Gokasho Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 Japan
Disaster Prevention Research Institute
Area of specialization
Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering
University of Tokyo, Doctor of Engineering, 1991
University of British Columbia, Canada, Visiting Researcher, 1980-1982
University of Tokyo, B.S., Civil Engineering, 1974
2002-present Professor, Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University
2001-2002 Director for Special Research (Disaster Prevention)
Port and Airport Research Institute
1998- 2001 Chief, Earthquake Disaster Prevention Laboratory,
Port and Harbour Research Institute, Ministry of Transport
1989- 1998 Chief, Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering Laboratory,
Port and Harbour Research Institute, Ministry of Transport
1974- 1989 Earthquake Resistant Structures Laboratory,
Port and Harbour Research Institute, Ministry of Transport
(1) 1998 Best Paper Award, awarded by the Japanese Geotechnical Society
(2) 1996 Award for outstanding research accomplishment, awarded by the Minister of Science and Technology Agency, Japanese Government
(3) 1994 Prakash Award for significant contributions to geotechnical earthquake engineering, awarded by the Shamsher Prakash Foundation, U.S.A.
(4) 1994 Award for outstanding research accomplishment, awarded by the Japanese Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering
Notes on professional experience
(1) Reconnaissance of earthquake damage to port structures
Experience in reconnaissance of damage to port structures at large earthquakes in Japan, including
1978 Miyagi-ken-oki earthquake (Richter magnitude 7.4)
1983 Nihonkai-chubu earthquake (Richter magnitude 7.7)
1984 Hyuganada earthquake (Richter magnitude 7.4)
1987 Chibaken-toho-oki earthquake (Richter magnitude 6.7)
1993 Kushiro-oki earthquake (Richter magnitude 7.8)
1993 Hokkaido-Nansei-oki earthquake (Richter magnitude 7.8)
1994 Hokkaido-toho-oki earthquake (Richter magnitude 8.1), and
1995 Hyogoken-Nambu (Kobe) earthquake (Richter magnitude 7.2).
The results of the detailed investigations were compiled and published in the Technical Notes of the Port and Harbour Research Institute.
Experience in reconnaissance of earthquake damage outside Japan, including
1990 Philippines (Luzon) earthquake (Richter magnitude 7.8)
1994 Northridge, U.S.A., earthquake (Richter magnitude 6.8), and
1999 Kocaeli, Turkey, earthquake (Richter magnitude 7.4).
The Port an Harbour Research Institute has been operating a strong earthquake motion recording network in port areas in Japan since 1962, compiling more than 4,000 earthquake records. I had been the chief of this operation since 1989 till 1998 .
(2) Academic contributions
Academic contributions are directed toward developing a methodology to evaluate seismically induced deformation in soil-structure systems including port structures. Contributions include
shake table testing of soil-structure-fluid systems,
constitutive modeling of sand under cyclic loading, and
analysis of soil-structure systems during earthquakes.
The developed methodology was applied for analyzing seriously damaged quay walls at Kobe port, leading to identifying the mechanism of the damage and suggesting effective remedial measures to mitigate the damage. The methodology was also applied to various soil-structure systems including horizontal ground, mild slope, embankments, building-foundation systems, gravity quay walls, sheet pile quay walls and underground structures (as reported at the JSSMFE symposia in 1989 and 1992 and the symposium of NSF blind test project "VELACS" in 1993, Balkema). The methodology was further applied to such an important issue in practice as to establish a deformation based design of remedial measures against liquefaction for optimizing the area of soil improvement (as reported at JSCE annual meetings in 1992 and 1993 and at 12th ICSMFE, New Delhi, in 1994).
Served as chairman and/or member of technical review committees for designing ports and airports in Japan, including Kansai International Airport.
Recent international activities include
2002-present Convener of ISO/TC98/SC3/WG10 Seismic actions on geotechnical works
1997 Convener of Japan - U.S. Workshop on Acceptable Seismic Risk for Port Facilities, Yokosuka, Japan
1996 - 2001 Chairman of Working Group No.34: Effects of Earthquakes on Port Structures, International Association of Navigation (PIANC)
1996 onvener of International Workshop on Site Response subjected to Strong Earthquake Motions, Yokosuka, Japan
1995 - present Standing member of Asian Technical Committee on Zonation of Geotechnical Hazards, Asian Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering
1994 Member of judging committee of liquefaction resistant bridge design competition, the Institution of Civil Engineers, U.K.
