GENESIS and the TWILIGHT ZONE

Partial Recovery of Inconvenient Truth

Part I - Anatomy of Religion

Introduction

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One cooling season of 1947, peer of Bedouin shepherd on daily routine pasturing along the steep northwestern shore of Dead Sea, curiously unearthed non-essential looking finds to them. Emerging just aboveground enough to attract attention, harden earth containers with several manuscripts written on papyrus and leathers became one of the most sensational finds of the millennium.

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Scrolls antiquities rendered about first century BC, most likely older than oldest known Hebrew version of the Old Testament, the Aleppo codex . The first seven-finds were almost complete manuscript of the "Book of Isaiah", Society Manual of Discipline, several rules and rituals devoted to strict religious discipline living in imminent expectation of the end of the World in which they alone would be seen as the chosen people. Later finds included copper plague (as shown) detailing temple treasures and several fragments, which may compose entire medieval library, deliberately hidden for the future mankind retrievals.

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Below the caves, a stump of Roman Fort Khirbet Qumran built about 125 BC most likely the center of Essene Society or itself the Essene Monastery.

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Cave at Qumran and the Dead Sea Scrolls









High on the slope of the cliff over looking the ruined of Roman Fort, one of the undisputed

20th century archaeological finds that may lead to the partial discovery of truth. However as mute and meek witnesses of the past whose historical virtue is being suppressed by ambiguous faiths for the sensibility and explosive testimonies that shall overturn the ruling of the present dogmas. In Human Rights Principle, a deliberated non-publication of archaeological finds, as a form of theft to humanity and in the case of Dead Sea Scrolls shall provoke a major international outcry.

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Rationale

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A scenario of layman’s approach in deducing the credibility of traditional faiths and to broaden our horizon to the reality of an ambiguous dogmas that stir the world into confusion. Indeed this is blasphemy in some quarters for science updates and ancient testimonial facts shall be a head wind to classical beliefs those were founded on hearsay, evolving through generations and strengthen by religious anathema. Should someone shall project in bringing forward to the open mind of humanity the basis of rational creed, breaking through the barrier of religious ambiguities and realignment of mankind to the reality of coveted truth is fairly inevitable.  The world needs transcendental realism in order to give peace a chance.

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On this behalf, reader’s reactions can be reconcile on several Ancient Historical references e.g. the books of E. Roystin Pike, Edward Ashcroft which deals with factual ancient history. The translation of the “Dead Sea Scroll”, Bible as History with Archaeological Finds and other ancient historical references as well as science literatures on Earth’s origin and its occupants. On these initiatives, we may pool ideas on how to behave in our Planet.

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The Early Pseudo Religious Cults

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The Zoroastrian religion began in Iran with prophet known Zoroaster, whose origin were not known nor what century he lived. Scholars believe that Zoroaster lived sometime between the 13th and 6th century BC. Zoroaster brought monotheism to Iran worshipping one god Ahura Mazda over the pantheon of Iranian gods.

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Orphism is the teachings of an ancient Greek philosophical cult that exerted great influence on Greek culture, and later on Western mysticism and occultism. It began in the sixth century BC, and is attributed to the mythical Orpheus. The chief teachings are of reincarnation, a Greek version of Karma, a history of the universe which was formed by Cronus who formed an egg and created the first king of the gods -- whom Zeus supplanted and fathered Dionysus -- the divine child. Other teachings are that the body is the prison of the soul, animals were not to be killed or eaten, the good were to be rewarded while the evil were to be punished in Nether World, and teachings of self-denial and seriousness in religious matters. Apollo was the kinder god who demanded purification and righteousness. Orphism had a great impact on alchemy.

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Mithraism is the worship of Mithra. The original source of the cult is unknown but argued to be of Persian, Indian or Chinese origin. It has been called an offshoot of Zorastrianism but that is also contested and not much literary evidence of the cult has survived. According to Persian legends, Mithra was born of a rock and a virgin mother called the "Mother of God" and was first attended by shepherds. Mithra was called "the Light of the World." They believed in a heaven and hell and the dualism of good and evil, the final days of judgment, the end of the world as we know it and a general resurrection. Long before Jesus, December 25th was celebrated as the date of Mithra's birth. Mithra was also associated with the sun, and his followers marked Sunday as his day of worship, they called it the Lord's Day. A few of the extra-biblical traditions seem to have found its way to Christianity through Roman Mithraism.

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Among the milder ceremonies of the followers of Mithra were baptism in holy water and a partaking of a sacred meal of bread and wine. After passing several ordeals the converts were "reborn" as a new man in Mithra. Though Mithra had ascended into heaven he had promised to return and bring life everlasting to his loyal followers.

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Mostly all the similarities of Mithra to Christ, there were some scholars opined that Christianity came from Mithraism. For a time, the two religions co-existed together and even competed with each other but Christianity survived. The same time, there could be prophetic questions here in prefiguring the true Son of God that would come later. There had been many Messianic types of Christ in the Jewish scriptures (David and Joseph for example) and God may have been telling Gentiles also, but this is merely conjecture and there are other religions with the same similarities. The Wise men from the east who visited Jesus were said to be Zorastrians.

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The dogma has great similarities to the New Testament upon a closer examination of Mithraism. They were a secret society and had graded membership but women were excluded.  Mithra is one of many gods and they had a separate priesthood called "Fathers."

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Judaism - the subject of the Hebrew Bible is an account of the Israelites' (also called Hebrews) relationship with God as reflected in their history from the beginning of time until the building of the Second Temple (ca. 350 BCE). This relationship is generally portrayed as contentious, as Jews struggle between their faith in God and their attraction for other gods, and as some Jews (most notably and directly, Abraham, Jacob -- later known as Israel—and Moses) struggle with God. Modern scholars also suggested that Torah consists of a variety of inconsistent texts that were edited together in a way that calls attention to divergent accounts

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Christianity was a by-product of Essene teachings and principles being propagated by the followers of Jesus of Nazareth.  The name of this organization was just incidental during their fled from persecution and settled in Antioch when local people keep calling them Christians. Those all begun when Jewish nationalists tried to subvert the Roman authority  and cracking down of rebels where Jesus was a known leader.

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Zoroaster and Zoroastrianism  

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There is no certainty at all about the period in which Zoroaster lived. Some say that Zoroaster lived about 6000 BC. Others maintain that he flourished in the middle of the seventh century B.C.

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               Zoroaster was the greatest prophet among the ancient Iranians.   He took his birth in order to establish the worship of Ahura Mazda, the Supreme Lord of the Universe and to fulfil the Divine Mission. His own original writings, the precious Gathas in the Avestan language, indicate that he was a God-intoxicated person.

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Zoroaster’s father was the venerable Porushaspo and his mother Dughdhvo. Zoroaster was born in the west of Iran in Takht-e-Suleman in the district of Azerbaijan. He was a direct descendant in the royal line of the house of Manushcihar, the ancient King of Iran.

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The Prophet of Iran is known to his followers as Zarathustra. (Possessor of yellow or old camels. ‘Ustra’ means camels.)

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When the Prophet of Iran was born, nature rejoiced. The trees, rivers and flowers expressed their joy and delight. The demons were frightened. As soon as the child was born, he did not cry like an ordinary mortal. He made a loud laughter. Many angels and archangels came to adore him.

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Zoroaster’s family name was ‘Spitama’, which means ‘White’. Zoroaster had two elder brothers and two younger brothers.

               The birth of Zoroaster was miraculous. The glory of Ahura Mazda descended from heaven and entered the house of the future mother of the prophet. When she was pregnant, archangels came to her and worshipped and praised the unborn child.

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Zoroaster married three times and had many children. His first wife had one son and three daughters. The youngest daughter Pourucista married Jamaspa, who was the uncle of Zoroaster’s third wife. Zoroaster had two sons by his second wife.

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We know very little of the early life of Zoroaster. Even when he was a boy, he showed great wisdom. He argued with wise men and censured the heretics.

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Demons and evil spirits tried to kill him. The Turanian King Durasrobo also tried to kill the child, but the life of the prophet was miraculously saved by the all-merciful Lord.

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Zoroaster developed dispassion when he reached age of sixteen. The objects of the world lost all attraction for him. He despised all mundane pleasures. He rose above all sensual cravings. He showed intense love and compassion for all living beings

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Zoroaster left his home at the age of twenty and wandered from place to place. He led a life of purity and righteousness. He roamed about in forests. He lived alone in caves and mountain-tops. He controlled his tongue and subjugated his other senses. He was very abstemious in his diet. He spent his time in calm meditation.

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Zoroaster experienced Samadhi or communion with Ahura Mazda, the Supreme Lord of the Universe, on the top of Mount Sabatam. He had prophetic divine visions. He conversed directly with Ahura Mazda and received the wisdom of the Lord. He received seven revelations from Ahura Mazda. At the age of thirty, he came out as the Prophet of God. After receiving the divine light of revelation, he became the renowned messenger of Ahura Mazda.

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Several archangels helped Zoroaster in the spiritual path. Archangels are divine messengers of the highest order. They are the attendants of Ahura Mazda. They correspond to the Siva-Ganas—the attendants of Lord Siva;—and to Jaya, Vijaya, Nanda, Sunanda, etc.—the attendants of Lord Vishnu. They are the guardian-deities or the Lokapalas of the world. Zoroaster had direct conversation with these archangels.

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Vohumanah is the archangel of good thought. He is also the presiding Lord of domestic animals. He appeared before Zoroaster and helped him to cast off the physical sheath and directed his soul to the supreme abode of Ahura Mazda. Ahura Mazda Himself gave instructions to the Prophet and imparted divine wisdom to him. Zoroaster obeyed the commands of Ahura Mazda.

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When Zoroaster was coming down from the celestial abode of Ahura Mazda, he was terribly attacked by the evil force Ahriman, the Satan of Zoroastrianism. Ahriman wanted to kill Zoroaster, but Zoroaster’s spiritual powers saved him. The Prophet became the master of all demons after conquering Ahriman. He began to preach again.

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Zoroaster experienced a second vision. The same archangel asked the prophet to take great care of the animals and to protect them.

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Then Zoroaster conversed in his third vision with Asha Vahishta, the archangel of righteousness who is the presiding Lord of sacred fires. The archangel commanded Zoroaster to protect the sacred fire and all fires.

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Zoroaster conversed with Khehathra Vairya, the archangel of good royalty who is the presiding Lord of metals. The archangel commanded the Prophet to take care of the metals. Then Zoroaster conversed with Spenta Armaith, the archangel of modesty, who is the presiding Lord of earth. Then he conversed with Hauravatat, the archangel of health who is the presiding Lord of the waters. Lastly, he conversed with Ameretat, the archangel of immortality who presides over plants.

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Zoroaster had a perfect knowledge of the celestial hierarchy of gods through these visions. Zend Avesta, which is the Bible and the Gita of the Parsis, contains the wisdom which the Prophet received from Ahura Mazda, the Supreme Lord.

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The divine experiences of Zoroaster are similar to the experiences of Satyakama Jabala of the Chhandogya Upanishad. The Wind-God, the God of Fire, the Sun-God, and Varuna or the presiding Deity of the Waters imparted divine wisdom to Satyakama. Archangel Vahishta is the Fire-God or Agni of the Hindus. Archangel Hauravatat is Varuna of the Hindus.

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Zoroaster disliked the Kavis and the Karpans, who were the chiefs of the demon-worshippers. The Karpans were devoted to rites and ceremonies. They were addicted to the use of Homa, the intoxicating drink, in their religious ceremonies. The Prophet tried to convert all the demon-worshippers, the evil men and women and their chiefs, viz., the Kavis and the Karpans. The Kavis and the Karpans were the priests. Naturally, all orthodox priests are opponents of broad reforms. Zoroaster failed in his attempt.

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Zoroaster traveled from place to place. He went to India and China, but no one received his message in the beginning. He first converted his own cousin Maidhyoi-madnha. This disciple remained faithful to Zoroaster till the end of his life.

