Selected publications by GBI members

The following are selected publications by researchers and board members of the GBI, mostly dating from before the institute was created. For our most recent work, check the Working Papers. For recommended publications by other authors, check the Bibliography.

Bollen, J., & Heylighen, F. (1996). Algorithms for the self-organization of distributed, multi-user networks. Possible application to the future world wide web. In R. Trappl (Ed.), Cybernetics and Systems ’96 (pp. 911–916). Austrian Society For Cybernetics.

Bollen, J., & Heylighen, F. (1998). A system to restructure hypertext networks into valid user models. New Review of HyperMedia and Multimedia, 4(1), 189–213.

Bollen, Johan, Mao, H., & Zeng, X. (2011). Twitter mood predicts the stock market. Journal of Computational Science, 2(1), 1–8. doi:10.1016/j.jocs.2010.12.007

Bollen, Johan, Van de Sompel, H., Hagberg, A., Bettencourt, L., Chute, R., Rodriguez, M. A., Balakireva, L., et al. (2009). Clickstream Data Yields High-Resolution Maps of Science. PLoS ONE, 4, e4803. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004803

de Rosnay, J. (1979). The Macroscope: a New World Scientific System. Harper & Row.

de Rosnay, J. (2000). The Symbiotic Man: A new understanding of the organization of life and a vision of the future. McGraw-Hill Companies.

de Rosnay, J., & Revelli, C. (2006). La Révolte Du Pronétariat. Librairie Arthèmes Fayard.

de Rosnay, Joël. (1988). Le Cerveau Planétaire. Points. Paris: Seuil.

Gershenson, C. (2008). Towards Self-organizing Bureaucracies. International Journal of Public Information Systems, 1, 1–24.

Gershenson, C. (2011). Epidemiology and social networks. Cirugia y Cirujanos, 79, 199–200.

Gershenson, Carlos. (2011). Self-Organization Leads to Supraoptimal Performance in Public Transportation Systems. PLoS ONE, 6(6), e21469. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021469

Gershenson, Carlos, & Heylighen, F. (2004). Protocol Requirements for Self-organizing Artifacts: Towards an Ambient Intelligence. Computing Research Repository, nlin.AO/04.

Goertzel, B. (1993). The structure of intelligence: A new mathematical model of mind. Springer.

Goertzel, B. (2002). Creating Internet Intelligence: Wild computing, distributed digital consciousness, and the emerging global brain. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.

Goertzel, B. (2009). Cognitive synergy: A universal principle for feasible general intelligence. Cognitive Informatics, 2009. ICCI’09. 8th IEEE International Conference on (pp. 464–468).

Goertzel, B., & Pennachin, C. (2007). Artificial General Intelligence. Springer Verlag.

Hart, D., & Goertzel, B. (2008). Opencog: A software framework for integrative artificial general intelligence. Frontiers in Artificial In℡ligence and Applications, 171, 468.

Heylighen, F. (1997a). The economy as a distributed, learning control system. Communication & Cognition-AI, 13(2/3), 207–24.

Heylighen, F. (1997b). Towards a global brain: integrating individuals into the world-wide electronic network. Der Sinn der Sinne (pp. 302–318.). Göttingen: Steidl Verlag.

Heylighen, F. (1999). Collective Intelligence and its Implementation on the Web: algorithms to develop a collective mental map. Computational & Mathematical Organization Theory, 5(3), 253–280. doi:10.1023/A:1009690407292

Heylighen, F. (2001). Mining Associative Meanings from the Web: from word disambiguation to the global brain. Proceedings of Trends in Special Language and Language Technology.

Heylighen, F. (2002). The global brain as a new utopia. Zukunftsfiguren. Suhrkamp, Frankurt.

Heylighen, F. (2007a). The Global Superorganism: an evolutionary-cybernetic model of the emerging network society. Social Evolution & History, 6(1), 58–119.

Heylighen, F. (2007b). Why is Open Access Development so Successful? Stigmergic organization and the economics of information. In B. Lutterbeck, M. Baerwolff & R. A. Gehring (Ed.), Open Source Jahrbuch 2007 (pp. 165–180). Lehmanns Media.

