GENESIS and the TWILIGHT ZONE

Partial Recovery of Inconvenient Truth

 

Part II - Anatomy of Lifeforms

We must understand that our Earth is just a dot in the Universe with no special role but to abide with the evolution of time and space.

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Updated discoveries revealed that  Mother Earth evolve on about every 35,000 to 42,000 year-cycle. Most likely traverse on asteroid belt or nutation of earth axis tilting from 22 to 24.50 degrees back and forth in every 42,000 year-cycle caused the melting and freezing of polar cap. Nutation - is the swinging of Earth’s axis.  Near the height of the last ice age, North Pole did not point toward Polaris or the North Star as it is today but instead, it pointed to Vega, the brightest Star in the Constellation Lyra. This most likely constitute the pulling of water to froze on polar caps and then melting it out again in another 42,000 years on slow process. Evidence of which was the landmass on the Antarctic uncovered by ice during the melting cycle and had acquired civilization that period.

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Stone-Age graveyard reveals life in a “green Sahara”

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Sci­en­tists in Ni­ger have found the Sa­hara De­sert’s larg­est known Stone-Age grave­yard, which of­fers an un­par­al­leled rec­ord of life when the re­gion was green.

 

 

Archaeologists work on a grave­site es­ti­mated as 10,000 years old in Go­be­ro, Ni­ger. (Image cour­tesy Nat'l Geo­gra­phic So­ciety) 

 

Uni­ver­s­ity of Chi­ca­go pro­fes­sor and Na­tional Ge­o­graph­ic Ex­plor­er-in-          Re­si­dence Paul Se­re­no, whose team first hap­pened on the site dur­ing             a di­no­saur-hunt­ing ex­pe­di­tion, un­earthed the ce­me­tery, ac­cord­ing to the organization.

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Dat­ing back 10,000 years and called Gob­ero af­ter the Tua­reg name for the    ar­ea, the site was brim­ming with skele­tons of hu­mans and an­i­mals including large fish and crocodiles, researchers said.  Gob­ero is hid­den away with­in     Ni­ger’s for­bid­ding Ténéré Des­ert, known to lo­cal Tua­reg no­mads as a “des­ert with­in a des­ert.” The Ténéré is the set­ting of other dra­ma­tic sci­en­ti­fic find­ings in­clud­ing the 500-toothed, plant-eat­ing di­no­saur Ni­ger­saur­us and the       enor­mous ex­tinct croc­o­dil­ia Sarcosuchus, also known as Super Croc. The dis­cov­ery of the lake­side grave­yard—said to rep­re­sent two suc­ces­sive       hu­man popula­t­ions di­vid­ed by more than 1,000 years—is re­ported in the   Sep­tem­ber is­sue of Na­tional Ge­o­graph­ic mag­a­zine and the Aug. 14 is­sue of the research journal PLoS One.

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As they ex­plored the site, re­search­ers said, they tip­toed among doz­ens of fos­sil­ized hu­man skele­tons laid bare on the sur­face of an an­cient dune field by the hot Sa­har­an wind. Jaw­bones still clenched nearly full sets of teeth;      a ti­ny hand reached up through the sand, its fin­ger bones in­tact. On the      sur­face lay har­poon points, pot­sherds, beads and stone tools. The site was pristine, apparently never visited.

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Two sea­sons of ex­cava­t­ion sup­ported by the so­ci­e­ty even­tu­ally re­vealed some 200 graves clearly be­long­ing to two suc­ces­sive lake­side popula­t­ions, sci­en­tists said. The old­er group, de­ter­mined to be Kif­fian, were hunters of wild game who left ev­i­dence that they al­so speared huge perch with har­poons when they col­o­nized the green Sa­hara dur­ing its wet­test per­i­od be­tween 10,000 and 8,000 years ago. Their tall stat­ure, some­times reach­ing well over   6 feet, was not im­me­di­ately ap­par­ent from their tightly bound burial positions.

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The more re­cent popula­t­ion was the Tene­r­ian, a more lightly built peo­ple who ap­peared to have had a di­verse econ­o­my of hunt­ing, fish­ing and cat­tle      herd­ing, ac­cord­ing to the re­search team. They lived dur­ing the lat­ter part of the green Sa­hara, about 7,000 to 4,500 years ago. Their one-of-a-kind bur­i­als of­ten in­clud­ed jew­el­ry or rit­u­al pos­es—a girl wear­ing an upper-arm brace­let carved from a hip­po tusk, for ex­am­ple, and a stun­ning tri­ple bur­i­al con­tain­ing a woman and two children in a poignant embrace.

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“At first glance, it’s hard to im­ag­ine two more bi­o­log­ic­ally dis­tinct groups of peo­ple bur­y­ing their dead in the same place,” said team mem­ber                Chris Sto­janowski, a bioar­chae­o­lo­g­ist from Ar­i­zo­na State Uni­ver­s­ity.         “The big­gest mys­tery is how they seemed to have done this with­out dis­turb­ing a single grave.

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Al­though the Sa­hara has long been the world’s larg­est des­ert, a faint wob­ble in Earth’s or­bit and oth­er fac­tors oc­cur­ring some 12,000 years ago caused  Af­ri­ca’s sea­son­al mon­soons to shift slightly north, bring­ing new rains to the Sa­hara. From Egypt in the east to Mau­ri­ta­nia in the west, lakes with lush   mar­gins dot­ted the form­erly parched land­scape, draw­ing an­i­mals, fish and even­tu­ally peo­ple. Sep­a­rat­ing these two popula­t­ions was an ar­id in­ter­val   per­haps as long as a mil­len­ni­um that be­gan about 8,000 years ago, when the lake disappeared and the site was abandoned.

