Early Sub-Saharan Africa

  • Indigenous Kingdoms
    • Nubia was Africa's first state, controlled central Africa and Northern Sudan over 3,000 years ago.
    • Kingdom of Axum controlled northern Ethiopia
      • both of these places looked towards Egypt as their political model
  • Africa's first indigenous states were found in the Sahel around 700 C.E.
    • Included Ghana, Mali, Songhai, Kanem
      • these areas gained wealth by importing salt, monopolizing horsebreeding, and mastering cavalry warfare
  • West Africa contained large empires as well as centralized states.
    • Yoruba- praticed a city state government
    • still one of the most urbanized and populated areas of Africa
  • The Sahel was home to the most powerful states until the 1600s, when power was shifted to Gulf of Guniea because of new slave trade opportunities.