSS map)
Lon / ° Lat / ° Elev / m
Place Type
+ East,
- West
(all North)
Elevation (from Google Maps APIs)e.g. Community, River, Station, etc.
(Location data for a river is for its confluence with another water body.)

Location (If data is 'ghpn', this header may be followed by an asterisk, *.)
Note on location, especially if place is not shown on the 1962 map, in which case, approximate distance and direction from a 1962 map location. When referring to the 1962 map square, note the 1962 heterograph if different from the header toponym.

Meaning Origin
Indig. Lang. Source Lang.
Language of environment Language of place name

Etymological analysis of name; literal translation of each element¹: English equivalent place name
Background to how and why place obtained its name.

If more than one explanation is given, they are numbered to correspond with alternative meanings given, thus: 1., 2., etc.

References to sources below are indicated by name, initials, or 'URL'.

References to regularly used online sources are given by initials only where unambiguous.

Document Author, date, title, publisher
URL Internet address of online information. If unlinked, target is deactivated.
Contributor Initials of contributor if other than Project Manager/Webmaster
Informant Initials of informant

Record Date: date of creation or update (included from 15/10/2015)