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Dat­ing the sun-bleached bones of fos­sil hu­mans in the Sa­hara has was very hard, re­search­ers said. Us­ing a new tech­nique, the team re­ported it had      ob­tained nearly 80 so-called ra­dio­car­bon dates from Gob­ero bones and teeth. Ra­dio­car­bon dat­ing is a meth­od of es­ti­mat­ing the age of bi­o­log­ical ma­te­ri­al based on changes in its content of radioactive carbon.

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 Ar­chae­o­lo­g­ist El­e­na Garcea of the Uni­ver­s­ity of Cas­si­no in Italy helped   iden­ti­fy the site’s poorly known cul­tures so well-pre­served at the site. Garcea, an ex­pert in     an­cient pot­tery who has spent nearly three dec­ades dig­ging at Stone Age sites in north­ern Af­ri­ca, trav­eled with Sereno in 2005 to the site. She re­calls stand­ing there amazed, gaz­ing at far more hu­man skele­tons than she had seen in all her digs combined.

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She quickly homed in on two dis­tinct types of pot­tery, one that bore a   pointil­lis­tic pat­tern linked with the Tene­r­ian and anoth­er that had wavy lines and zigzags. “These are Kif­fian,” a puz­zled Garcea told Sereno. “What is so amaz­ing is that the peo­ple who made these two types of pots lived in the same place more than a thousand years apart”.

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Over the next three weeks Sereno, Garcea and their team of five ex­cavators made a de­tailed map of the site. They ex­humed eight bur­i­als and col­lect­ed scores of ar­ti­facts from both cul­tures. In a dry lake bed near­by, they found doz­ens of Kif­fian fish hooks and har­poons carved from an­i­mal bone as well as skeletal remains of massive Nile perch, crocodile and hippo.

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A year lat­er, a sec­ond round of ex­cava­t­ion turned up more rid­dles,                re­search­ers said. An adult Tene­r­ian male was bur­ied with his skull rest­ing on part of a clay ves­sel; anoth­er adult male was in­terred seated on the shell of    a mud turtle.

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One bur­i­al, how­ev­er, brought 2006 ac­ti­vity at the site to a stand­still: Ly­ing on her side, the ske­l­e­ton of a pe­tite Tene­r­ian wom­an emerged from the sand,  fac­ing the skele­tons of two young chil­dren; their slen­der arms reached        to­ward her and their hands were clasped in an ev­er­last­ing em­brace. Sam­ples tak­en from un­der the skele­tons con­tained pol­len clus­ters—taken as ev­i­dence the peo­ple had been laid out on a bed of flow­ers. The team em­ployed a range of new tech­niques to pre­serve this re­mark­a­ble burial exactly as it had been for more than 5,000 years.

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Bioar­chae­o­lo­g­ist Sto­janowski an­a­lyzed doz­ens of in­di­vid­u­als’ bones and teeth for clues to the two popula­t­ions. “This in­di­vid­ual, for ex­am­ple, had huge leg mus­cles,” he said of ridges on the thigh bone of a Kif­fian ma­le, “which sug­gests he was eat­ing a lot of pro­tein and had an ac­tive, stren­u­ous lifestyle. The Kif­fian ap­pear to have been fairly healthy—it would be dif­fi­cult to grow    a body that tall and mus­cu­lar with­out suf­fi­cient nu­tri­tion.” In con­trast, the    fe­mur ridge of a Tene­r­ian male was barely per­cep­ti­ble. “This man’s life was less rig­or­ous, per­haps tak­ing smaller fish and game with more advanced hunting technologies,” Stojanowski said.

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Anal­y­sis of mea­sure­ments on Kif­fian skulls links them to skulls found across north­ern Af­ri­ca, some as old as 16,000 years, Sto­janowski said. The Tene­r­ian, how­ev­er, are not closely linked to these an­cient popula­t­ions. The team is   con­tin­u­ing to an­a­lyze Gob­ero bones for more clues to the peo­ple’s health and di­et. A large-scale re­turn ex­pe­di­tion is planned to the site to fur­ther ex­plore the two popula­t­ions that coped with ex­treme cli­mate change.

 

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Meek Witness

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A solitary chunk of granite, small enough to heft in one hand, is key evidence that Australia and parts of Antarctica were once attached to North America, a new study suggests.

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The Earth's continents are thought to have collided to become supercontinents and broken apart again several times in Earth's 4.5 billion year history. The most recent supercontinent was Pangaea, which began to break apart about 200 million years ago; the landmasses that comprised Pangaea eventually wandered into the current configuration of continents.
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Several supercontinents predating Pangaea have been proposed by geologists, including one dubbed Rodinia that exist about 1.1 billion years ago.

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For several decades, researchers have theorized that part of the ancient supercontinent Rodinia broke away from what is now the southwestern United States around 800 million to 600 million years ago, eventually drifting southward to become eastern Antarctica and Australia. The idea is known as the southwestern United States to East Antarctica (SWEAT) hypothesis.
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But there was little physical evidence that could tie the southernmost continent to the long-disappeared Rodinia. Until scientists stumbled upon this rock that is Granite rock belt.

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John Goodge of the University of Minnesota-Duluth and his team were searching in Antarctica's Transantarctic Mountains for rocks carried along by ice rivers that could provide clues to the composition of the underlying crust of Antarctica, which in most places is buried under 2 miles of ice.

One rock, found atop the so-called Nimrod Glacier, was later determined to be a very specific form of granite with what Goodge describes as having "a particular type of coarse-grained texture”.

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Chemical tests run on the rock later revealed that it has a chemistry "very similar to a unique belt of igneous rocks in North America" that stretch from

California through New Mexico to Kansas, Illinois and eventually New Brunswick and Newfoundland in Canada, Goodge said.

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This belt of rock was a part of what is called Laurentia, thought by some geologists to be the core of Rodinia.