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The Kavis and the Karpans, the learned priests of the courts, poisoned the ears of Vishtasp, the Sovereign of Iran. They intrigued against the Prophet and accused him before the king of being a sorcerer. They persuaded the king to put him in prison to die of starvation. Zoroaster remained in the prison for sometime and was saved by the Lord.

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The favorite black horse of the king fell ill. Its four legs were drawn up into its belly. Zoroaster sent word to the king that he would cure the horse. He imposed four conditions, which the king readily accepted. Vishtasp had to accept the new faith. He had to consent that his son Isfendiar would defend the new faith. Zoroaster was to be allowed to convert Queen Hutaosa. The king had to reveal the names of all those who had plotted against Zoroaster and punish them. When each leg of the horse came out, each of the four conditions was granted by the king.

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The king, in turn, demanded that four conditions of his should be accepted by Zoroaster. First, the king wanted to know his final destiny and his place in heaven; second, he wanted that his body might become invulnerable; third, he desired that he might have universal knowledge; and lastly, the king wished that his soul might not leave his body until the resurrection. Three archangels appeared before the king and the queen and dazzled their eyes. The king and the queen trembled at their sight. They heard the voice from the light which said that they had come at the command of the Lord to show the king and the queen the glory of the religion of Zoroaster.

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King Vishtasp was convinced. He was also convinced of the supernatural powers of the Prophet. He fell at the feet of Zoroaster, accepted his creed and worshipped him as the Prophet of Iran. He experienced a glimpse of heaven. The archangel Ashavahishta gave the king nectar to drink. The queen and other chieftains, and also the brother of the king, and Frashaoshtra, the father-in-law of Zoroaster, became devoted followers of Zoroastrianism. The new faith spread far and wide with the help of the royal patron. The masses also accepted the new faith. Zoroastrianism became the religion of the Iranian Kingdom.

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The success of the new religion became the cause for two bitter religious wars between Iran and Turan. Zarir, the brother of King Vishtasp and the king himself defeated the enemies. Zarir played a wonderful part. He was a formidable hero in the war. His gallantry was beyond description. But he was treacherously slain by a poisoned spear hurled from behind by Vidrasfsh. Aryasp, the Turanian king, promised to give his daughter in marriage to Vidrasfsh for doing this horrible, ignominious act.

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Bastwar, the young son of Zarir, a mighty hero, who might be called a Maharatha, who was equal in strength to Bhishma, killed Vidrasfsh and defeated Aryasp.

King Aryasp again invaded Iran eighteen years after his defeat. He destroyed the temples, killed the priests and burnt the Zend Avesta. In the second war, the hero was Ispendiar, the son of King Vishtasp. He defeated Aryasp, drove him out of Iran and killed him.

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The Prophet of Iran was praying before the altar in the temple of Nush-Adar with a rosary in his hand. A Turanian, Bratrok-resh by name, killed the prophet with his sword.

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Zoroaster threw his rosary at Bratrok-resh. A fire proceeded from the rosary. It fell on Bratrok-resh and destroyed him. Zoroaster died at the age of seventy-seven. Thus the glorious Prophet of Iran, the great messenger of Ahura Mazda and the founder of Zoroastrianism or the religion of Mazda-worship passed away.

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Zoroaster did many miracles. He carried out the behests of the angels. He protected the fires and the cattle. He healed the sick and restored the sight of a blind man. He had a great reputation as a scholar and physician. He established many fire-temples. He spread the new faith all over the country. He suppressed the worship of demons, witchcraft and sorcery. He drove pestilence and removed national calamities and disasters. He cured diseases, counteracted the noxious creatures and brought abundant rain on earth.

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Zoroaster was pious, noble and compassionate. His message was the noble message of high moral life which paves the way for the attainment of immortality and eternal bliss and the doctrine of the God of Righteousness or Ahura Mazda. "Love the righteous. Have compassion for the distressed." These constitute Zoroaster’s main ethical teachings.

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Mithra and Mithraism

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An old-Iranian god of light, contracts and friendship. He also maintains the cosmic order. Sometimes mentioned as the son of Ahura Mazda, he assists him in his struggle against the forces of evil, represented by Angra Mainyu. Mithra was born from a rock (or a cave). He fought with the sun and managed to capture the divine bull and slayed it before he ascended to heaven. From the blood of the bull came forth all the plants and animals beneficial to humanity.

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With the emerging of Zoroastrianism, he was reduced to the status of Yazata. In the Avesta he was portrayed as having ten thousand ears and eyes, and he rides in a chariot pulled by white horses. In the 4 century BCE his popularity rose and again he held a high position in the Persian pantheon. Eventually his cult spread beyond Iran and Asia Minor and gradually became a mystery cult. The ascetic religion of Mithraism (to which only men were allowed) became increasingly popular among the Roman soldiers around 100 CE and at that time Mithra was known in Rome as 'Deus sol invictus' ("the unconquered sun"). Even the Roman emperor Commodus was initiated into Mithra's cult. When Constantine the Great was converted

to Christianity in 312 CE, Mithraism started to decline and after a temporary revival under Julius the Apostate (331-363) the cult disappeared for good.

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Mithra was worshipped in Mithraea, artificially constructed caves that represented his birth-cave. The ceiling looked like the starry sky and at the sides benches where placed for the ritual meals. In the center of the Mithraea was a niche which held a relief of the god, dressed in Phrygian clothing (short tunic and cloak, long trousers and a hat with a curled tip), who kills a bull. The Mithraea were spread all over the Roman empire and some 50 of these caves still exist in Rome today.

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Mithraism

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Mithraism is the ancient Roman mystery cult of the god Mithras. Roman worship of Mithras began sometime during the early Roman empire, perhaps during the late first century of the Common Era (hereafter CE), and flourished from the second through the fourth centuries CE. While it is fairly certain that Romans encountered worship of the deity Mithras as part of Zoroastrianism in the eastern provinces of the empire, particularly in Asia Minor (now modern Turkey), the exact origins of cult practices in the Roman cult of Mithras remain controversial. The evidence for this cult is mostly archaeological, consisting of the remains of mithraic temples, dedicatory inscriptions, and iconographic representations of the god and other aspects of the cult in stone sculpture, sculpted stone relief, wall painting, and mosaic. There is very little literary evidence pertaining to the cult.

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The Deity: Mitra, Mithra, Mithras

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Mithras is the Roman name for the Indo-Iranian god Mitra, or Mithra, as he was called by the Persians. Mitra is part of the Hindu pantheon, and Mithra is one of several yazatas (minor deities) under Ahura-Mazda in the Zoroastrian pantheon. Mithra is the god of the airy light between heaven and earth, but he is also associated with the light of the sun, and with contracts and mediation. Neither in Hinduism nor in Zoroastrianism did Mitra/Mithra have his own cult. Mitra is mentioned in the Hindu Vedas, while Mithra is is the subject of Yashts (hymns) in the Zoroastrian Avesta, a text compiled during the Sassanian period (224-640 CE) to preserve a much older oral tradition.

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Eastern Origins of the Roman Cult

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The precise relationship between the Roman cult of Mithras as it developed during the empire and the Mitra and Mithra of the Hindu and Zoroastrian pantheons, respectively, is unclear. The theory that Roman Mithraism had its roots in Zoroastrianism was first put forward by Franz Cumont, a Belgian scholar, in his two-volume publication Textes et monuments figurés relatifs aux mystères de Mithra in 1896 and 1899. Cumont compiled a catalogue of every known mithraic temple, monument, inscription, and literary passage relating to Mithras and claimed on the basis of his study of this body of evidence that Roman Mithras was, ultimately, Zoroastrian Mithra.

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Cumont argued by extension that if Roman Mithras had Iranian roots, the cult of Mithraism must have originated in the eastern provinces of the Roman empire and spread westward with legionaries in the Roman army, merchants from eastern provinces (often lumped under the broad misnomer "Syrians"), freedmen in the imperial bureaucracy, and slaves.

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Cumont himself recognized possible flaws in his theory. The most obvious is that there is little evidence for a Zoroastrian cult of Mithra (Cumont 1956), and certainly none that suggests that Zoroastrian worship of Mithra used the liturgy or the well-devoloped iconography found in the Roman cult of Mithras.

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Moreover, few monuments from the Roman cult have been recovered from the very provinces which are thought to have inspired worship of Mithras (namely the provinces of Asia Minor). Finally, Cumont was aware that the earliest datable evidence for the cult of Mithras came from the military garrison at Carnuntum in the province of Upper Pannonia on the Danube River (modern Hungary). Indeed, the largest quantity of evidence for mithraic worship comes from the western half of the empire, particularly from the provinces of the Danube River frontier and from Rome and her port city, Ostia, in Italy.

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To explain this phenomenon, Cumont proposed that soldiers stationed in western provinces and transferred to eastern provinces for short periods of time learned of the deity Mithra and began to worship and dedicate monuments to a god they called Mithras when they returned to their customary garrison. It is true that soldiers from the Roman legion XV Apollinaris stationed at Carnuntum in the first century CE were called to the East in 63 CE to help fight in a campaign against the Parthians and further to help quell the Jewish revolt in Jerusalem from 66-70 CE.

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 Members of the legion made mithraic dedications back in Carnuntum after their return from these campaigns, possibly as early as 71 or 72 CE. Once these Roman soldiers and the camp-followers of the legions, who included merchants, slaves, and freedmen, started to worship Mithras, argued Cumont, their further movements around the empire served to spread the cult to other areas.

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Cumont's scholarship was so influential that it founded mithraic studies as an area of inquiry in its own right. Cumont's student, Maarten J. Vermaseren, was a scholar equally as prolific as his mentor. Among Vermaseren's greatest contributions was an up-dated English language catalogue of mithraic monuments (Vermaseren 1956, 1960).

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Structure and Liturgy of the Roman Mystery Cult of Mithras

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The Roman cult of Mithras is known as a "mystery" cult, which is to say that its members kept the liturgy and activities of the cult secret, and more importantly, that they had to participate in an initiation ceremony to become members of the cult. As a result, there is no surviving central text of Mithraism analogous to the Christian Bible, and there is no intelligible text which describes the liturgy. Whether such texts ever existed is unknown, but doubtful. Worship took place in a temple, called a mithraeum, which was made to resemble a natural cave.

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Sometimes temples were built specifically for the purpose, but often they were single rooms in larger buildings which usually had another purpose (for example, a bath house, or a private home). There are about one hundred mithraea preserved in the empire. Mithraea were longer than they were wide, usually around 10-12m long and 4-6m wide, and were entered from one of the short sides. Roman dining couches, called klinai or podia, lined the long sides of the mithraeum, leaving a narrow aisle in between.

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At the end of this aisle, opposite the entrance, was the cult image showing Mithras sacrificing a bull. To enhance the resemblance to a natural cave the ceiling of the mithraeum was vaulted and often had crushed pottery adhering to it to imitate natural rock. Sometimes the ceilings were pierced with holes to let shafts of light in. The cave was intended to recall an event in Mithras' life and also to symbolize the dome of heaven, or the cosmos.

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We surmise from the structure of mithraea and from paintings which are preserved in certain mithraea that mithraists gathered for a common meal, initiation of members, and other ceremonies. The details of the liturgy are uncertain, but it is worth noting that most mithraea have room for only thirty to forty members, and only a few are so large that a bull could actually be sacrificed inside.

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The structure of the cult was hierarchical. Members went through a series of seven grades, each of which had a special symbol and a tutelary planet. From lowest to highest these grades were Corax (raven, under Mercury), Nymphus (a made-up word meaning male bride, under Venus), Miles (the soldier, under Mars), Leo (the lion, under Jupiter), Perses (the Persian, under Luna, the moon), Heliodromus (the Sun's courier, under Sol, the sun), and finally Pater (father, under Saturn). Those who reached the highest grade, Pater, could become the head of a congregation. Because mithraea were so small, new congregations were probably founded on a regular basis when one or more members reached the highest grade.

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Two aspects of mithraic initiation offer important insight into the cult. First, it was possible for a mithraic initiate to be a member of more than one cult, and second, women were not permitted to become members. These facts are critical to understanding the cult of Mithraism in relation to other Roman cults, to official Roman state religion, and to the cult of Christianity.

