Scanning Probe Microscopy Images

Atomic Force Microscopy

Insulin amyloid fibers on mica, AFM height image:


Diatom frustule, AFM height:


Diatom girdle band, AFM height:


Fibroblast on glass in serum-free medium, AFM deflection:


Vascular smooth muscle cell on collagen-coated glass in serum-free medium, AFM deflection overlay onto height image:




Piezoresponse Force Microscopy

M. luteus on poly-L-lysine-coated mica in Millipore-grade water, PFM amplitude overlay onto AFM height image:


M. luteus on poly-L-lysine-coated mica in Millipore-grade water, BEPFM amplitude:


E. coli dried in air on poly-L-lysine-coated glass, PFM phase:


S. cerevisiae in air, PFM phase overlay onto AFM height image:

I used piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) and band excitation piezoresponse force microscopy (BE-PFM) to map electromechanical responses of biological systems for my graduate research from 2006 to 2011. Protein fibers, shells of algae, yeast, bacteria and living mammalian cells were imaged. In liquid, image formation is predominated by electromechanical coupling in the double layers associated with the hydrated surfaces of amyloid protein fibers, sugar crystals in yeast cultures, and outer membranes of bacteria. Some of the unique yet unpublished images that I acquired during my research are shown here. 
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