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The belt stops suddenly at its western margin, leading geologists to suspect that some piece of crust had rifted away from what is now the West Coast of

the United States.

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"It just ends right where that ancient rift margin is," Goodge said. "And these rocks are basically not found in any part of the world.”

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That a small chunk of this rock should turn up on a glacier high in the mountains of Antarctica is strong evidence in support of the SWEAT model, the researchers said.

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Biological Change

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At the time that this rift occurred, a massive change in Earth's biota, the Cambrian explosion was also happening.

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"During the Cambrian explosion about 520 million years ago we started seeing this huge expansion in the diversity of lifeforms.

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Piecing together Rodinia helps provide a geological context in which this diversification occurred. The shifting configuration of landmasses, collisions between them, as well as erosion and the influx of chemicals into the seas may have provided the nutrients for that expanding diversity of lifeforms.

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Di­a­monds may have been life’s best friend, researchers said.


Bil­lions of years ago, the sur­face of these gems may have pro­vid­ed the right con­di­tions to fos­ter the chem­i­cal re­ac­tions be­lieved to have giv­en rise to life on Earth, ac­cord­ing to three sci­en­tists in Ger­ma­ny.

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Courtesy American Chemical Society

 

Their study pub­lished in August 2008 of Crys­tal Growth & De­sign, a re­search     jour­nal of the Amer­i­can Chem­i­cal So­ci­e­ty.
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Many scientists have the­o­rized that life’s chem­i­cal pre­cur­sors grad­u­ally evolved from a so-called “p­ri­mor­dial soup” of sim­pler mo­le­cules. But just how these sim­pler mo­le­cules, called ami­no acids, would have as­sem­bled in­to com­plex larg­er struc­tures re­mains one of sci­ence’s great mys­ter­ies.
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The au­thors of the new stu­dy—Andrei Som­mer of the Uni­ver­s­ity of Ulm, Ger­ma­ny, and col­leagues—s­tud­ied di­a­monds, crys­tal­lized forms of car­bon old­er than the ear­li­est life. 

In a se­ries of lab­o­r­a­to­ry ex­pe­ri­ments, the sci­en­tists found that af­ter treat­ment with hy­dro­gen, nat­u­ral dia­mond forms crys­tal­line lay­ers of wa­ter on its sur­face. These lay­ers may have been es­sen­tial for the de­vel­op­ment of life, and in­volved in elec­tri­cal con­duc­ti­vity, the group ar­gued. In oth­er words, they ex­plained, when prim­i­tive mo­le­cules land­ed on the sur­face of these “hy­dro­genated” di­a­monds in the early at­mos­phere, the re­sult­ing chem­i­cal re­ac­tion could have gen­er­ated more com­plex or­gan­ic mo­le­cules that even­tu­ally gave rise to life.

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What really puzzled physicists and scientists the previous generations were on how we came into existence. The creation and the universe. “Big Bang Theory” now gained admittance. A positive initiative of updating some lines of the Bible. Derivations of mathematical frameworks lead to the updates of Ancient Relativity, where everything derived from energy corresponding to space and time. This too jibe to the Theory of Evolution through nature selection. A very long natural processes. However experienced taught us that indulging short and complicated laboratory processes was terribly dangerous.

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Now, since the Grand Old Big Bang did occurred, the neophyte Earth had to do some housekeeping. Plankton is basic creation from sub-atomic caused by energy reaction of Earth’s ocean, derived from the simplest cell as to the process of fauna to the womb. In basic origin without predator, what shall be the outcome? Since plankton had no category neither fauna nor flora, some had been  awash to the shores and were fertilized through nature selections. Others may develop unlimited appetite devouring tiny members of the colony to sustain their growth through the nature selection and the rest are history.

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Life’s Ingredients Most Likely Sprinkled on Earth

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Some crucial ingredients for life on Earth may have formed in interstellar space, rather than on the planet's surface.

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A new computer model indicates clouds of adenine molecules, a basic component of DNA, can form and survive the harsh conditions of space, and possibly sprinkle onto planets as the stars they orbit travel through a galaxy.

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There may be only a few molecules of adenine per square foot of space, but over millions of years, enough could have accumulated to help make way for life, according to a molecular chemist team at the University of Missouri-Columbia.

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Spacey Chemistry

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Adenine is one of four "letters" of DNA's alphabet used to store an organism's genetic code. The idea that large, two-ringed organic molecules like adenine formed in space may seem outrageous, but current evidence leaves the possibility wide open.

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One can find large molecules in meteorites, including adenine. We know that adenine can be made elsewhere in the solar system, so why should one consider it impossible to make the building blocks somewhere in interstellar dust.

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Using computer simulations of the cold vacuum of space, The team  found that hydrogen cyanide (HCN) gas can build adenine. Like pieces in a set of tinker toys, hydrogen cyanide serves as adenine's building blocks; the small molecules bond together into chains and, with a little wiggling, eventually assemble into rings.

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Although adenine's first ring needs a tiny energy boost from starlight to form, ring of the molecule self-assembles without any outside help.

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When a reaction occurs, usually it needs to be heated. It is remarkable to find a reaction that does not requires activation of energy. If one does this reaction in space, this is a huge advantage because it takes a long time for a molecule to be hit by a piece of light.

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Seasoned for Life

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Adenine's ringed shape helps it absorb and release any excess energy without breaking apart, making it stable enough to form concentrated clouds that planets can drift through.

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While getting adenine safely onto a rocky planet's surface is a less developed idea, many chemists have barely toyed with the notion that life's basic ingredients formed off of the planet's surface.

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We are at a very early stage of anybody even thinking about these things. The discussion of life's origin has been highly focused on the idea of a warm pool of liquid on the planet's surface, but recent discoveries of planets around distant stars is changing that focus.