1994 - present Standing member of the International Standard Organization (ISO) TC67/SC7/WG3/Panel 5 for earthquake resistant design of offshore structures
1993 ? 1997 Joint project with Waterways Experiment Station, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, for publication of English edition of "Handbook on Liquefaction Remediation of Reclaimed Land," originally published in Japanese
1993 Convener of International Workshop on Strong Motion Data, Menlo Park, Ca. U.S.A.
Travel experience: 23 countries, including Australia, Austria, Brazil, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, India, Indonesia, Italy, Korea, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Philippines, Portugal, Spain, Thailand, Turkey, U.K., and U.S.A.
Language ability: English (TOEFL score 630; TOEIC score 945) and Japanese (native)
(1) Iai, S. (2001): Seismic Design Guidelines for Port Structures, International Navigation Association (PIANC) ed., Baolkema, 474p.
(2) Iai, S. (2002): Port Structures, in Earthquake Engineering Handbook, W.F.chen and C. Scawthorn eds, pp.27-1 ? 27-21
(3) Iai, S. (2011): Towards Global sustainability, Geotechnics and Earthquake Geotechnics towards Global Sustainability, Iai, S. ed, 1-19
Primary papers in English Journals
(1) Iai, S. (1989) : "Similitude for shaking table tests on soil-structure-fluid model in 1g gravitational field," Soils and Foundations, Vol.29, No.1, pp.105-118
(2) Iai, S., Tsuchida, H. and Koizumi, K. (1989) : "A liquefaction criterion based on field performances around seismograph stations," Soils and Foundations, Vol.29, No.2, pp.52-68
(3) Iai, S., Matsunaga, Y. and Kameoka, T. (1992a) : "Strain space plasticity model for cyclic mobility," Soils and Foundations, Vol.32, No.2, pp.1-15
(4) Iai, S., Matsunaga, Y. and Kameoka, T. (1992b) : "Analysis of undrained cyclic behavior of sand under anisotropic consolidation," Soils and Foundations, Vol.32, No.2, pp.16-20
(5) Iai, S. and Kameoka, T. (1993) : "Finite element analysis of earthquake induced damage to anchored sheet pile quay walls," Soils and Foundations, Vol.33, No.1, pp.71-91
(6) Iai, S. (1993a) : "Micromechanical background to a strain space multiple mechanism model for sand," Soils and Foundations, Vol.33, No.1, pp.102-117
(7) Iai, S. (1993b) : "Three dimensional formulation and objectivity of a strain space multiple mechanism model for sand," Soils and Foundations, Vol.33, No.1, pp.192-199
(8) Iai, S. (1993c) : "Concept of effective strain in constitutive modeling of granular materials," Soils and Foundations, Vol.33, No.2, pp.171-180
(9) Iai. S. (1994) : "A new look at the stress dilatancy relation in Cam-Clay model," Soils and Foundations, Vol.34, No.2, pp.1-12
(10) Iai, S., Morita, T., Kameoka, T., Matsunaga, Y., and Abiko, K. (1995) : "Response of a dense sand deposit during 1993 Kushiro-Oki earthquake," Soils and Foundations, Vol.35, No.1, pp.115-131
(11) Inagaki, H., Iai, S., Sugano, T., Yamazaki, H., and Inatomi, T. (1996) : "Performance of caisson type quay walls at Kobe port," Special Issue on Geotechnical Aspects of the January 17 1995 Hyogoken-Nambu Earthquake, Soils and Foundations, pp.119-136
(12) Iai, S., Ichii, K., Liu, H., and Morita, T. (1998): “Effective stress analyses of port structures,” Special Issue on Geotechnical Aspects of the January 17 1995 Hyogoken-Nambu Earthquake, No.2, Soils and Foundations, pp.97-114
(13) Iai, S. (1998): “Seismic analysis and performance of retaining structures, State-of-the-art, Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics III, Geotechnical Special Publication No.75, ASCE, pp.1020-1044
(14) Iai, S. and Sugano, T. (1999): “Soil-structure interaction studies through shaking table tests,” Theme lecture, Proc. 2nd International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, Balkema, pp.927-940
(15) Iai, S. (2001): “Recent studies on seismic analysis and design of retaining structures,” State-of-the-art, Proc. 4th International Conference on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil dynamics, CD-ROM, Paper SOAP-4, pp.1-28
(16) Iai, S. and Bardet, J.P. (2001): “Plane strain instability of saturated elasto-plastic soils,” Geotechnique, Vol.51, No.5, pp.389-398
(17) Bardet, J.P. and Iai, S. (2002): “Axisymmetric instability of fluid saturated previous cylinders,” Journal of Applied Mechanics, ASME, Vol.69, No.6, pp.717-723
(18) Dobry R, Iai S. Recent developments in the understanding of earthquake site response and associated seismic code implementation. In Proc GeoEng2000, An International Conference on Geotechnical & Geological Engineering: Melbourne, Australia, 2000; 186-129
(19) Ozutsumi O, Iai S. Adjustment method of the hysteresis damping for multiple shear spring model. In Proc 4th International Conference on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics, 2001; Paper No.1.68.