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Mithraic Iconography

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Mithraic monuments have a rich and relatively coherent iconography, chronologically and geographically speaking. In each mithraic temple there was a central scene showing Mithras sacrificing a bull (often called a tauroctony). Mithras is clad in a tunic, trousers, cloak, and a pointed cap usually called a Phrygian cap. He faces the viewer while half-straddling the back of a bull, yanks the bull's head back by its nostrils with his left hand, and plunges a dagger into the bull's throat with his right.

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Various figures surround this dramatic event. Under the bull a dog laps at the blood dripping from the wound and a scorpion attacks the bull's testicles. Often the bull's tail ends in wheat ears and a raven is perched on the bull's back. On the viewer's left stands a diminutive male figure named Cautes, wearing the same garb as Mithras and holding an upraised and burning torch. Above him, in the upper left corner, is the sun god, Sol, in his chariot. On the viewer's left there is another diminutive male figure, Cautopates, who is also clad as Mithras is and holds a torch that points downwards and is sometimes, but not always, burning. Above Cautopates in the upper right corner is the moon, Luna. This group of figures is almost always present, but there are variations, of which the most common is an added line of the signs of the zodiac over the top of the bull-sacrificing scene.

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For a long time the meaning of the bull-sacrificing scene and its associated figures was unclear, but a long series of studies beginning with one by K. B. Stark in 1869 and culminating in studies by Roger Beck (1984 and 1988), David Ulansey and Noel Swerdlow (1991) has revealed a comprehensible astrological symbolism. Each figure and element in the scene correlates to specific constellations, to the seven planets recognized by the ancient Romans, and to the position of these in relation to the celestial equator and the ecliptic, particularly at the time of the equinoxes and the solstices.

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The bull-sacrificing scene is usually carved in stone relief or painted on stone and placed in mithraea in a visible location. In addition to this central scene there can be numerous smaller scenes which seem to represent episodes from Mithras' life. The most common scenes show Mithras being born from a rock, Mithras dragging the bull to a cave, plants springing from the blood and semen of the sacrificed bull, Mithras and the sun god, Sol, banqueting on the flesh of the bull while sitting on its skin, Sol investing Mithras with the power of the sun, and Mithras and Sol shaking hands over a burning altar, among others. These scenes are the basis for knowledge of mithraic cosmology. There is no supporting textual evidence.

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Mithraism Geographically, Socially, and Chronologically Popularity

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The archaeological evidence for Mithraism, consisting mostly of monuments, inscribed dedications, and the remains of mithraea, indicates that the cult was most popular among the legions stationed in frontier areas. The Danube and Rhine river frontier has the highest concentration of evidence, but a significant quantity of evidence amply demonstrates that Mithraism was also popular among the troops stationed in the province of Numidia in North Africa and along Hadrian's wall in England. The inscriptions on dedications found in all these areas support Cumont's assertion that Mithraism was most popular among legionaries (of all ranks), and the members of the more marginal social groups who were not Roman citizens: freedmen, slaves, and merchants from various provinces.

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The area where the concentration of evidence for Mithraism is the most dense is the capital, Rome, and her port city, Ostia. There are eight extant mithraea in Rome of as many as seven hundred (Coarelli 1979) and eighteen in Ostia. In addition to the actual mithraea, there are approximately three hundred other mithraic monuments from Rome and about one hundred from Ostia. This body of evidence reveals that Mithraism in Rome and Ostia originally appealed to the same social strata as it did in the frontier regions. The evidence also indicates that at least some inhabitants knew about Mithraism as early as the late first century CE, but that the cult did not enjoy a wide membership in either location until the middle of the second century CE.

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As the cult in Rome became more popular, it seems to have "trickled up" the social ladder, with the result that Mithraism could count several senators from prominent aristocratic families among its adherents by the fourth century CE. Some of these men were initiates in several cults imported from the eastern empire (including those of Magna Mater and Attis, Isis, Serapis, Jupiter Dolichenus, Hecate, and Liber Pater, among others), and most had held priesthood in official Roman cults. The devotion of these men to Mithraism reflects a fourth-century "resurgence of paganism," when many of these imported cults and even official Roman state religion experienced a surge in popularity although, and perhaps because, their very existence was increasingly threatened by the rapid spread of Christianity after the conversion of the emperor Constantine in 313 CE.

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Mithraism had a wide following from the middle of the second century to the late fourth century CE, but the common belief that Mithraism was the prime competitor of Christianity, promulgated by Ernst Renan (Renan 1882 579), is blatantly false. Mithraism was at a serious disadvantage right from the start because it allowed only male initiates. What is more, Mithraism was, as mentioned above, only one of several cults imported from the eastern empire that enjoyed a large membership in Rome and elsewhere. The major competitor to Christianity was thus not Mithraism but the combined group of imported cults and official Roman cults subsumed under the rubric "paganism."

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Finally, part of Renan's claim rested on an equally common, but almost equally mistaken, belief that Mithraism was officially accepted because it had Roman emperors among its adherents (Nero, Commodus, Septimius Severus, Caracalla, and the Tetrarchs are most commonly cited). Close examination of the evidence for the participation of emperors reveals that some comes from literary sources of dubious quality and that the rest is rather circumstantial. The cult of Magna Mater, the first imported cult to arrive in Rome (204) was the only one ever officially recognized as a Roman cult. The others, including Mithraism, were never officially accepted, and some, particularly the Egyptian cult of Isis, were periodically outlawed and their adherents persecuted.

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Mithra and Christ

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Most of the research into Mithraism, a religion with many parallels to Christianity, comes from two writers, Cumont and Ulansey with a variety of other writers input. Some similarities between Mithraism and Christianity are;

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Virgin birth

Twelve followers

Killing and resurrection  

Miracles and healing

Birth date on December 25

Sunday as lord’s day

Morality

Mankind's savior

Known as the Light of the world

Symbolic taking of bread and wine for body of god

And etc.

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Have you ever wondered why December 25th was chosen to celebrate the birth of Christ? If the accounts in the Bible are correct, the time of Jesus birth would have been closer to mid-summer, for this is when shepherds would have been "tending their flocks in the field" and the new lambs were born. Strange enough there is an ancient pagan religion, Mithraism, which dates back over 2,800 years that also celebrated the birth of their "savior" on that date.

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Many elements in the story of Jesus' life and birth are either coincidental or borrowings from earlier and contemporary pagan religions. The most obviously similar of these is Mithraism. Roman Mithraism was a mystery religion with sacrifice and initiation. Like other mystery cults, there's little recorded literary evidence. What we know comes mainly from Christian detractors and archaeological evidence from Mithraic temples, inscriptions, and artistic representations of the god and other aspects of the cult. In an EAWC (Exploring Ancient World Cultures) essay entitled Mithraism, Alison Griffith explains Cumont's theory of a Zoroastrian origin for the Roman Mithraist religion.

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While this theory is disputed, there was a Mitra in the Hindu pantheon and a minor deity named Mithra among the Persians as well. Cumont came to believe the religion spread westward from Eastern Roman provinces. However, as Griffith explains, there is little evidence of a Zoroastrian Mithra cult and most evidence for Mithraic worship comes from the western portion of the empire from which Cumont correctly deduced that "Mithraism was most popular among legionaries (of all ranks), and the members of the more marginal social groups who were not Roman citizens: freedmen, slaves, and merchants from various provinces...." No women were allowed.

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The Dawning of the Age of Aries

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The main problem with basing Mithraism on a Zoroastrian cult is that there is no evidence that the Zoroastrians' Mithra practiced bull killing, the central aspect of Roman Mithraic iconography. An image of Mithras killing the bull holds pride of place in each mithraeum (cave-like temple for the worship of Mithras). Ulansey believes the images of Mithras slaying the bull are actually astronomical star maps.

 

 In support of this he points out that all the figures represented in the iconography have a place in the constellations (Taurus, Canis Minor, Hydra, Corvus, and Scorpio). He says that the other iconography and even the initiation ceremonies are consistently astronomical. Mithras' place as bull-slayer has cosmological significance because, if Ulansey is right, Mithraists attribute to their god the ability to shift the equinox from the constellation of Taurus to Aries: His killing of the bull symbolizes his supreme power: namely, the power to move the entire universe, which he had demonstrated by shifting the cosmic sphere in such a way that the spring equinox had moved out of Taurus the Bull.

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MITHRAISM – a Historical Introduction

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For over three hundred years the rulers of the Roman Empire worshipped the god Mithras. Known throughout Europe and Asia by the names Mithra, Mitra, Meitros, Mihr, Mehr, and Meher, the veneration of this god began around 2800 years ago in Persia, where it was soon moved west and became imbedded with Babylonian doctrines. There is mention of Mithra or Mitra (et al) before 2800, but only as a minor diety and without much information. It appears to be after 2800 when Mithra is transformed and starts to play a major role among the gods.

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The faith spread east through India to China, and reached west throughout the entire length of the Roman frontier; from Scotland to the Sahara Desert, and from Spain to the Black Sea. Sites of Mithraic worship have been found in Britain, Italy, Romania, Germany, Hungary, Bulgaria, Turkey, Persia, Armenia, Syria, Israel, and North Africa.

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In Rome, more than a hundred inscriptions dedicated to Mithra have been found, in addition to 75 sculpture fragments, and a series of Mithraic temples situated in all parts of the city. One of the largest Mithraic temples built in Italy now lies under the present site of the Church of St. Clemente, near the Colosseum in Rome. The widespread popularity and appeal of Mithraism as the final and most refined form of pre-Christian paganism was discussed by the Greek historian Herodotus, the Greek biographer Plutarch, the neoplatonic philosopher Porphyry, Origen, and St. Jerome the church Father.

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Mithraism was quite often noted by many historians for its many astonishing similarities to Christianity. The faithful referred to Mithra as "the Light of the World", symbol of truth, justice, and loyalty. He was mediator between heaven and earth and was a member of a Holy Trinity.

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According to Persian mythology, Mithras was born of a virgin given the title 'Mother of God'. The god remained celibate throughout his life, and valued self-control, renunciation and resistance to sensuality among his worshippers. Mithras represented a system of ethics in which brotherhood was encouraged in order to unify against the forces of evil.

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The worshippers of Mithras held strong beliefs in a celestial heaven and an infernal hell. They believed that the benevolent powers of the god would sympathize with their suffering and grant them the final justice of immortality and eternal salvation in the world to come. They looked forward to a final day of Judgment in which the dead would resurrect, and to a final conflict that would destroy the existing order of all things to bring about the triumph of light over darkness.

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Purification through a ritualistic baptism was required of the faithful, who also took part in a ceremony in which they drank wine and ate bread to symbolize the body and blood of the god. Sundays were held sacred, and the birth of the god was celebrated annually on December the 25th. After the earthly mission of this god had been accomplished, he took part in a Last Supper with his companions before ascending to heaven, to forever protect the faithful from above.

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However, it would be a vast oversimplification to suggest that Mithraism was the single forerunner of early Christianity. Aside from Christ and Mithras, there were plenty of other deities (such as Osiris, Tammuz, Adonis, Balder, Attis, and Dionysus) said to have died and resurrected. Many classical heroic figures, such as Hercules, Perseus, and Theseus, were said to have been born through the union of a virgin mother and divine father. Virtually every pagan religious practice and festivity that couldn't be suppressed or driven underground was eventually incorporated into the rites of Christianity as it spread across Europe and throughout the world.

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The Persian Origins of Mithraism

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In order to fully understand the religion of Mithraism it is necessary to look to its foundation in Persia, where originally a multitude of gods were worshipped. Amongst them were Ahura-Mazda, god of the skies, and Ahriman, god of darkness. In the sixth and seventh century B.C.E., a vast reformation of the Persian pantheon was undertaken by Zarathustra (known in Greek as Zoroaster), a prophet from the kingdom of Bactria. The stature of Ahura-Mazda was elevated to that of supreme god of goodness, whereas the god Ahriman became the ultimate embodiment of evil.