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Chemistry in space is not the chemistry most of us are trained for. We should take a much bigger approach: Where are all the chemicals in the .

We already knew that hydrogen cyanide is abundant in interstellar clouds, and it has been suggested that comets can bring some of those materials onto planets. The team idea is to detect adenine in the deep space clouds.

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The likelihood of detection is very small, but it is still possible.  Should the background noise could be eliminated, sensitive equipment can detect adenine dust clouds.

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Molecules in the Outer Space

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Lately, there are eight organic molecules with  6 to 8 atoms  discovered in intergalactic space whereby one particular molecule found in Sagittarius B2(N), identified as acetamide, contains a type of chemical bond important for linking together amino acids, the molecular building blocks of proteins. Chances that several interpolations of those molecules interacted, forming some life-supporting elements showered our newly created planet. Indeed it took several period of incubation on this very Earth to attained micro-lives thus further evolved to us, where every generic composite are symmetrically the same from the origin. Say, Earth’s water ratio is the same ratio of water on our bodies. Elements abound this planet, are also found on our components and most likely of the same ratio too. Majority of oil deposits are between the two polar, as majority of our fats are located at the body’s midsection… etc.

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Origin of Lifeforms

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The stellar baby boom period of the Milky Way sparked a flowering and crashing of life here on Earth, a new study suggests.

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Some 2.4 billion years ago when the Milky Way started upping its star production, cosmic rays-high-speed atomic particles-started pouring onto our planet, causing instability within the living. Populations of bacteria and algae repeatedly soared and crashed in the oceans.

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The researchers counted the amount of carbon-13 within sedimentary rocks, the most common rocks exposed on the Earth's surface. When algae and bacteria were growing in the oceans, they took in carbon-12, so the ocean had an abundance of carbon-13.

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Many sea creatures use carbon-13 to make their shells. If there is a lot of carbon-13 stored in rocks, it means life, the origin of which is still unknown, was booming. Therefore, variations in carbon-13 are a good indicator of the productivity of life on Earth.

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The researchers found that the biggest fluctuation in productivity coincided with star formation, which had an affect on Earth’s climate and therefore on the productivity of life on our planet.

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When a star explodes far away in the Milky Way, cosmic rays penetrate through the Earth’s atmosphere and produce ions and free electrons. The released electrons act as catalysts and accelerate the formation of small clusters of sulfuric acid and water molecules, the building blocks of clouds. Therefore, cosmic rays increase cloud cover on Earth, reflecting sunlight and keeping the planet relatively cool.

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Although cold and icy times are generally considered unfriendly to life, the data reveals that biological productivity kept oscillating between very high and very low. The reason, the researchers suggest, is that stronger winds during icy epochs stirred the oceans and improved the supply of nutrients in the surface waters.

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The odds are 10,000-to-1 against this unexpected link between cosmic rays and the variable state of the biosphere being just a coincidence, and it offers a new perspective on the connection between the evolution of the Milky Way and the entire history of life over the last 4 billion years,”Chances are … different species of lifeforms are abundant floating in the universe on  suspended state of whatever/wherever origin. Meteors falling in our planet possessed imprints of bacteria of unknown origin.  Lately, extract of universe’s genetic structure are similar to those lifeforms on earth. The overwhelming probability for these suspended genes to react on suitable environment with compatible catalyst to spring up to life, to mutate and evolve on any given planet. There should be a free hand of evolution once host planet shall tolerate these lifeforms to survive.

Somewhere on Earth, close to 4 billion years ago, a set of molecular reactions flipped a switch and became life. Scientists try to imagine this animating event by simplifying the processes that characterize living things.

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New research suggests the simplification needs to go further. All currently known organisms rely on DNA to replicate and proteins to run cellular machinery, but these large molecules—intricate weaves of thousands of atoms—are not likely to have been around for the first organisms to use.

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Life could have started up from the small molecules that nature provided." Researchs pointing that the first life forms were self-contained chemistry experiments that grew, reproduced and even evolved without needing the complicated molecules that define biology as we now know it.

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The Typical Origin of Space Bodies

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For almost thirty years, scientists have known that complex carbon compounds called tholins exist on comets and in the atmospheres of the outer planets. Theoretically, tholins might interact with water in a process called hydrolysis to produce complex molecules similar to those found on the early Earth.

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On the Earth, complex organic molecules are believed to have been an early step in the emergence of life; such compounds are called prebiotic.

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Titan, the sixth and largest moon of the planet Saturn, is thought to be made largely of ice. Some of that ice may melt during meteor impacts or in underground processes, producing "ice volcanoes" that emit a "lava" containing ammonia mixed with water. Could tholins formed in Titan's atmosphere react with liquid water temporarily exposed by meteor impacts or ice volcanoes to produce potentially prebiotic complex organic molecules — before the water freezes? Until this year, no one knew.

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Now, laboratory research by Catherine Neish, a graduate student working on her doctorate in planetary science at the University of Arizona, shows in the journal Astrobiology that, over a period of days, compounds similar to tholins can be hydrolyzed (which means to react with water) at near-freezing temperatures.

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Liquid water exposed on Titan is believed to persist for hundreds to thousands of years — plenty of time for such reactions to take place.

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Tantalizingly, it has been suggested that a similar process may have happened on the early Earth.

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In her lab, Neish created organic compounds similar to tholins by subjecting a mixture of 5 percent methane and 95 percent nitrogen to electrical discharge at a low temperature (-108 degrees F or -78 degrees C). She dissolved samples of the resulting material in water, and then, at a range of temperatures from freezing up to 104 degrees F (40 degrees C), measured the rate at which the mixture hydrolyzed.

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Neish found that up to 10 percent of the organic compounds she began with reacted with oxygen from the water to form complex organic molecules.