Heylighen, F. (2008). Accelerating socio-technological evolution: from ephemeralization and stigmergy to the global brain. Globalization as evolutionary process: modeling global change (Vol. 10, p. 284).

Heylighen, F. (2011). Conceptions of a Global Brain: an historical review. Evolution: Cosmic, Biological, and Social, eds. Grinin, L. E., Carneiro, R. L., Korotayev A. V., Spier F. (pp. 274 – 289). Uchitel Publishing.

Heylighen, F. (2012). Self-organization in Communicating Groups: the emergence of coordination, shared references and collective intelligence. Language and Complexity. Barcelona University Press.

Heylighen F., Kostov I. and Kiemen M. (2013). Mobilization Systems: technologies for motivating and coordinating human action, in: Routledge Handbook on Knowledge Economy, Education and Digital Futures, eds: Peters M. A., Besley T. and Araya D., (Routledge)

Heylighen, F., & Bollen, J. (1996). The World-Wide Web as a Super-Brain: from metaphor to model. In R. Trappl (Ed.), Cybernetics and Systems’ 96. Austrian Society For Cybernetics.

Heylighen, F., & Joslyn, C. (1993). Electronic networking for philosophical development in the Principia Cybernetica Project. Informatica, 17(3), 285–293.

Heylighen, Francis. (2001). The First Global Brain Workshop: From Intelligent Networks to the Global Brain, Evolutionary Social Organization through Knowledge Technology. Retrieved from

Heylighen, Francis, & Bollen, J. (2002). Hebbian Algorithms for a Digital Library Recommendation System (p. 439). Los Alamitos, CA, USA: IEEE Computer Society. doi:10.1109/ICPPW.2002.1039763

Johnson, N. L., Rasmussen, S., Joslyn, C., Rocha, L., Smith, S., & Kantor, M. (1998). Symbiotic Intelligence: self-organizing knowledge on distributed networks driven by human interaction. Artificial Life VI, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Artificial Life (pp. 403–407).

Joslyn, C., & Rocha, L. M. (2000). Towards semiotic agent-based models of socio-technical organizations. Proc. AI, Simulation and Planning in High Autonomy Systems (AIS 2000) Conference, Tucson, Arizona (pp. 70–79).

Looks, M., Goertzel, B., & Pennachin, C. (2004). Novamente: An integrative architecture for general intelligence. AAAI fall symposium, achieving human-level intelligence.

Rodriguez, M.A. (2005). Advances towards a general-purpose societal-scale human-collective problem-solving engine. IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 2004 (Vol. 1, pp. 206–211).

Rodriguez, M.A. (2007). Social decision making with multi-relational networks and grammar-based particle swarms. System Sciences, 2007. HICSS 2007. 40th Annual Hawaii International Conference on (p. 39).

Rodriguez, M.A. (2008). Grammar-Based Random Walkers in Semantic Networks. Knowledge-Based Systems, 21(7), 727–739.

Rodriguez, Marko A. (2010). General-Purpose Computing on a Semantic Network Substrate. In Y. Badr, R. Chbeir, A. Abraham, & A.-E. Hassanien (Eds.), Emergent Web Intelligence: Advanced Semantic Technologies (pp. 57–102). London: Springer London.

Rodriguez, Marko A., Steinbock, D. J., Watkins, J. H., Gershenson, C., Bollen, J., Grey, V., & deGraf, B. (2007). Smartocracy: Social Networks for Collective Decision Making (p. 90b). Los Alamitos, CA, USA: IEEE Computer Society. doi:

Van Overwalle, F., & Heylighen, F. (2006). Talking Nets: A Multiagent Connectionist Approach to Communication and Trust Between Individuals. Psychological Review, 113(3), 606.

Watkins, J., & Rodriguez, M. (2008). A Survey of Web-based Collective Decision Making Systems. Evolution of the Web in Artificial Intelligence Environments, Studies in Computational Intelligence (pp. 245–279). Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-79140-9_11