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In the same way that Ahkenaton, Heliogabalus, and Mohammed later initiated henotheistic cults from the worship of their respective deities, Zarathustra created a henotheistic dualism with the gods Ahura-Mazda and Ahriman. As a result of the Babylonian captivity of the Jews (597 B.C.E.) and their later emancipation by King Cyrus the Great of Persia (538 B.C.E.), Zoroastrian dualism was to influence the Jewish belief in the existence of HaShatan, the Adversary of the god YHVH, and later permit the evolution of the Christian Satan-Jehovah dichotomy.

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 Persian religious dualism became the foundation of an ethical system that has lasted until this day. The reformation of Zarathustra retained the hundreds of Persian deities, assembling them into a complex hierarchical system of 'Immortals' and 'Adored Ones' under the rule of either Ahura- Mazda or Ahriman. Within this vast pantheon, Mithras gained the title of 'Judger of Souls'. He became the divine representative of Ahura-Mazda on earth, and was directed to protect the righteous from the demonic forces of Ahriman.   Mithras was called  omniscient,  omnipotent,  infallible,  eternally,

watchful, and never-resting. In the Avesta, the holy book of the religion of Zarathustra, Ahura-Mazda was said to have created Mithras in order to guarantee the authority of contracts and the keeping of promises. The name Mithras was, in fact, the Persian word for 'contract'. The divine duty of Mithras was to ensure general prosperity through good contractual relations between men. It was believed that misfortune would befall the entire land if a contract was ever broken.                       

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Ahura-Mazda was said to have created Mithras to be as great and worthy as himself. He would fight the spirits of evil to protect the creations of Ahura-Mazda and cause even Ahriman to tremble. Mithras was seen as the protector of just souls from demons seeking to drag them down to Hell, and the guide of these souls to Paradise. As Lord of the Sky, he took the role of psychopomp, conducting the souls of the righteous dead to paradise.

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According to Persian traditions, the god Mithras was actually incarnated into the human form of the Savior expected by Zarathustra. Mithras was born of Anahita, an immaculate virgin mother once worshipped as a fertility goddess before the hierarchical reformation. Anahita was said to have conceived the Saviour from the seed of Zarathustra preserved in the waters of Lake Hamun in the Persian province of Sistan. Mithra's ascension to heaven was said to have occurred in 208 B.C.E., 64 years after his birth. Parthian coins and documents bear a double date with this 64 year interval.

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Mithras was 'The Great King' highly revered by the nobility and monarchs, who looked upon him as their special protector. A great number of the nobility took theophorous (god-bearing) names compounded with Mithras. The title of the god Mithras was used in the dynasties of Pontus, Parthia, Cappadocia, Armenia and Commagene by emperors with the name Mithradates. Mithradates VI, king of Pontus (northern Turkey) in 120-63 B.C.E. became famous for being the first monarch to practice immunization by taking poisons in gradually increased doses.

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The terms mithridatism and mithridate (a pharmacological elixir) were named after him. The Parthian princes of Armenia were all priests of Mithras, and an entire district of this land was dedicated to the Virgin Mother Anahita. Many Mithraeums, or Mithraic temples, were built in Armenia, which remained one of the last strong holds of Mithraism. The largest near-eastern Mithraeum was built in western Persia at Kangavar, dedicated to 'Anahita, the Immaculate Virgin Mother of the Lord Mithras'.

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Other Mithraic temples were built in Khuzestan and in Central Iran near present-day Mahallat, where at the temple of Khorheh a few tall columns still stand. Excavations in Nisa, later renamed Mithradatkirt, have uncovered Mithraic mausoleums and shrines. Mithraic sanctuaries and mausoleums were built in the city of Hatra in upper Mesopotamia. West of Hatra at Dura Europos, Mithraeums were found with figures of Mithras on horseback. Persian Mithraism was more a collection of traditions and rites than a body of doctrines. However, once the Babylonians took the Mithraic rituals and mythology from the Persians, they thoroughly refined its theology.

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The Babylonian clergy assimilated Ahura-Mazda to the god Baal, Anahita to the goddess Ishtar, and Mithras to Shamash, their god of justice, victory and protection (and the sun god from whom King Hammurabi received his code of laws in the 18th century B.C.E.) As a result of the solar and astronomical associations of the Babylonians, Mithras later was referred to by Roman worshippers as 'Sol invictus', or the invincible sun. The sun itself was considered to be "the eye of Mithras". The Persian crown, from which all present day crowns are derived, was designed to represent the golden sun-disc sacred to Mithras. As a deity connected with the sun and its life-giving powers, Mithras was known as 'The Lord of the Wide Pastures' who was believed to cause the plants to spring forth from the ground.

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During the time of Cyrus and Darius the Great, the rulers of Persia received the first fruits of the fall harvest at the festival of Mehragan. At this time they wore their most brilliant clothing and drank wine. In the Persian calendar, the seventh month and the sixteenth day of each month were also dedicated to Mithras. The Babylonians also incorporated their belief in destiny into the Mithraic worship of Zurvan, the Persian god of infinite time and father of the gods Ahura-Mazda and Ahriman.

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They superimposed astrology, the use of the zodiac, and the deification of the four seasons onto the Persian rites of Mithraism. "Astrology, of which these postulates were the dogmas, certainly owes some share of its success to the Mithraic propaganda, and Mithraism is therefore partly responsible for the triumph in the West of this pseudo-science with its long train of errors and terrors." (Franz Cumont, French Mithraic researcher Les Mystères de Mithra, p.125 )

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The Persians called Mithras 'The Mediator' since he was believed to stand between the light of Ahura-Mazda and the darkness of Ahriman. He was said to have 1000 eyes, expressing the conviction that no man could conceal his wrongdoing from the god. Mithras was known as the God of Truth, and Lord of Heavenly Light, and said to have stated "I am a star which goes with thee and shines out of the depths". Mithras was associated with Verethraghna, the Persian god of victory. He would fight against the forces of evil, and destroy the wicked. It was believed that offering sacrifices to Mithras would provide strength and glory in life and in battle.

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In the Avesta, Yasht 10, it reads that Mithras "spies out his enemies; armed in his fullest panoply he swoops down upon them, scatters and slaughters them. He desolates and lays waste the homes of the wicked, he annihilates the tribes and the nations that are hostile to him. He assures victory unto them that fit instruction in the Good, that honour him and offer him the sacrificial libations." Mithras was worshipped as guardian of arms, and patron of soldiers and armies. The handshake was developed by those who worshipped him as a token of friendship and as a gesture to show that you were unarmed. When Mithras later became the Roman god of contracts, the handshake gesture was imported throughout the Mediterranean and Europe by Roman soldiers.

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In Armenian tradition, Mithras was believed to shut himself up in a cave from which he emerged once a year, born anew. The Persians introduced initiates to the mysteries in natural caves, according to Porphyry, the third century neoplatonic philosopher. These cave temples were created in the image of the World Cave that Mithras had created, according to the Persian creation myth. As 'God of Truth and Integrity', Mithras was invoked in solemn oaths to pledge the fulfillment of contracts and punish liars.

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He was believed to maintain peace, wisdom, honour, prosperity, and cause harmony to reign among all his worshippers. According to the Avesta, Mithras could decide when different periods of world history were completed. He would judge mortal souls at death and brandish his mace over hell three times each day so that demons would not inflict greater punishment on sinners than they deserved. Sacrificial offerings of cattle and birds were made to Mithras, along with libations of Haoma, a hallucinogenic drink used by Zoroastrian and Hindu priests, equated with the infamous hallucinogen 'Soma' described in the Vedic scriptures. Before daring to approach the altar to make an offering to Mithras, Persian worshippers were obliged to purge themselves by repeating purification rituals and flagellating themselves. These customs were continued in the initiation ceremonies of the Roman neophytes.

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The Expansion of Faith

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With the rapid expansion of the Persian Empire, the worship of Mithras spread eastward through northern India into the western provinces of China. In Chinese mythology, Mithras came to be known as 'The Friend'. To this day, Mithras is represented as a military General in Chinese statues, and is considered to be the friend of man in this life and his protector against evil in the next.

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In India, Mithras was recognized as 'God of Heavenly Light' and an ally of Indra, King of Heaven. Mithras was often prayed to and invoked along with Varuna, the Hindu god of moral law and true speech. Jointly known as 'Mitra-Varuna', it was believed that together they would uphold order in the world while travelling in a shining chariot and living in a golden mansion with a thousand pillars and a thousands doors. Mithras was also praised in the Vedic hymns. Just as in the Zoroastrian Avesta, the Hindu scriptures recognized Mithras as 'God of Light', 'Protector of Truth', and 'Enemy of Falsehood'.

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The worship of Mithras also extended westward through what is now Turkey to the borders of the Aegean Sea. A bilingual dedication to Mithras, written in Greek and Aramaic, was found engraved upon a rock in a wild pass near Farasha in the Turkish province of Cappadocia.

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Mithras was also the only Iranian god whose name was known in ancient Greece. A grotto located near the Greek town of Tetapezus was dedicated to Mithras, before it was transformed into a church. However, Mithraism never made many converts in Greece or in the Hellenized countries. That country never extended the hand of hospitality to the god of its ancient enemies.

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According to the Greek historian Plutarch (46-125 C.E.) Mithras was first introduced into Italy by pirates from Cilicia (Southeast Turkey) who initiated the Romans into the secrets of the religion. These pirates performed strange sacrifices on Mount Olympus and practiced Mithraic rituals, which according to Plutarch "exist to the present day and were first taught by them". However, there were many foreign cults in Italy at that time, and these early Mithraists did not attract much attention.

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It is one of the great of ironies of history that Romans ended up worshipping the god of their chief political enemy, the Persians. The Roman historian Quintus Rufus recorded in his book History of Alexander that before going into battle against the 'anti-Mithraean country' of Rome, the Persian soldiers would pray to Mithras for victory. However, after the two enemy civilizations had been in contact for more than a thousand years, the worship of Mithras finally spread from the Persians through the Phrygians of Turkey to the Romans.

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The Romans viewed Persia as a land of wisdom and mystery, and Persian religious teachings appealed to those Romans who found the established state religion uninspiring - just as during the Cold War era of the 1960's many American university students rejected western religious values and sought enlightenment in the established spirituality of Communist east-Asian "enemy countries".

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THE BIBLE

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In the beginning, there was no word but growls and signs guided the instinct of hunter-gatherers on peaceful coexistence in the wilderness and moving apart their whereabouts as resentment occurred. Words came into the flesh as time progressed conversely proportional with time and space. Hunter-gatherers became men and women who settled and needs of leadership prevailed. Morality was born and human traditions were necessary to govern. In the later circa, handed down wellbeing were written in cuneiform tablets and later in cordices.

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Ancient historical records also pointed out that those cuneiform tablets and codices were adapted by shepherd-scribes from the Doctrine of the Kingdoms of Ebla and Mari somewhere around 2,900 years BC, where they were free to move around and does some trades with the inhabitants. Most likely the prevailing civilized society that period that had established system of crude governance. Adaptations through hearsay and evolving through generations, until the period that they had learned to established their system of writing and marking on tablets. Those desert nomads known to be the tribes of the Patriarch, established covenant that bound them together on unity wherever they maybe.

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A partial flash back on ancient history shall give us idea on how religion evolved from crude cults to civilize dogmas on our generations.  The most prevailing oldest origin was “The Legend of Enuma Elish” where Marduk created the world and the creation of mankind. This legend crept to the different ancient cults  in the Kingdom of Mari, which is presently located at Tell Hariri, along Euphrates River and about 120 kilometers southeast of Deir Ezzor, a province of Syria. (Just like what happened to the legend of Sta. Claus … fortunately occurred on a more civilized time and people were adamant to believe but still children does)  Most likely, Abraham had absorbed the doctrine during his adolescence in the Kingdom of Haran and Ur, on what is now in the vicinities of  Mosul, Iraq.

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Unlike the legend of Adam and Eve, the legend of Enuma Elish about creation had been recited to the temples of Ur and Haran for more than 4,000 years way back before Abraham.  A great likelihood is in the essence of Genesis, with more civil in narration. Both legends justified incest relationship.

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In the later circa, Greek Mythology also evolved into different cults such as Orphism,  a dominant religious-cult with a great influenced from the gods of Mount Olympus.  The blending of those mystery-cults were practiced by Roman soldiers  in form of Roman Mithraism and where Christianity derived and evolved. 