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While Neish's work was judged worthy of publication in a scientific journal, she has some critics. James P. Ferris, a research professor at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute University, who has studied the chemistry of Titan's atmosphere for many years, calls her work "flawed" because she used an electric discharge to generate tholins, while those in Titan's atmosphere are probably generated by ultraviolet (UV) light and charged-particle radiation.

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Ferris has conducted experiments on a mixture of gases similar to Titan's atmosphere using UV light and says, "The structures of the compounds made by [electric] discharge differ from those formed by UV photolysis so the hydrolysis time could be very different.  Some of the photochemical products [when UV light is used] are hydrocarbons that do not react with water."

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Neish responds that electric, or plasma, discharge "was meant to mimic charged particle interactions (which Ferris admits is a process at work on Titan)." She agrees that "UV light radiation produces tholins that look more like Titan's haze," but she points out that "some, if not most, of the products we make also don't react with water."

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She acknowledges that her work is not an ideal representation of chemistry in Titan's atmosphere: "Tholins formed at low pressure seem to 'look' more like Titan's haze than those formed at higher pressures. You can make tholins at low pressures using UV light; you cannot make tholins at low pressure using plasma discharge. And to make the amount of tholins we needed for the experiment, we needed to use the discharge technique.  UV photolysis only produces small amounts."

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Ferris, who was not aware of Neish's work until we contacted him, agrees that analyzing the results of hydrolysis on samples produced by UV light would be "more difficult because of the small samples formed."

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Another issue is that Neish performed hydrolysis of her tholins in pure water, while any water present on Titan is probably mixed with ammonia. She told us that she recently completed another set of hydrolysis experiments using mixtures of ammonia and water, and expects to publish those results shortly.

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While Neish's work is not a perfect representation of chemistry on Saturn's largest moon, it nonetheless suggests that similar processes could produce organic compounds in significant quantities during periods when liquid water is available.

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On Titan, this suggests that prebiotic molecules might exist in meltwater from impact craters and ice volcanoes. And similar processes might have occurred on the early Earth, before our atmosphere contained significant quantities of free oxygen.

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Primordial Soup

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A very strong hypothesis for origin-of-life is that complex biological compounds assembled by chance out of an organic broth on the early Earth's surface. This pre-biotic synthesis culminated in one of these bio-molecules being able to make copies of itself.

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The first support for this idea of life arising out of the primordial soup came from the famous 1953 experiment by Stanley Miller and Harold Urey, in which they made amino acids—the building blocks of proteins—by applying sparks to a test tube of hydrogen, methane, ammonia, and water.

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If amino acids could come together out of raw ingredients, then bigger, more complex molecules could presumably form given enough time. Biologists have devised various scenarios in which this assemblage takes place in tidal pools, near underwater volcano vents on the surface of clay sediments, or even in outer space.

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But were the first complex molecules proteins or DNA or something else? Biologists face a chicken-and-egg problem in that proteins are needed to replicate DNA, but DNA is necessary to instruct the building of proteins.

Many researchers, therefore, think that RNA—a cousin of DNA—may have been the first complex molecule on which life was based. RNA carries genetic information like DNA, but it can also direct chemical reactions as proteins do.

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Metabolism First

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Now it is not unthinkable that this so-called "RNA world" is still too complex to be the origin of life. Information-carrying molecules like RNA are sequences of molecular "bits." The primordial soup would be full of things that would terminate these sequences before they grew long enough to be useful.

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Instead of complex molecules, life started with small molecules interacting through a closed cycle of reactions. These reactions would produce compounds that would feed back into the cycle, creating an ever-growing reaction network.

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A Brief Glance on the Lifeforms Chainage

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Way back around 3.5 billion years, occurrence of microspheriods, filamentous, microfossils and stromatolites provide strong support for existence of life much earlier that it was ever though possible. Before the end of Precambrian era, when oxygen level in the atmosphere was less than 10 percent, organisms from primordial soup – predecessors of protein and DNA – energy triggered by chemical reaction that formed primitive proto-organisms developed method of obtaining energy by combining oxygen with nutrients in a process called respiration. At first there was no demarcation between flora and fauna similarly to our present plankton that shared some characteristics of both, utilizing the photosynthesis and respiration. As more mobile complex form called metazoans evolved and totally relied on respiration, this animal form a predatory-prey relationship. In other phase, algae that live at the inter-tidal zone later developed into primitive form of lichen and moss. Then followed by tiny fernlike plants, which is the predecessor of trees.

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At about 700 million years ago, marine animals developed internal skeleton, one of the most significant achievements in life’s long climb to evolutionary ladder. Vertebrates on the other hand, have internal skeleton that is light, strong and flexible with more attachments for the muscles.

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The first animal did not put their appearance until the plants were well established some 350 million years ago. Those were primitive amphibians. Fish with lobe fins modified into walking limbs and lung adapted for breathing air. What enticed those creatures to come ashore was abundance of food swept up on beaches during high tides and fierce competition of scare food on the ocean.

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During Mesozoic era, from 240 to 65 million years ago, life seen many remarkable advancement. Those species that made through the great extinction at the end of Paleozoic era where similar to populations found today. This was also the era that breaking up of Super Continent of Pangaea begun. Continents started to drift on their present positions. This must be the end of Cretaceous period (65 million years ago) when Dinosaurs became extinct and the formation of two permanent polar ice caps.

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Our present ice epoch took place within the Quaternary period which consist of Pleistocene era (age of recent life) and the Holocene era (concurrent with the age of modern man) the last 10,000 years after the last ice age. Pleistocene era is synonymous to the most recent ice ages. What is outstanding about this particular ice epoch is that our ancestors appeared on the scene somewhere in Africa where temperature were warmer tosupport their existence just about when ice ages began some 2 million years. And of course, this is beyond the comprehension of those Desert Nomads who tried to record events on cordices where Bible, Quran and other religious procrastination evolved.

