Here you will find many reference links that will give you further information.

If you have any suggestion for useful external links relevant to this site, please feel free to contact me.

  • The 17 plane symmetry groups
  • Introduction to Wallpaper PatternsDescription
  • Example tiling for each group, with dynamic demos of properties
  • Overview with example tiling for each group
  • Tess, a nagware tessellation program for multiple platforms, supports all wallpaper, frieze, and rosette groups, as well as Heesch tilings.
  • Kali, free graphical symmetry editor available online and for download.
  • Inkscape, a freevector graphics editor, supports all 17 groups plus arbitrary scales, shifts, rotates, and color changes per row or per column, optionally randomized to a given degree.
  • Arabeske is a free standalone tool, supports a subset of wallpaper groups. 
  • < namespace="" prefix="o" ns="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" xml="true">The World of Escher-
    The web site to explore the great M.C. Escher artworks. Each image has commentary and a zoom mode.

  • Geometric Sculpture of George W. Hart-
    The geometric sculpture of George W. Hart displays the beauty of mathematical forms in various media.
  • Synergetic Geometry-
    Richard Hawkins' digital archive.
  • Religious Beliefs Made Visual: Geometry and Islam-
    A lesson plan. Constructs a geometric motif from Islamic art, and gives its cultural context.
  • Ken Snelson-
    The art and tensegrity sculptures of Ken Snelson.
  • Super Shapes in 3D-
    Gives explanation of the superformula used to create various images, which is based on equations by Johan Gielis. Page includes galleries and shareware software downloads.
  • Math Art Gallery-
    Knots, surfaces and fractals.
  • Sculptures by Carlo H. Séquin-
    Includes photos of knots and tangles, mathematical models of surfaces, and stereolithography models.
  • Stewart Dickson's Art Page-
    Includes image galleries of 3-D images, a paper on tactile geometry, resume, virtual reality project and diversions.
  • Art Geometry and Abstract Culture-
    Computer Graphics, Art, Math, Geometry, and Abstract Sculpture are closely related. These activities are trying to transcend the boundaries between the fields. With images of models and sculptures.
  • Un-disassemble-able Object by Jack Snoeyink-
    A sculpture representing research results on the number of hands that a robot would need to assemble collections of simple geometric objects.
  • Tips and Tricks to Gothic Geometry-
    Full explanatory diagrams for constructing your own rose window, ogee arch, and trifoil tracery.
  • Tom Lechner's Sculptures-
    Polyhedral sculptures for sale. Also includes his memoirs of making polyhedral models, math references, and his art school thesis.
  • Polynomiography-
    Features images based on polynomial equations. Includes online drawing software, along with user's tutorial.
  • Islamic and Geometric Art-
    A personal journey through aspects of geometric art with particular reference to Islamic design. The site includes full descriptions and methods for building often complex structures.
  • GeomeTricks-
    Explore complex geometric structures based upon the 'basic joint'; an interconnectable joint composed of four intersecting sets of three triangular prisms. Includes assembly instructions, sculpture photographs and interactive virtual 3D models.
  • Mathematics and Art Project-
    A collaborative project that brings together mathematicians from Hewlett-Packard's Basic Research Institute (BRIMS) with artists, attempting to create a synthesis of their ideas. Includes a gallery, events calendar, and discussion articles.
  • Geometry Gallery-
    Spatial designs by Vedder Wright.
  • Symbolic Sculpture and Mathematics-
    Photos of sculptures by John Robinson, and description of the mathematics behind them by Ronnie Brown.
  • Polyhedra and other Interesting Structures-
    Home made polyhedra and other constructions with interesting structural properties, specifically tension and rigidity.
  • Triple Rotation Curves (3R-curves)-
    Generalization of 2R-curves (hypotrochiods and epitrochoids). Create line-art images by setting variables for a hypothetical planet, moon and satellite.