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In year 325 AD, Constantine the Great called the Council of Nicaea. He ordered the first fifty copies of cordices to be undertaken by Bishop Eusebius from the works of a theologian named Origen before circa 231 AD, from the compilations of available records of the known Political Sanhedrin written by Josephus and convened by Romans in 57 B.C.E. (Taken from the Greek word for council (synedrion), the term was apparently applied to various bodies but became especially the designation for the supreme Jewish legislative and judicial court)  Indeed the main theme was an excerpt from the surviving records of the Great Political Sanhedrin as the old Roman Constitution for Palestine during the reigned of Hasmonean dynasty and it should be understand that some thoughts and events were reconciliation of Origen and the rational knowledge of Eusebius suitable for that respective period.

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Copies were distributed as far as Great Britain. During the reign of Henry VIII, he ordered the English translation and was printed by Tyndale and Miles Covedale. The monarch then ordered the book to be set up on churches and be read. When James I was enthroned, he authorized the revision and clarification for Bishop Bible those appeared in 1568. During the renaissance age, Queen Victoria came into the throne and the general belief of World creation was 08th day of October 4004 BC, but later was disputed for it was a Sunday. Some scholars that era suggested an adjustment and proposed to be 27 years earlier. Those calculated guesses are irreconcilable on our time.

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Reckoning the contents of the Old Testament, after the great exodus Moses revived that covenant into stone tablets as “Jehovah’s Law”. Again there was ambiguity on the word Jehovah as adapted in our time. In cordices, some appeared to be “J” and some “E” as Elohim and interpreted by Greeks as JHVH. It must be understand that JHVH also appeared in Mithraism religious-cult as one of the gods. Hebrews transcribed it later to Yahweh and further erroneously translated by Elizabethan English into Jehovah. So Jehovah Law was established by the Renaissance Age which means Covenant to the Hebrews and later called Bible

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Several Councils of Ambiguity

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Arius (250 - 336 CE) proposed that Jesus and God were very separate and different entities: Jesus was closer to God than any other human being, but he was born a man, had no prior existence and was not a god. On the other hand, God has been in existence forever. Arius felt that any attempt to recognize the deity of Christ would blur the lines between Christianity and the Pagan religions. If Christianity recognized two separate gods, the Father and Jesus, it would become a polytheistic religion.

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Athanasius (296 - 373 CE) argued that Jesus must be divine, because otherwise, he could not be the Savior. The atonement would not have been possible.

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Both Arius and Athanasius had large, evenly matched followings among the bishops. Emotions ran high. The council, under intense pressure from Emperor Constantine, resolved its deadlock by a close vote in favor of Athanasius. The dissenting bishops were offered two options: to sign the settlement at Nicea or be exiled. The bishops produced the Nicene Creed, which declared that Jesus Christ was "of one substance with the Father." This did not immediately settle the question of the divinity of Christ; many bishops and churches refused to believe in the council's decision for decades.

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"The bishops granted to the bishop of Alexandria  [in Egypt] papal authority over the eastern half of the empire, and to the bishop of Rome they granted papal authority over the western portion of the empire.”

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330 CE: Emperor Constantine decided to build a "New Rome" on the site of the Greek city of Byzantium (now at Istanbul, Turkey). It was called Constantinople. It became the center of the largely Christian empire. 5 By this time, the church had evolved from a small, scattering of congregations to a geographically widespread church under the authority of many bishops.

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341 CE: Many now believe that Christianity became the dominant religion of the Empire through the evangelical efforts of the early church during the fourth century CE. The evidence seems to show that this is not true; "The Greek-Roman world was not...converted to a new religion, but compelled to embrace it." The Church authority had became concentrated in the five bishops or patriarchs located in Alexandria, Antioch, Constantinople, Jerusalem and Rome. Although they were officially given equal status, the Bishop of Rome was considered by many to be the first among equals.

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381 CE: At the Council of Constantinople, the earlier council's decision on the deity of Jesus was confirmed and Arianism was formally declared a heresy. They also voted that Holy Spirit was the third Person of the Trinity. Almost all of the churches abandoned Arianism after this council.

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Near the end of the century, the Roman Emperor “Theodosius decreed that the doctrine of the Trinity was to be the official state religion and that all his subjects should adhere to it."  Siricius who reigned from 384 to 399 CE, became the first bishop of Rome to be called Pope (father)

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431 CE: The Council of Ephasus was called to debate the precise nature of Jesus. Again, there were two main competing belief systems.

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From the city of Alexandria, scholars developed the Alexandrian School of Thought which:

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Promoted the allegorical interpretation of the Bible – that  it contained hidden meanings.

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Emphasized the divinity of Jesus.

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Recognized that Jesus had both a human and divine nature,

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Within the city of Antioch, Nestorius and other scholars developed

the Antiochene School which:

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Rejected an allegorical interpretation of the Bible.

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Emphasized the humanity of Jesus.

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Saw the two natures of Jesus as being loosely connected

 

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The Council excommunicated Nestorian and declared his beliefs    (Nestorianism) to be heresy. The Virgin Mary's status was elevated from the mother of Jesus to "theotokos", the mother of God.

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440 CE: Pope Leo I became the Bishop -- a post that he held for 21 years. He maintained that the pope was highest ranking of the Christian bishops.

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451 CE: Emperor Marcian called the Council of Chalcedon to resolve still another debate about Jesus. The traditional belief that Jesus had both a divine and human nature was being challenged by Monophysitism, an outgrowth of the Alexandrian school. Their followers believed that Christ had only a single divine nature. The council rejected that belief. In their Chalcedonian Definition, they affirmed that Christ had two natures, human and divine. These were without confusion, without change, without division, without separation." This formulation has survived as the traditional belief to the present day among almost all branches of Christendom. The East Syrian (Nestorian) church and the Oriental Orthodox Christian church disagreed with the council's decision, and split off from the rest of Christianity in the first major schism from Pauline Christianity.

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A minor, little known, statement of the Council was Canon #15: "No woman under 40 years of age is to be ordained a deacon, and then only after close scrutiny." 1 This is believed to be the last time in church history that the ordination of women was mentioned as a routine practice, until modern times.

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During the 5th century CE, various Germanic tribes invaded Rome and destroyed much of the Roman Empire. Meanwhile, the church centered in Rome successfully converted the invaders to Christianity. Authority within the church was coalescing around the Bishop of Rome in the west and the Patriarch of Constantinople in the east. Divisions between the two power centers in the Christian church gradually intensified.

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Gnostic Christianity’s membership went into a steep decline nearing the sixth century and by 553 CE: Emperor Justinian called The Second Council of Constantinople. He invited equal numbers of bishops from each of the five patriarchal sees. The Bishop of Rome, Pope Vigilius saw that many more bishops from the east than from the west would be present. He refused to attend.

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The council concentrated on the writings of three Christian leaders: Theodore of Mopsuestia, Theodoret and Ibas. All three were condemned by the council as heretics: "We observed that the pupils of Nestorius were trying to bring their heresy into the church of God by means of the heretical Theodore, bishop of Mopsuestia and his books as also by the writings of the heretical Theodoret and the disgraceful letter which is alleged to have been sent by Ibas to Mari the Persian. Our observations prompted us to correct what was happening. We assembled in this imperial city, summoned here by the will of God and the command of the most religious emperor.

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Gnostic Christianity ceased being a significant force by the 6th century. The only group to have continuously survived into modern times is the Mandaean sect of Iraq and Iran. This group currently numbers fewer than 15,000. Gnostic Christianity has been revitalized in the West and is now growing rapidly.

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The eastern and western branches of Christianity continued their process of separation. This was caused by a variety of factors:

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The Slavs invasions in the Balkans.

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The religious language in the west was Latin, while the eastern church used Greek. Bilingual theologians became increasingly rare.

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“While the intellectual thought of Eastern Christianity was driven by Greek teachers, Western Christianity came to be dominated by the teachings of Augustine of Hippo." (354 – 386 CE)

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"Although the two regions belonged to the same church, they became increasingly remote from each other." A formal split did not occur until 1054 CE when the Roman Catholic church and Eastern Orthodox churches formally separated. Although discussions are currently underway to bring the two churches into some form of unity, little progress is being made.

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Going back to the Council of Nicene, the birthday of Jesus was fixed on the 25th day of December in order to preserved the feast day of Sol Invictus and Mithra as favored to the deity of Constantine the Great. Prior to the fixing of Jesus birthday, every 25th day of December the feast of Sol Invictus, known to be the goddess of the Rising Sun, were celebrated with great jubilation. Small green branches of trees decorated with little lights were paraded. This most likely the origin of our Christmas trees. However if we shall based Jesus birth in accordance to the description of the Bible,  it should be about mid-summer. What a great cult and religious compromise that cater the likeness of Christianity and Mithraism on particular items;

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Religious Evolution

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During the period of the Twelve Tribes of the Patriarch, this Covenant was the only essence that bound them together against their common enemies for they were all desert nomads (Bedouins) spread-out through the fertile crescent. They had established their kingdom too, just later to be conquered and subjected to deportation to Babylon.

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 During their generations of exile, the only consolations and identities were to clung on Covenant that bound them together. As one can observe Jews around the World today. Lots of lost, unrecorded events and executions until the time of Henry VIII of England and onward.

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One sensational event was the imprisonment of Galileo Galilei. His only motive was to save his church from error that the Earth revolve around the Sun and not the Sun revolve around the Earth as dogma dictated on those circa. He was condemned for blasphemy. The ancient church of Santa Maria Sopra Minerva had been the stage of his punishment for it stood beside the Dominican convent used by Jesuit Priests who was the Masters of scientific teaching in Rome were Galileo’s judges. Again, one of the greatest religious ambiguity that did not escape from the judgment of history although great amount of initiatives were invested to sealed the event from public knowledge.

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Another great religious momentous was the Council of Trent on 08th day of April 1546. The Declaration of the Bible to be the "WORD OF GOD". It was the great consensus called on that particular time needed to reinforce religious faith being on the verge of collapse. However the side effects, was the propagation of different religious sects. The intangible resources and capitalism; the Word of God.

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However time evolve. These dogmas can not  sustain the suppression of truth and shall fade away on natural weariness of time and neither the fitted religious anathema can hold humanity from seeking  the coveted realism, that God came down to Earth and into the human flesh and die, just because someone had eaten the forbidden fruit. Now is the high time for humanity to depart from religious ambiguity and search  transcendent reality.

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Leaping forward to our present time, some eminent evangelists in 1909 were irate of religious rhetoric and published series of pamphlets entitled; “On Fundamentals” insisted upon to return to the basis of the Protestant faith that doctrine shall derived solely from the Bible. And this was the birth of “Fundamentalism” which most likely echoed to some Muslim Fundamentalists, based on Mohammed opening phrase when he depended his Quran to the Meccans.

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Going back to the years when this greatly contested areas was occupied by the Roman Empire, Essene Society and Qumran Monastery already existed. It was founded as School of Thoughts including Pythagoras Mathematics, Natural Science and Astronomy. The mission of which was to reconcile the World existence through the investigation of phenomena. Here, 365 days calendar was calibrated and applied hence after.

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The time when Jesus was already member of the celibate at the age of 17 years old, Essence Society became a Nationalist in character where both Pharisees and Sadducees were members. There was a disparity in the age of Jesus. During His age of 12 in the temple, the actual must be about 16 for His birthday was about 5 BC.  Religious and political issues were undertaken which greatly influenced the formation of the New Testament.  Now, if they had partially amended the Covenant for the suitability of that time, why not further amend for the essence of our generation.

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It appears in the “Dead Sea Scroll” translation that some events were not accorded to or scrapped from the translations of the New Testament.  Most likely for some sensitivities that shall harm the current dogma.