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GENE PATTERNS

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The researchers looked at so-called Hox genes -- which play an important role in limb development -- in paddlefish pectoral fins. They inserted molecular markers to track where these genes are active in the fin, and found the activity pattern resembled what these genes do in limbs of land dwellers. The findings run counter to the theory that the appearance of limbs was a novel evolutionary occurrence requiring great genetic changes to enable the first limbed creatures to adapt to their new environments of streams and swamps.

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The first forests sprouted up roughly 385 million years ago, with towering trees resembling modern-day palms, helping give rise to new freshwater ecosystems. Shubin and other scientists last year announced the discovery of the remains of a creature called Tiktaalik dating back to 375 million years ago and seen as a missing evolutionary link between fish and the first land vertebrates.

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It had fish-like characteristics, but it boasted a skull, neck, ribs and parts of limbs resembling the first amphibians such as Acanthostega that arose 5 to 10 million years later. "So it seems like you had the genetic tool kit (for limbs) for a long period of time," Shubin said. "And then, when the new ecosystems appear at around the time of Tiktaalik and slightly before, that's when forms started to use that to make true fingers and toes and stuff like that."

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Organic System on In-depth Analysis for Natural Adaptation

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Many who believe in mutation process do not postulate that these events could not had occurred without the existence of God. It simply shows that there is no conflict between God as Energy and Prime Mover with Evolution, and contend that mutation is an essence for natural process of adaptation. Mutation possessed an efficient time-generated process such as evolution rather than the comparatively awkward method of creating every item and being on earth separately and continuing this process forever.  When spiritual  or mystical mix with mutation theory had the visceral sense of metaphysics giving way to religion afar from scientific approach. Coalition is highly contrary and science could be threatening.

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An organ, in medical terms is define as any differentiated part devoted to a specific function. There are many organs in the human body which need to be studied in-depth to determine whether they evolved gradually over a very long period of time, or were created spontaneously in their finished form as some of the clergies belief.  They defy the mechanics of mutation in its specifics, yet insisted that they do not defy evolution itself.

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Clergies on the extremist faction among the religious scholars who defy evolution at all levels and believe in spontaneity instead.  Spontaneity means that each living thing were created separately in its finished form with all the organs it contains. This is certainly the religious concept of creation that we had been taught throughout generations. One thing however is certain about the organic systems, that even at their most rudimentary stage, they displayed things simultaneously.

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·        The mutation of an outer component which in itself entitled to be called organ;

·        The mutation of a transmission system like nerve cords which carry the information gathered by the outer organ;

·        The mutation of an internal highly complicated recognition system that constitutes specific part of the brain. It adapted to receive information and break it into components and to visualize the central message correctly. The brain center then had to transmit all information to the great number of centers in the brain that take care of recording and passing to similar nerve centers in other parts of the body;

·        The purposefulness  and adaptation in the making of every organ that makes a component of this extremely complex organic system are but evident requirement for the survival of the species.

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The general contention that eyes, ears and other vital parts are erroneously described a single organ which can perform a meaningful function of themselves. As single organ, they do not mean anything. They only begin to mean something when they are viewed as integral parts of the whole system to which they belong. Again, when minutely examined within their own confines, they reveal that they themselves are sub-systems comprising many smaller organs within them.  Thus in their totality acquire relative role of sub-systems. Even at the rudimentary stages such organs are split into components which perfectly accord with the above description. The mechanism of sight for instance, found among animals which existed hundreds of millions of years before humans came into being, show the same complexity of mutation to adapt  the respective surroundings and improved through the trip of time.

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Eyes which serve the same purpose of connecting the outer world with the inner universe of the living. The structural details could not have been possible without predetermined  requirement of environs to survive and be adapted to the existing surroundings and through the conception of time. It should be remembered that each component comprises sub-components which themselves are highly complex and need a lot of explanation with regard to their internal composition and the nature of material and time they are made of.

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The two most vital organs which separate the living and the dead are the ears along with the auditory system and the eyes as part of the optic system. The visible external part of the ear is called the auricle with various shapes, however the purpose of which is to enlarge the catchment area of sound waves which are directed towards the outer opening. This serve as the entry point of the external auditory canal extending into a tube lined with skin which secretes some soft wax and is connected with the tympanic membrane (tympanum or the eardrum) ending the external ear. Air pressure on both sides are regulated by eustachian tube that connects the middle ear cavity and the throat (pharynx).

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This mechanism is highly essential because it permits the eardrum to vibrate freely in all directions. The middle ear is a slit-like cavity located between the external auditory canal and the internal ear. It contains air and three ossicles, ore small bones, which are connected so that they amplify and transmit sound waves from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear. The three bones in the chain are called the malleus, the incus and the stapes or the hammer, the anvil and the stirrup. The first of these connects with the tympanic membrane and the second is joined to the first and the third ossicle. The third stapes or stirrup connects with the membrane of the oval window which in turn vibrates and transmits the vibration of the fluid in the internal ear.

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The internal ear is a series of sacs and ducts which together perform the function of hearing and balance. This is the most complicated part of the whole ear comprising three separate spaces hollowed out inside the temporal bone. These spaces make up the bony labyrinth, comprising the vestibule, the cochlea and the semicircular canals, all filled with fluid called perilymph. The membrane are lined with nerve endings extremely sensitive to the movement of fluid. In the fluid of the bony semicircular canals are the membranous cochlea situated in the perilymph of the bony cochlea and also filled with endolymph. The sound waves cause the tympanic membrane to vibrate as they strike it.

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These vibrations are enormously amplified by the ossicles and transmitted by them to the perilymph. The perilymph conducts them through the membrane to the endolymph. The waves of the endolymph are transmitted to tiny hair-like receptors which are stimulated and conduct nerve impulses through the nerve fibers to the brain center (cerebrum).