(20) Ozutsumi O, Sawada S, Iai S, Takeshima Y, Sugiyama W, Shimazu T. Effective stress analyses of liquefaction-induced deformation in river dikes. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 2002; 22:1075-1082.
(21) Miwa S, Ozutsumi O, Ikeda T, Oka Y, Iai S. Evaluation of earthquake damage to sheet pile type quay walls by effective stress analysis considering initial stress condition. Proc of Structural Engineering, JSCE 2003; 49A:369-380.
(22) Iai S, Ozutsumi O. Yield and cyclic behaviour of a strain space multiple mechanism model for granular materials. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics 2005; 29(4):417-442.
(23) Iai S, Tobita T, Nakahara T. Generalized scaling relations for dynamic centrifuge tests. Géotechnique 2005; 55(5):355-362.
(24) Iai S. International standard (ISO) on seismic actions for designing geotechnical works - An overview. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 2005; 25:605-615.
(25) Iai S. Remediation of liquefiable soils for port structures in Japan - analysis, design and performance. Journal of Earthquake Engineering 2005; 9(Special Issue):77-103
(26) Iai S, Tobita T. Soil non-linearity and effects on seismic site response. In Proc 3rd International Symposium on the Effects of Surface Geology on Seismic Motion: Grenoble, France, 2006; 21-46.
(27) Iai S, Tobita T, Donahue M, Nakamichi M, Kaneko H. Soil-pile interaction in horizontal plane. Geotechnical Special Publication 145, ASCE 2006:38-49.
(28) Tobita T, Iai S, Chairullah B, Asper W. Reconnaissance report of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman, Indonesia, Earthquake - Damage to geotechnical works in Band Aceh and Meulaboh. Journal of Natural Disaster Science 2006; 28(1):35-41.
(29) Higashijima M, Fujita I, Ichii K, Iai S, Sugano T, Kitamura M. Development of a simple seismic performance evaluation technique for coastal structures. In 2006 Ocean Development Symposium, JSCE, 2006.
(30) Iai S, Tobita T. Seismic assessment of coastal structures against combined hazard with Tsunamis. In Proc 8th Pacific Conference on Earthquake Engineering: Singapore, 2007.
(31) Iai S, Tobita T. Seismic performance and assessment of coastal geotechnical structures. In Proc 16th Southeast Asian Geotechnical Conference: Subang, Malaysia, 2007; 203-210.
(32) Iai S, Tobita T. Seismic analysis and design of geotechnical structures. In: Pitilakis KD, editor. Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering: Springer; 2007. 303-325.
(33) Iai S, Tobita T, Ozutsumi O. Stress dilatancy relation in strain space multiple mechanism model for cyclic behavior of sand. Annuals of Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University 2008; 51:291-304 (in Japanese).
(34) Iai S, Tobita T, Tamari Y. Seismic performance and design of port structures. Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics VI, Geotechnical Special Publication 181, ASCE 2008:1-16.