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One crucial event was the crucifixion of the three Nationalists, namely Simon Magus, Judas Escariot and Jesus, where the chronology were not fully discussed.  It appeared that only Judas died in the tomb through suffocation after taken down from the cross.  The near-death of Jesus and the later involvement in the mission. It also appears in the translation that Jesus did not experienced death in that particular moment but was revived by Simon Magus inside the tomb and was later taken to heaven and stayed there until the age of 36. Luke 24:50&51; Mathew 28:11-15 and Mark 16:42-46; Experienced those time were someone took three days to die on the cross. Heaven is the holiest place on Essene Hierarchy inside the ascetic monastery of Qumran.

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Jesus later was a shadow figure in the mission using the pseudonym “X” and Maranatha, for it was already reported in Rome that the three nationalists were executed and those relieved the political pressure. It also appears in the translation that Jesus was physically present during the Council of Ephesus in 70 AD and His last appearance was recorded in the Book of Revelation using the title “ The Lamb”. In the translation also appears that Jesus traveled with Paul to Rome. 

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The only hint of today’s theology is when Jesus declared to Peter; “ On this Rock, You will build my Church,” for Rome that time was so formidable and powerful empire, as comparison to a rock. No more was stated about Jesus but in 73 AD during the wedding of His son Jesus Justus in Rome, was accompanied by a coronation showing that his Father had died.

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Paul the Formator 

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During the time of Athanasius and Augustine, they had several sects of Christianity  Arians, Donatists, Manichaeans, some gnostics and a remnant of the original followers of Jesus and James (the Ebionites who were soon to be extinct.) The first Christianity to deify Jesus was Arianism actually invented by Shaul/Saul/Paul, but Named Arian after Bishop Arius nearly 200 years later. A Pagan cult later was founded on Jesus. It was modified by Tertullian who designed the Trinity. It qualified as Pagan through the full deification of Jesus by Athanasius and Augustine. Athanasian Trinitarianism was the one out of several Christian cults that Constantine made official.

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However, Constantine's Trinitarianism was already mostly Eastern Pagan (largely Persian with some Greek and Egyptian components). They didn't need to convert most of the eastern pagans because the new Christianity was essentially Pagan with a rather generic pagan virgin born god-man who died and resurrected. Pagans just changed his name from Aten, Horus, or Mithra to Jesus Christ and carried on business as usual.

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Still there were many Pagans of western origin and Egyptians who were slaughtered by the Imperial Troops of Theodosius I and Justinian. Non-Christian Pagan temples were either destroyed or converted into Churches. The true numbers of pagans killed is shrouded in history because it was suppressed. Records were mostly destroyed. But pockets of religious antiquity apparently survived for some centuries in rural areas. The word Pagan is from Paganus (meaning rural, rustic, or peasant.) They survived the persecutions in remote farm villages in western forested areas of the British Isles, France, Germany, Poland, and the Balkans.

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Things would have turned out differently if they had murdered every Pagan in the empire. No one knows how it would have turned out if James and the Apostles of the original faith of Jesus had not driven Paul out of Israel. But they did drive Paul out of Jerusalem. Israel stayed with the Judaic faith. Paul later constructed a Pagan Religion with parts from Judaism, Mithraism, the Cult of Sol Invictus, and Greek Philosophy that could be acceptable to the Pagans of the Empire.

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European Influence

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In Ireland, the people were easily converted by Patrick (Padraig) because he presented it in a Druidic way. Even Druids and Bards made up a large number of the first ordained Christian priests in the Celtic lands. The festivals of the Celtic faith were kept and well preserved in detail, but given Christian names. Shrines and sacred healing springs once dedicated to older goddesses were assigned to the Virgin Mary. Ceremonies to Lugh the sun god were now to Jesus. The Pagan trinity of Dagda or Aed Álainn (father), Lugh (son), and Danu or Brigit (Earth mother) by a little slight of hand was transformed into the Christian Trinity. The shamrock was already the symbol of the Celtic Pagan Trinity so it became the symbol of the new Christian Trinity. Irish Pagans already had a cross. It was a very intricately decorated cross with a central circle and interweaving matrix pattern with nature symbols. It had been in Ireland for at least 600 years before Christ.

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But it did not have the image of a corpse on it. Initially the corpse bearing Christian Crucifix was ridiculed by resistant Druid Pagans as the “Dead God.” So for centuries the Celtic Christian cross remained the old Pagan Celtic cross with no body of Christ attached. Because Ireland lay beyond the reach of the Pope, she could get away with displaying the very beautiful old cross and maintain a married clergy, until after the Norman and English conquests.

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Christianity's Pagan Inheritance:

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·        Baptism (Mithraism)

·        Eucharistic Meal of symbolic eating of God (Mithraism)

·        Saving Grace (Mithraism)

·        Mitre of Mithraic bishops adopted by Christian Bishops

·        Christmas – December 25 birthday of Jesus, Mithra, Lieu, Ligh, Hesus, Aten and Sol Invictus

·        “Sun” Day Sabbath – canceling the Judaic 7th day Sabbath

·        Spring Equinox – from Ostern Nordic festival

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Celtic Mythology and Celtic Religion

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We do know that the Celtic religion was nature based (trees, water, etc.), what Neo-Pagans now call "earth spirituality". It is thought that there were three classes of "clergy", druid, bard and ovate, with differing functions, though it's difficult to pinpoint these differences. Some feel it was a question of degree and level of training. Seership was a highly developed and a very important function. Druids not only led spiritually, but functioned as arbiters and judges. There is some evidence to suggest that the druid hierarchy spanned Celtic Europe with some archdruids (àrd-draoidh) having ultimate jurisdiction over large areas.

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These manuscripts were Irish and Welsh, with the Irish being earlier. Since this site deals with Scotland, it the Irish tradition we will discuss, as that is the mythology that went to Dal Riada along with fledging Christianity and that informs Highland folklore and customs to this day (as well as many of our own).

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The Celtic calendar was lunar based, with thirteen months. Extra days as needed were added at New Year’s as a "time between times." Their year was divided into eight segments, each with a corresponding festival. The four fire festivals take place on the last evening of a month and the following day because the Celts, like the Jews, count a day from sunset to sunset. That's why we celebrate All Hallows Eve, Midsummer's Eve and so on.

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These four “Fire Festivals” are tied to the agricultural cycle as follows;

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SAMHAIN is celebrated on October 31-November 1 (our Halloween). It is the end of the harvest, the beginning of winter and once marked the Celtic New Year. At Samhain, the barrier between our world and the Otherworld thins, allowing contacts between the spirits (faeries) and humans. Normal rules of human conduct do not apply and one may "run wild". Great bonfires are lit and participants join hands and circle the fire, or young men take blazing torches and circle (sun wise) their homes and lands to protect them from evil spirits. This was also a festival of the dead and the church was easily able to transform these holidays into All Saint's Day (November 01) and All Soul’s Day (November 02)

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IMBOLC  is celebrated February 1-2 (later transformed into CANDLEMAS by the church, and popular now as Groundhog Day). IMBOLC marked the beginning of spring, the beginning of new life (in Britain the beginning of lambing season). Dedicated to the ancient mother goddess in her maiden aspect, it was later transformed into a feast day for the Irish saint of the same name (and attributes) St. Brigid.

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BEALTAINE (BEALLTAINN in Scots Gaelic, meaning May Day), celebrated April 30-May 1. This is the third festival of the agricultural year. The myth surrounding this festival is common to many ancient pagan religions. The god, BEL (or CERNUNOS, the horned god of Ireland) dies but is reborn as the goddess' son. He then impregnates her ensuring the never-ending cycle of rebirth. This is very basic FERTILITY worship. May Day traditions includes young people picking flowers in the woods (and spending the night there), and the dance around the May Pole, weaving red (for the god) and white (for the goddess) streamers round and round. A great bonfire celebrates the return of the sun. In Ireland, the first bonfire was lit on Tara by the High King followed by all the others. On May Day itself, the Highland tradition has the entire community leading the cattle to summer pasturage, not to return until Samhain.

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LUGHNASADH (Lammas in England) is the final celebration of the agricultural year. It is the feast of the god Lugh and the first fruits of the harvest (generally wheat or corn). LUGHNASADH is celebrated August 31-September 1. In Scotland, the first stalks of corn are called "John Barleycorn", of course, and were used to make the first beer of the fall season. Now, John Barleycorn refers to that greatest of Scots drinks (many distilleries are closed for August, reopening for the fall whisky-making season on September 1). This festival, as celebrated in England, gives me the willies, reminding me of that great horror novel by Thomas Tryon, Harvest Home. At Lammas, the Corn King dies (to be reborn at spring), ensuring plenty for the winter.

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The other four holidays of the Celtic year are the Solar festivals of LIGHT. They celebrate the spring and fall equinoxes and the winter and summer solstices. Each name contains the word "Alban" meaning "Light of".  The name for ancient Scotland was Alba.

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ALBAN ARTHUAN (Light of Arthur),or ALBAN GEAMHRADH (in Scotland) like WINTER SOLSTICE celebrations all over the world, celebrates the return of the sun following the shortest day in the year. It's no wonder the church adopted these holidays as the birthdate of the Son. From ancient Celtic and Norse mythology we enjoy such holiday traditions as holly and mistletoe (sacred to the druids), the Yule log, Santa Claus in his aspects of Father Christmas or the Holly King. Supposedly, King Arthur was born on the winter solstice in Breatainn (and he, too, will come again). In Ireland and Scotland it is Lugh, the Sun God, and son of the High God Aed Álainn. Lugh is also born of a Human Virgin, much like the later story of Jesus. [And like Jesus he is to return to save the Celts.]

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Ireland celebrates Christmas much more enthusiastically than Scotland. Under the Old Christian Kirk at its strictest, Christmas was viewed as an idolatrous celebration and not observed. Today, the more secularized Scots put most of their merry-making efforts into Hogmanay, the New Year's celebration.

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The spring (vernal) equinox is celebrated as ALBAN EILEAN* (Light of the Earth). The equinoxes were considered a time of balance, not only between dark and light, but between worlds as well and, therefore, a time of high magical potential. More mundanely, this festival signified the time for spring planting and fertility rituals.

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ALBAN TRAIGH* (Light of the Shore) is celebrated as Midsummer's Day with games, picnics, and all manner of light-hearted fun. The antics of "A Midsummer Night's Dream" by Shakespeare well captures the spirit of this festival, including the interaction between our people and those of the faerie world.

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Finally, ALBAN UISGE* (Light of the Water) is observed at the autumn equinox and, like the spring equinox, is a very sacred time when the line between worlds is thin and magical possibilities abound.

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Much more seems to be known about the four fire festivals (which are still celebrated in many traditional ways) than the four solar festivals. Were the solar festivals mainly druidic sacred times in which lay participation was minimal (it would seem that some of the neo-druids have taken this view and make rather more of these dates than the Irish and Scots do)? Or could the solar celebrations pre-date druidism, belonging to the Stonehenge builders, the Tara People, and falling slowly into disuse? This seems a possibility since the Celtic calendar is lunar based, rather than solar. [Genetic markers show that the Scottish Highlanders and the Irish of West Ireland and Ulster are the major descendents of the Tara People, the Henge builders.]

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In any case, we find in Celtic mythology a strong foundation in ancient goddess (mother earth) known by different names (Sila na nGig, Danu, or Brigit.) Celtic Religion is/was a fertility religion (common throughout the ancient world.)

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It merged with the peculiar emphasis on the OTHERWORLD and its accessibility to mankind found in the druid religion. More than any other people, perhaps, the Celts live with one foot in this world and one in the other. The druid belief was that we are composed of mind, body and spirit with spirit acting as the bonding agent between body and mind, rather than an elevated or qualitatively different state of being. Similar beliefs in Christianity suggest the possibility that they were Druidic beliefs incorporated in the composite religion of Christianity.

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Thereby, we are enabled to travel between worlds, if we know how, or if we are born with the gift. Combined with the druidic belief in reincarnation, there is little fear of the Otherworld and the faerie world is simply an alternate reality, rather than a higher plane.

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There are lots of books here to choose from organized roughly from top to bottom in the areas of ancient Celtic mythology and religion, the Irish myths (I did not include the Welsh myths, as it was the Irish sagas that traveled to Scotland), and, finally, druidism.