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The function of balance is performed by the three loop-shape tubes of the semicircular canals which lie at right angles to one another in three different planes. The signals are constantly transmitted to the cerebrum through nerves and are interpreted there.  By this interpretation we learn which way we are positioned and in which direction our position is changing. A slightest change in direction are being recorded and a corresponding awareness is created in the brain.

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Brain Motor Reactor

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A neuron is just a discharging battery.  It generates a signal by depolarizing its membrane.  Membranes such as those that surround cells do not readily let charged particles across them. Membranes do however contain two important types of proteins, ion channels and transporters.

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Transporters use stored energy in order to actively transport particular ions across membranes in particular directions, against the concentration gradient. This enables there to be much more K+ on one side of a membrane than the other. This creates both a chemical (more potassium on one side) and electrical (more positive charges on one side) gradient across the membrane. This is a voltage gradient of –70mV.

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The electro-chemical gradient is the basis of nerve cell signaling, because it is basically potential energy. When the ions shift across the membrane, the depolarization to less than -67 mV generates a signal. The signal passes down the axon (cable) not like true electricity but by shifts of K+ and Na+ in successive segments of the axon, then shifts back sort of like leap-frog. The signal causes calcium channels to open in the nerve terminal. Ca++ flows in, the membrane changes to release packets (quanta) of neurochemical transmitter. This crosses a microscopic gap called the synaptic cleft to a receptor on the dendrite of the next neuron in the sequence. And that neuron depolarizes to repeat the cycle. Millions to billions of these form connections like computer circuits.

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The point is that on the unit level, metal ions pass through holes in a membrane and change the electrical charge from inside to outside gradient -70 mV to < -67 mV. When they are connected to millions and billions of other micro generators in circuits and circuits connect to circuits we can hold hands. Or we can derive the numerical value of Pi to thousands of decimal units, or derive the equation E = MC² of  Special Relativity or compose a symphony.

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Is it not that in itself wondrous? Potassium ions and Sodium ions squeezing through the membrane.

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Divine Energy In Universe

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Going back to divinity, Divine Energy In Universe (DEIU) can feasibly attracted and acquires by oneself by alignment of atomic cells through natural magnetism (aura in mystical term) and be concentrated on mind to create plausible energy that can help individual in executing needs. However, the attainment of this erg, one shall ultimately focus to create mind equilibrium to facilitate the integration of DEIU without interference (Exodus 34:14) in order to manifest of what shall be to attain.

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Surely, on our lifetime, without pacifism and righteousness, one could be lost in the Mainstream of the Divine Energy and the great likelihood to be scrap on the next cycle of humanity. It must be understood that Divine Energy In Universe has the Core and the only way to be on the Wavelength is complete alignment all the way along this Field without distracting one’s attention in drifting too far that the chances of coming nearer again shall be minimal. This stand on the truism of dogmatic teaching, however not fully digested and called the Mainstream of Divine Energy In Universe “God; Allah; etc.” or any other divinities.

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Mind is the essence in man that controls the body and does react on any given space and time. Since mind is stored in the brain, there it is the body reactor.

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Now, if man has reactor, why can one not process minerals posses by the physical body in a higher level. All necessary minerals to produce energy are within us. It is just a matter of breaking up our atomic slime in proportion with the space and time. How to process it? One must create required vibration to trigger the splitting of atomic slime in the brain. In layman’s view, fasting shall create equilibrium to balance our atomic slime in proportion to space and time, and shall ignite chain reactions to satisfy the entire process.

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The presence of space and time; reactor in the brain; one can create vibration that shall split atomic slime passive in the brain and what needed most is the integration of the square of speed of light to manifest DEIU. The only known and available essence to fathom the square of the speed of light is the velocity of mind to think. Think and reach out to the goal being aspired. Meditate, concentrate and believe on the required space and time, then shall achieve a miraculous Energy to help attain that goal.

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Equating God and Energy

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God by faith is believed to be perfect omnipotent, omniscient, and ruler of universe, single supreme agency and prime mover. It is a psychological being to everyone, where to seek refuge in time of crisis and something to cling-on, a shelter of emotion when everything are down the limbo and desperation. God exist within the inner self of everyone and always within reach in time of needs to sustain emotional pain and depression and at this particular mode, God will surely prop-up and boost well being to overcome oddities and will cause to tackle everything with full strength and inspiration.

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Energy is a potent property of universal matters with vital force, capable of creating reaction upon triggering and pulsate to any desire medium on a given time and space.

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Should one is a smart physicist and mathematician, mathematical framework can be derive for the above from the basic Relativity Formula, a principle that Essene tried to achieve on those era. If physicists, mathematicians and scientists can assemble theoretical frameworks of universe, why laymen can not afford to confine facts for the consumption of truth. We were derived equally on this physical world with all the graces of Universe and it is up to ourselves to train our energy and psychological will on whatever goal in life we wish to be. By sharing and not fighting for such Divine Energy In Universe should Real Peace be attained and as truth prevail. Just a matter of opening our faculties in harmony with the Universal Field Energy and development our psychological well being in order to obtain that power in relation to the Principle of Nature’s Relativity.

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Manifestation of Energy

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Through unitary confinement of atomic fusion as complementary to bombardment of atomic nuclei;

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*  Unitary Confinement of Atomic Fusion is a process of training atomic magnetism into precise location and direction with corresponding uniform cycle of nutation (swinging back and forth of two opposing poles) on the local poles. (north-south) Multiple bi-polar maybe designed with corresponding typical local magnetic polar cells to certain magnitude. The common material nowadays are combination of copper, aluminum and silicon steel with corresponding insulation that can withstand heat during the process of atomic bombardment created during vibration or rotation.