(35) Iai S, Tobita T. Seismic performance evaluation of geotechnical structures. In Proc 2nd International Conference GEDMAR08: Nanjing, China, 2008; 134-141.
(36) Iai S, Tobita T, Hussien MN, Rollins KM, Ozutsumi O. Soil-pile interaction under lateral load. In Proc International Workshop on Soil-foundation-Structure Interaction 2009. Taylor & Francis Group, London: Auckland, 2009; 101-108.
(37) Hussien MN, Tobita T, Iai S, Rollins KM, Ramadan EH. Soil-structure interactions analysis for vertical and lateral loaded pile foundations. In Proc 17th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering: Alexandria, 2009; 1251-1254.
(38) Tobita T, S. I, Iwata T. Numerical analysis of trampoline effect in extreme ground motion. In Proc 5th International Conference on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics: San Diego, 2010
(39) Iai S, Ichii K. Soils and foundations during earthquakes. Soils and Foundations 2010; 50(6):937-953.
(40) Iai S. Seismic design and performance of retaining structures. Earth Retention Conference III, Geotechnical Special Publication No208, ASCE 2010:674-687.
(41) Hussien MN, Tobita T, Iai S, Rollins KM. Soil-pile separation effect on the performance of a pile group under static and dynamic lateral load. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 2010; 47(11):1234-1246.
(42) Tobita T, Iai S, Iwata T. Numerical analysis of near-field asymmetric vertical motion. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 2010; 100(4):1456 - 1469
(43) Hussien MN, Tobita T, Iai S. Nonlinear seismic finite element analysis of soil-pile superstructure interaction. Journal of Applied Mechanics, JSCE 2010; 13:601-609.
(44) Iai S, Tobita T. Performance-based design of geotechnical structures: recent advances. In Proc 5th International Conference on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics: San Diego, 2010; SOAP4
(45) Iai S, Tobita T, Ozutsumi O, Ueda K. Dilatancy of granular materials in a strain space multiple mechanism model. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics 2011; 35(3):360-392.
(46) Iai S, Tobita T, Ozutsumi O. Induced fabric under cyclic and rotational loads in a strain space multiple mechanism model for granular materials. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics 2011; 35:(in print) published online nag.1091.
(47) Tobita T, Kang CG, Iai S. Centrifuge modelling of manhole uplift in a liquefied trench. Soils and Foundations 2011; 51(6):1091-1102.
(48) Hussien MN, Tobita T, Iai S. Vertical loads effect on the lateral pile group resistance in sand. Geomechanics and Geoengineering: An International Journal 2011:(in print).
(49) Hussien MN, Tobita T, Iai S. Non-linear response of coupled soil-pile-structure system under sinusoidal excitations with various frequencies. Journal of Applied Mechanics, JSCE 2011; 14:I-471-480.
(50) Hussien MN, Tobita T, Iai S. Influence of vertical loads on lateral pile group response considering soil-pile cap interactions. Journal of Applied Mechanics, JSCE 2011; 14:I-271-280.
(51) Iai S, Tobita T, Iwata T. Nonlinearity in site response: Nonlinear volumetric mechanism. In Proc 4th International Symposium on Effect of Surface Geology on Seismic Motion: Santa Barbara, 2011
(52) Tobita T, Kang GC, Iai S. Estimation of liquefaction-induced manhole uplift displacements and trench-backfill settlements. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE 2011:(in print).
(53) Tobita T, Iai S, von der Tann L. Application of the generalized scaling law to liquefiable ground. International Journal for Physical Modelling in Geotechnics 2011:(in print).
(54) Iai S. Towards Global Sustainability. In: Iai S, editor. Geotechnics and Earthquake Geotechnics towards Global Sustainability: Springer; 2011. 1-19.
(55) Iai S, Ueda K, Tobita T, Ozutsumi O. Finite strain formulation of a strain space multiple mechanism model for granular materials. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics 2012:(in print) published online nag.2084.
(56) Iai S, Tobita T, Ozutsumi O. Evolution of fabric in a strain space multiple mechanism model for granular materials. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics 2012:(in print) published online nag.2087.
(57) Iai S, Ueda K. Energy-less strain in granular materials -mechanism and modeling. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics 2011:(submitted for review).