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The subject of the old religions only take issue with the comment that Christianity was invented suddenly and thus differs from those religions that evolved with human cultures. The mechanics of Christianity in fact evolved over about 8000 years or more. It was only the name which came about more or less suddenly in the reign of Emperor Constantine. The particular patchwork religion that Constantine sanctioned was composed of many parts of older religions. The Syncretism of those Pagan Religions with a rather distorted version of Judaism into one organized state cult was rather sudden.

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But all of the components of the composite religion known as Christianity had indeed evolved over many millennia.

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Christianity is not very unique. Many religions have been constructed from bits and pieces of older religions. Christianity is only unique because it was invented in historical times when its gestation/embryology could be recorded.

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Paul was the catalyst if not inventor of early Christianity. He is a good candidate because he was a Jew. But he was no ordinary Jew. He was a "Hellenized Jew" fluent in Greek, and Aramaic. He was raised in a city called Tarsus not in Palestine. It was in Cilicia, an Indo-European region of Asia Minor, where people were mixed Luvian, Achaean Greek, Armenian, with remnants of Hittites, Cappadocian, and Macedonians. Those people all adhered to variations of the Old Indo-European Religion of 8000 BC which gave rise to Old Iranian, Zoroastrian, Old Aryan to Hinduism, Tocharian, Thracian-Cimmerian, Greek, Hittite, Roman, Illyrian, Celtic, and Germanic etc. These were polytheistic and evolved into the "Eastern  Mystery Cults” in the Eastern Roman Empire.

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The major ones in Cilicia/Tarsus were Mithraic (most men and most soldiers), Cybele (women only), Sol Invictus, Neo-Platonic, Stoicism, and the Imperial Roman Cult. There was a Jewish minority but under heavy Indo-European influence. Paul was likely more familiar with Mithraism than Judaism. But he was familiar with the Jesus Cult in Palestine, a sect of Judaism based on a Yeshua who may have lived and died during the reign of King Alexander Jannaeus before the Romans arrived on the Jerusalem scene. Yeshua taught moral principles with compassion and love deviant from the harshness of Old Judaism.

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Legend here in Ireland has it that when Padraig (Patrick) converted Ireland, he won the support of Druid by appointing them as Christian priests on the same day that they would agree to convert. Celtic Christianity for the early centuries was believed to incorporate Druid philosophy.

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Aed Álainn or Dagda became God the Father. Lugh the Son of Aed Álainn by impregnation of a human virgin, was a god-man long before Jesus, became Jesus. The Mother Goddesses Brigit, Sila na nGig, or Danu were represented at sacred springs. The Goddesses were merged into the Virgin Mary who also inherited most of the springs. Brigid held on to a few by being transformed from a Goddess into a Christian Saint. Bel the Antlered God of Ireland (Cernunnos of Britain and Gaul) the bringer of spring rebirth and protector of nature was degraded to the Christian Evil God, Satan. (BTW, Satan is in every way a god, the counterpart of the Zoroastrian Aingra Maingu or Ahriman God of Darkness. Satan/Aingra Maingu) opposes the Good God of Light Ahura Mazda (Ormuzd) or Dagda, Jupiter, and Zeus (all of whom are Father of the Gods, or Eochaidh Ollathair in Irish.)

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So while Celtic Christianity was just Druidism under a new set of names, it became Catholicism only after the Norman Conquest placed the Celtic Church under the Roman Pope's authority, in the 12th Century. It was then that Roman Catholic priestly celibacy was imposed on the Irish.

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Christianity continues to Evolve. In the Americas, it incorporated Native Mayan, Aztec, and Inca rituals and even the gods. Native American animist festivals are still celebrated today with the local parish priest taking part.

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Jesus as the Hypothetical God

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Jesus was crucified in the middle of the day or afternoon. He was taken down before sunset. It means his time on the cross may have been anywhere from one to five hours. Victims of crucifixion often lingered an agonizing death on the cross for up to three days. Death in a couple of hours is fishy.

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So he was supposedly placed in a tomb/cave much like Mithra had been placed. If sundown was 7 pm, and he was in the tomb, at that time, then he spent 5 hours on Friday, 24 hours on Saturday, and 7 hours on Sunday when he walked out. That is 36 hours. Three days, or Three nights is misleading. The number three was picked because it is a magic number and applied to Jonah, Mithra, Apollonius, and most of the other virgin born god-man resurrecting redeemers.

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If the couple hours on the cross produced hypoxia, and brain ischaemia, with acidosis so severe as to kill Jesus then we have a different scenario. He may have dropped his blood pressure so low or suffered cardiac arrest to lose consciousness. In this case his brain was getting no oxygen and no blood flow. He not only had anoxia. He had lack of blood perfusion with O2 and glucose. There was no venous blood removing CO2 and other toxins of metabolism. The build-up of neurotransmitter amines and glutamate plus the destruction of calcium channels in the neurons led to Calcium influx, potassium out flux, water permeation and cell swelling and bursting.

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After a couple hours in this severe state the neuronal nuclei would break up. Mitochondria would burst and cease cellular metabolism. Swelling cells would rupture. In a few more hours his brain, axons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes would necrose. His capillary network would fragment with clots in the stasis of blood flow.

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Then the brain would turn into a semi-liquid mush. All fibre circuits would be erased. All memories, language functions, learned motor skills (walking), cognitive processing, emotional circuits, vision, hearing, and autonomic regulation. That rather multi-modal autonomic network would control temperature regulation, sweating, cardiac rate regulation, blood pressure control systems, sexual accessory sequence programmes, and the conscious on-off ARAS switch. All of this would have already been lost.

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In such a body, the necrotic brain can produce no electrical saltatory transmission. No synapses would be left anyway. This is "Brain Death" which are compelled to determine to my great sadness in patients about once per week. Once true Brain Death is determined by:

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1.      Loss of pupillary reflexes;

2.      Loss of reflexive eye movements (Doll’s eyes and caloric responses);

3.      Loss of corneal responses;

4.      Absence of any spontaneous breathing trigger with measured hypoxial hypercabia;

5.      Loss of patterned motor responses (flaccid paralysis);

6.      Flat lined EEG done twice 24 hours apart, or non-flow on MRAngiography;

7.      In the 24-hour period, blood tests showing zero sedative drug levels;

8.      Then that is the final form of death, irreversible Brain Death/necrosis.

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None have ever recovered if all 8 criteria are met, in multiple different studies. Since there are no shortages of people dying, the numbers in studies summated are 5 digits. Unfortunately the gospel writers never mentioned the following;

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1.      No one noted a carotid, radial or femoral pulse of Jesus;

2.      No one noted pupillary reactions, (size, symmetry, light and accommodation);

3.      No one noted his ocular motor reflexes (Doll’s eye, Cold water calorics);

4.      No one checked his patterned motor responses that may persist in some reversible comas;

5.      No one recorded total flaccid paralysis, decerebrate or decorticate rigidity, myoclonus;

6.      No one noted listening to his heart according to the gospels;

7.      No one noted listening to his lungs with an ear or stethoscope;

8.      No one oted presence or absence of corneal reflexes;

9.      No one noted muscle tone.

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Naturally no EEG was done. So we don’t know if he was flat-lined. All of the above minus the EEG are very specific easy tests for brain death. Roman soldiers may have known those reactions, especially their medics.

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So we can’t say with certainty if he died…on the cross or later of senile dementia or other cause. Until very recent times and in many substandard medical care facilities, determinations of death or brain death prove to be incorrect when the patient awakens screaming in the Morgue. Did Jesus actually die based on the written narrative? We may never know. And if did not die, the rest of the story would be different. There would not have been a resurrection. It would have be recovery from reversible coma not death. And we would be celebrating Mithra’s birth on December 25, as Mithramas.

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So if Jesus really died, and was dead 36 or 39 hours, his brain was a featureless mush. No blood flow meant no oxygen, no removal of glutamate, no prevention of open Calcium ion channels, and no maintenance of membrane stability of neurones. Then apoptosis (cell death) occurred. There was nothing with which to activate the cortex for consciousness, no perception, no awareness, no vision, no hearing, no tactile sensation, no motor neuronal firing along axons to activate muscles, no circuits to think, or circuits to talk. There would be no neurons, no axons, and no synapses to transmit data.

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To truly resurrect as the person Jesus, his entire brain would have to be remade from scratch with intact neurons, axons, myelin sheathes, synapses, ample concentrations of neurotransmitters at pre-synaptic nerve endings, and normal transmitter receptors on healthy dendrites of neurons. The new brain would have to be an exact copy of his original brain down to each synapse in the right place. And the trillions of circuits (and million billion synapses) of the individual person would have to be exactly re-duplicated in the pre-death patterns. His entire life memories would have to be reinstalled into the circuitry of his brain, the most complex computer in history.

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That has never been known to occur. One must postulate very special magic, and magic has yet to be proven to exist. The burden of proof that Jesus died and resurrected is on the person making that extraordinary implausible claim. What is the proof that he died? Nobody did even a superficial cursory neurological exam. And how can they explain the rewiring of the most complex computer ever known aside from magic.

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So a truly dead Jesus resurrecting would not be possible outside of the realm of fantastic magic and fantasy thinking. Believers would say nothing is impossible with the excuse...miracles (i.e. magic). But that is unprovable. Magic is a cop out when one cannot explain the impossible. It is trying to explain the impossible with the unknown.

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So either Jesus died end of story; or he awoke from transient shock-trauma coma (not a true resurrection from the dead.) But we can't have both. And we will never know.

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Option 1. Jesus died in on the cross, brain liquidified, and there could have been no resurrection.

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Option 2. Jesus didn't die on the cross, but recovered lying in the tomb and awoke from transient coma, to some day die of some other natural cause such as Old age in India (one story)

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Option 3. Jesus didn't exist in real life. He was a fictional hero of the Joseph Campbell variety. His life was founded on the virgin birth, god-man, redeemers who died and resurrected in 16 older Pagan cults. Paul, and other Church Fathers superimposed the personality of Melchizcedek to satisfied the supposed coming of the redeemer or simply infused with Mithraism, consciously or unconsciously absorbed Mithra's biography for the fictional Jesus.

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Rationale

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Even Jesus had not substantiated the true description of God (where, what, how & when was the true origin) - in the sense that future generation shall no longer argue its ambiguous description. He left us open and circular phrases as the battle cry of religion. And unfortunately, was the free for all interpretation of later generations. Some entities had more influenced and authority (anathema) over the others and had the sole accessed in literature and later the formation of the most ambiguous faith back-up by literary heresy integrated in some lines of the bible. Truly ... it was the later generation intervention that strengthened the ambiguous belief. If Jesus of Nazareth was truly God as Christian had conceived ... World had no chaos today.

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The point is, God has the qualities that Man doesn't have . . . qualities that Man himself knows he cannot have . . .omnipotence, omniscience et al.
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Man dies. But he fears death and wants to live longer, he then created God in order for him to look up to something after death. God now is immortal.
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Man cannot do everything. He feels inadequate he cannot fulfill bigger tasks, he then created God so that he can let God do the 'impossible' things for him. God now is omnipotent.
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Man (so far) cannot understand everything. He thinks he cannot explain everything around him, he then created God so that he can get short-cut answers to his inquiries. God now is omniscient.
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Man is alone. He distrusts his fellow for they've done awful things to him, he then made God his companion and he won't be needing anyone anymore. He also wants God to watch over him wherever he is. God now is selfless and omnipresent.
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God is Man's model. It has become so powerful that he fears his creation already. So in order for him to get everybody else to appreciate his creation, God had 'perfect human qualities' -- sincere, loving, faithful et al. No one should want to praise a frightening God right?  Now it has become Man's perfect model to emulate.
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God is the manifestation of Man's need for perfection. He created God to compensate his flaws.

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THE QURAN

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Mohammed on his prime was a noted merchant in Mecca and it was not his motive to propagate another version of religion nor to establish a system of governance but his desert experiences in caravan trading urged him to formulate sort of moral ascendancy to guide Nomads on the Basic Principle of Righteousness.  Fear should motivate those desert menace to minimized if not eliminated harassment to the caravan trades. Indeed the motivation was socioeconomic sustainability of their community. Something has to be done until he adopted the Essene Principle of Righteousness and Pacifism. In year 610 AD declared that he was the new prophet given a God message through Archangel Gabriel.