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*  As this process start to create momentum reaching to the desired cycle nutation (commonly at 50 to 60 cycle) shall actuate, triggering chain reaction to the splitting of atoms. However due to the absence of appropriate substances and catalyst to break the nuclei, instead trigger the chain-reaction of uniform movement of atoms to almost the speed of light to the medium of designed magnitude, then shall be proportional to the amount of trained-atoms confined within the mainstream core, as expressly:

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Say: A total cross-sectional area of certain medium within the perimeter core can produce 0.25 milligram of trained-atoms neglecting the transfer losses can produce energy of:

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E = 0.25(3x108) = 750 joules

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Bombardment of Atomic Nuclei

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In the case of human reaction, it needs a 50-kilogram individual to trained and enriched about 0.025 milligram of atomic slime in the brain reactor and to actuate vibration in bombardment of atoms to trigger chain-reaction. This shall produce about 75 joules worth of force enough to levitate, move things and events in related distance, energy magnitude to briefly join the mainstream of DEIU core, to over rule self-consciousness and to cater outside entity.  Lots of activities can be obtained in relation to self-manifestation.

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According to the lifeform’s chainage, our ancestor’s initial appearance was somewhere in the vastness of Africa as climate being suitable for their existence that period. Following the flock’s migration during the melting of polar ice, some migrants were trapped by the ocean to the place of no return. However some were left behind roaming around the African plains developed maturity of instinct in line to their genetic calling.

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The pioneering missionaries observed the first self-manifestation in African and misinterpreted as mystic and magic although practiced by the indigenous people as life affirming religion. They deliberately possessed their selves into trance and with the rhythm of drums and songs shall boost their hysteric moods and start shaking and shaking violently until possessed by the spirit. (that must be the manifested energy) Then spoke softly working slowly to a high pitch emotion. Then community starts talking, asking their ancestors for good things. This shall be the attraction of the mainstream of DEIU to oneself and as mystic that can not be explain. Through the pollution of imported religions to Africa, the practice was boldly discouraged as taken to be black cult. However during the Renaissance Age were pick-up and practice in India going down to Japan in a serene mood.

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Indeed true and excellent those wonderful verses rendered the necessities during that period, but had it stood with the evolution of time to withstand the scrutiny of nature? Had they not aged to collide and caused fanaticism on our present and rational generation? The needs to look back and compare the recent civilization, in order to see the perspective and room for deletions. Is it unrealistic to bring the world together on the premise of the United Nations and to discuss workable agreement on rational unified truth and belief suitable to our time? If viable so, then “Cards of the Table” and altogether we shall establish the “Benchmark for Peace”.

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Advocacy on Transcendent Reality

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A paradigm that reconciles science, philosophy and religion to bring them into alignment, to be consistent, and to be complementary. Science and scientific methodology allow us to discover facts and uncover truth about reality. Philosophy allows us to build reliable, predictive models that give us control over our environment. Religion allows us to choose those actions and alternatives that promote the greatest social good.

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Transcendent Reality provides for the continual measurement of the efficacy of our philosophical models, correction of error, for evolution, for the progressive growth of knowledge, wisdom, and realization. And, It allows also for uncertainty, random chance, and chaos.

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To the seekers of truth and knowledge, Transcendent Reality offers a pragmatic path to discovery that is reviewable and disciplined, philosophical constructions that are useful and verifiable, and, measurable algorithms of the greater social good.

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To the less abstractly inclined, Transcendent Reality is presented as a set of rules to live by that enhance one’s survival, continuance-in-kind, and prosperity – individually, and of the greater social unit.

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To the believer it is a revelation, to the blind it is an eye, to the deaf it is an ear. In the darkness it is a light to show the path.

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Transcendent Reality is much more – not only is it is a path to survival, continuance-in-kind, and prosperity, but it is also a way to measure progress towards those goals. It is the answer to the meaning of life, death, and destiny.

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Morality as the Universal Law

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Morality is a set of customs to society that regulate relationship and prescribe modes of behavior to enhance group survival.  A rule of moral conduct. This  is the essence that advance the herd of fauna into human.

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Human society started a nomadic lives and later evolved into tribes of hunter-gatherers where instinct of morality needed to govern a crude civilization. Physical strength dominated the struggled for dominancy and the needs of mechanism to perpetuate leadership was the main concerned of the dominant male.

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On one thunder storm season, lightning struck that started fire intrigued dominant male of power that can not be explained on thus period. Based of lightning incident, herd instinct has conceived a projected power to provide basis in the implementation of morality. Should laws of morality be observe and followed, a giver was required in order to be authenticated for universal adherence and acceptance. God was created by mankind through  their image on those stages based on myth, dreams and visions as Projected Giver of Morality Laws. Rules in formed of cult-dogma were designed fitted with anathema and rigorous physical implementation of the dominant leaders. Those were the survival of the fittest … and only individuals adhered to the rules of God were fitted to live and to joined the new human society.

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Rules… evolved into beliefs those were the basis of traditional faith that provide sustainable potent authority for the God-given Morality Laws.

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Beliefs that were reasonable and rational on those particular period based on knowledge they possessed, whether or not true or probable does not matter, for it was written. Some quarters attempted to joined and designed dogmas but separated by their individual interests. Dogmatic competitions started to provoke on new human society and superstition was born to give way on blurred and rejected dogmas.

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Competition for foods on hunter-gathers era evolved into dogmatic struggled and dominations. Kingdoms were established through exploitation of dominance, using gods and goddesses to provide projected powers. Those were the scuffled of god and goddesses to dominate humanity… until the time of Abraham where mankind attempted to unified god. And latter generations tried to incorporate all cult-dogmas and bind mankind into religion, but same anathema was attached to it.

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