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When Meccans challenged Mohammed to perform miracle as proof of his divine mission, his defense; He appealed boldly that the book taking shape on his supervision to be so wonderful works expressing profound and majestic of religious truth. Surely, had not written by a mere man as himself for he was unlettered but a miracle that had came down from heaven. Like Jesus, Mohammed practiced the utterance of guarded words and Quran most likely is a slight slip from Qumran and in acknowledgement of his Essene tutor and further more Kaba (stone of Makkah) came from the Hebrew root word of Kaballah, meaning to receive or to accept the doctrine. Allah is the suffix of Kaballah thus combine meaning is the “Acceptance of Doctrine”.  Or Alaha as god in Hebrew. This simply shows that thoughts of Old Testament (the Torah) have no distant difference.

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During his initial preaching in 622 AD, was chased by Meccan tribes and took refuge in Medina where he lived with Jewish community.  Mustering strength in 630 AD, conquered Mecca where he established his domain. Also around those period that he motivated Jihad to boost the moral of his people in depending his good cause. 

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After His death in 632 AD, his friend Abu Bekr succeeded him and organized the records properly and were transcribed. At about 650 AD, a fresh version was prepared and regarded as the canonical virtue. Three copies were made integrating guidelines for traditional governance and sent each to Damascus, Basrah and Kupa. The original was preserved in the Mosque at Medina where Mohammed was buried. Again some disparity of adapting calendar for Mohammed had obtained the old copy of the Essene Scroll prior to the calibration of a factual calendar – an ego that failed to rationalize. There is no reason to doubt that indeed Quran posses excellent and wonderful verses.

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Most likely, the promoters of the present suicide bombers (or in plain language the assassins) are rigorist who take advantage to hide themselves on religion and to inject anathema to move people and exploit the primitiveness of knowledge for the satisfaction of their designed greed.

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This strategy is a reckoning of the 12th century when Muslim was divided into Orthodox Sunnites, who were the followers of Prophet Mohammed and the Unorthodox Shiites who only accepted the earthly rule of the Prophet descendants.

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Some Shiites further branched to Ismailites where Hassan Ben Sabban after so many oddities traveling around promoting Ismailism reach Daylam, part of Persia southern highland adjacent to the Caspian Sea. Atop the two thousand meters rock in Elburr Mountain, he found the castle of Alamut, which were the refuges of the independent Shiites.

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Here he installed himself the Chief or the Sheik, choosing Sheik Al Jebal, literally translated as the old man of the mountains (similar to present day Osama) that instilled respect amongst his men and terrorized his opponents. After him came the three Dai-Al Kirbal or the summoner and then the Dai’s as missionaries who went out to conduct recruitment, the Fidas or the devoted ones were the predecessor of Fadayeen and later the Al Queda terrorists on Middle East during the closing of 20th   and  beginning of 21st  century.  Below them were the Lasiks or the masses that were used for menial works (and now sources of suicide bomber recruits) but knew nothing of the upper echelons.

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It was undoubtedly a genius organization as shown in the manner on how Hassan took over the castle and from this vantage location, he sent out his missionaries to surrounding villages to convert inhabitants into Ismailism while housing his recruits around the castle. Exotic chambers and gardens were created at Alamut where neophytes were catered and thought about paradise. Dancing girls and musical instruments entertained the new comers and hashish were served to provide great satisfaction.

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Novitiates have ultimate sensual pleasure, which now controlled their wellbeing and then brought to the sheik with assurance of eternal pleasure in paradise and would repay implicit and blind obedience. The drugged youths underwent brainstorming sessions after sessions and with great emphasized of the word … KILL! … KILL! … KILL!  After their minds were under controlled, graduated with a golden dagger. So the hashish or hashasin eaters gave their name as Assassins, which later our dictionaries adapted the word.

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Hassan exploited the blind obedience of those assassins to the outmost satisfaction of his greed. On his reign, whoever ran against his teaching of Ismailism was assassinated. And now on our modern times, bombs instead of golden daggers are use but the same paradise and religious anathema and motivations are being employed in obtaining blind obedience to the “Unlucky Recruits”.

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Now, to rationalize the true motive of the above, can they qualify to be called Muslim? Muslim is a teaching of Islam and Islam is peace. This is the true motive of Prophet Mohammed (Peace be upon Him) when preaching righteousness amongst the nomadic tribes. Or are we dealing with “Designed Greed”.

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It appears now that some quarters inclined on the Fundamentalism of Ismailite and hence Ismailism had departed from the principle of Shiite dogma where Shiite had also deviated from the original Sunnite that was the Orthodox Muslim where Islam is the sole teaching. The general feeling therefore, that true sense of Fundamentalist does not belong anymore to Islam but just keep on using Muslim as their cover and protection to pursue their designed greed. They have to use genius and all drastic means to endeavor their “WILL” to the world inhabitants as had Hassan Ben Sabban, the self-proclaimed sheik has done to took-over the Castle of Alamut for the foundation of Ismailite Doctrine with the used of his Assassins.

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Malcolm X a.k.a.  El Hajj Malik El Shabazz quoted before his death on February 21, 1965 and it quote: “ I did many things as Muslim that I am sorry now.  I was a zombie then - like all rigorist Muslims – I was hypnotized, pointed in a certain direction and told to march. Well, I guess a man is entitled to make a fool of himself if he’s ready to pay the price. It cost me twelve years in limbo and a death warrant.

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The next day while standing at the rostrum of Audubon Ballroom on speaking engagement, was assassinated at 1:30 post meridian in Harlem, New York.

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Commentary to All Gods

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Where is the graveyard of dead gods? What lingering mourner waters their mounds?

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There was a time when Jupiter was the king of the gods, and any man who doubted his puissance was “ipso facto” a barbarian and an ignoramus. But where in all the world is there a man who worships Jupiter today?

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And who was Huitzilopochtli?  In one year - and it is no more than five hundred years ago - 50,000 youths and maidens were slain in sacrifice to him. Today, if he is remembered at all, it is only by some vagrant savage in the depths of the Mexican forest.

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Huitzilopochtli, like many other gods, had no human father; his mother was a virtuous widow; he was born of an apparently innocent flirtation that she carried out with the sun. When he frowned, his father, the sun, stood still. When he roared with rage, earthquakes engulfed whole cities. When he thirsted he was watered with 10,000 gallons of human blood. But today Huitzilopochtli is as magnificently forgotten as the dear departed Allen G. Thurman.

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Once the peer of Allah, Buddha and Wotan, he is now the peer of Richmond Hobson, Alton B. Parker, Adelina Patti, General Weyler and Tom Sharkey.

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Speaking of Huitzilopochtli recalls his brother Tezcatlipoca was almost as powerful; he consumed 25,000 virgins a year. Lead me to his tomb and I would weep, and hang a “couronne des perles”. But who knows where it is? Or where the grave of Quitzalcoatl is? Or Xiehtecuthli? Or Centeotl, that sweet one? Or Tlazolteotl, the goddess of love? Or Mictlan? Or Xipe? Or all the host of Tzitzimitles?  Where are their bones?

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Where is the willow on which they hung their harps? In what forlorn and unheard-of hell do they await their resurrection morn? Who enjoys their residuary estates? Or that of Dis, whom Caesar found to be the chief god of the Celts? Of that of Tarves, the bull? Or that of Moccos, the pig? Or that of Epona, the mare? Or that of Mullo, the celestial jackass? There was a time when the Irish revered all those gods, but today even the drunkest Irishman laughs at them.

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But they have company in oblivion: the hell of dead gods is as crowded as the Presbyterian Hell for babies.

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Damona is there,  Esus and Drunemeton, Silvana and Dervones, Adsalluta and Deva, Belisima, and Uxellimus,  Borvo, Mogons and Grannos, All mighty gods in their days, worshipped by millions, full of demands and impositions, able to bind and loose - all gods of the first class. Men labored for generations to build vast temples to them – temples with stones as large as cars and mini-bus.

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The business of interpreting their whims occupied thousands of priests, bishops, archbishops  To doubt them was to die, usually at the stake.

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Armies took to the field to defend them against infidels; villages were burned, women and children butchered, cattle were driven off. Yet in the end, they all withered and died. And today there is none so poor to do them reverence.

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What was became of Sutekh, once the high god of the whole Nile Valley? What has become of Resheph, Baal, Anath, Astarte, Ashtoreth, Hadad, Nebo, Dagon, Melek, Yau, Ahijah, Amon-Re, Isis, Osiris, Ptah and Molech and other gods?

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All were gods of the highest eminence. Many of them are mentioned with fear and trembling in the Old Testament. They ranked, five or six thousand years ago, with Yahweh Himself; the worst of them stood far higher than Thor, yet they all gone down to the chute and with them all the following; 

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Arianrod,  Nuada, Argetlam, Morrigu, Tagd, Govannon, Goibniu, Gunfled, Dagda, Odin, Ogma, Ogryvan, Marzin, Dea Dia, Mara, Iuno, Lucina, Diana of Ephesus with the luminous face, Saturn, Robigus, Furrina, Pluto, Cronos, Vesta, Engurra, Zer-panitu, Belus, Merodach, Ubilulu, Elum, U-dimmer-an-kia with his mighty guard, U-sab-sib, U-Mersi, Marduk, Nin, Persephone, Tammuz, Istar, Venus, Lagas, Beltis, Nirig, Nusku, En-Mersi, Aa, Assur, Sin, Beltu, Apsu, Kushi-banda, Elali, Nin-azu, Mami, Qarradu, Zaraqu, Ueras and Zagaga.

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Ask the rectors to lend you any good book on comparative religion; you will find them all listed. They were gods of the highest dignity - gods of civilized peoples -  worshipped and believed in by millions.

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All were omnipotent, omniscient and immortal. And all were dead and unknown today.

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In Search of Reality

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The word religion - derived from the Greek root word; relig – meaning to tie.  Religion is a traditional belief that evolved from multiple generations of cults and was handed down to our generation in a  civilize approach. It was established by the general consensus to move primitive people, a moral whose driving force is social feeling, a dogma fitted with anathema without considering logical intelligence. In a general layman’s point of view;  is  a cockerel that thinks he has to crow at dawn so that the sun will shine again. Religion is versed in the game of mystic and fantasy, to cater the fears of human. It established the common belief of life after death,  however there has never been a shred of evidence that such exist. The only reason why it continue to flourish because it keep humanity aware and happy in dying.

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The general belief of the great rational majority is that; something must be done to clip religion into the “Proper Sphere of Creed” in order to overthrow the uncertainty of ages and to acquire transcendental reality -- based on true and universal accepted doctrine.

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Rigorous assumptions and hearsay of the past are no longer binding to our current generations.

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It is a cool irony about the world today, that United Nations had the Committee of Decolonization (C24) for just a very few parcels on Earth and can not propose to create a Committee to decolonize the world from religious ambiguity and fear.

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It should be one of the main duty of the United Nations to initiate and create a Committee for Religious Enlightenment and Unified Faith, that better understanding between Peoples is absolutely necessary for the future and science could help to bring this about.

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It is the moral obligation of United Nations to initiate and move on. Two decades has been allocated to the Committee of Decolonization. Try to visualize the positive effect on two decades of Transcendental Reality Development and Enlightenment if the Member-Nations shall give the sincerity to propagate peaceful coexistence and religious understanding. Surely, most hard liners and old rigorist conservatives shall past away with their classical dogma and learned-rational generation with open minds shall manage to workout the feasible and viable consensus accordingly to the naked truth.

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We shall know a little more, but the real nature of things can be proven by science. If not our time, most likely the next generation or the future mankind. Now on the age of tumultuous social change, we all need the unbiased truth. Why succumb and cuddle uncertainties? Just because for the self-interest of the few? Why not share the reality to mankind and live in peace? Or most likely, frightened by the consequences that may occur if sudden truth prevail. Then why not propose a viable consensus on how to bring about the real truth. Although damages may occur along the way, but let the interim-process and broadness minimize the effect. We have to remember that “Truth will set us Free”