Strategies for Close Reading

Close reading consists of several strategies.  All strategies can help you gain more insight into a literary work.  Try each strategy in any order.
1.  Make predictions as you read.
2.  Reread the text.
3.  Test the text against your own experiences.
4.  Look for patterns in the text and disruptions of them.
5.  Note ambiguities.
6.  Consider the author's alternatives.
7.  Ask Questions.
8.  Jot down possible answers, make notes of key passages, talk to the text, look away from the text and write down what you remember,  freewrite about the text for ten minutes, list various details, images, characters  and events that strike you as important, rearrange the text by revising it.

Close reading – Checklist

The author’s choice of individual words – which might vary from plain and simple to complex and ‘literary’.

The arrangement of words in sentences. Often used for emphasis or dramatic effect.

Figures of speech
The rhetorical devices used to give decoration and imaginative expression to literature, such as simile, metaphor, puns, alliteration, and irony.

Literary devices
The devices commonly used in literature to give added depth to the work, such as imagery or symbolism.

The cadence or flow of words and phrases – including stress and repetition.

Ask yourself, who is telling the story.

Narrative mode
First or third person narrator. (‘I am going to tell you …’ or ‘He left the room in a hurry’)

Point of view
The perspective from which the events of the story are related.

How a character is created or depicted.

How any dramatic elements of a piece of work are created and arranged.

How the elements of the story are arranged.

The author’s attitude to the subject as revealed in the manner of the writing

The shape of the piece of work, or the connection between its parts.

The underlying topic or issue, as distinct from the overt story.

Close Reading of a Literary Passage

To do a close reading, you choose a specific passage and analyze it in fine detail, as if with a magnifying glass. You then comment on points of style and on your reactions as a reader. Close reading is important because it is the building block for larger analysis. Your thoughts evolve not from someone else's truth about the reading, but from your own observations. The more closely you can observe, the more original and exact your ideas will be. To begin your close reading, ask yourself several specific questions about the passage. The following questions are not a formula, but a starting point for your own thoughts. When you arrive at some answers, you are ready to organize and write. You should organize your close reading like any other kind of essay, paragraph by paragraph, but you can arrange it any way you like.

I. First Impressions:
  • What is the first thing you notice about the passage?
  • What is the second thing?
  • Do the two things you noticed complement each other? Or contradict each other?
  • What mood does the passage create in you? Why?
II. Vocabulary and Diction:
  • Which words do you notice first? Why? What is noteworthy about this diction?
  • How do the important words relate to one another?
  • Do any words seem oddly used to you? Why?
  • Do any words have double meanings? Do they have extra connotations?
  • Look up any unfamiliar words. For a pre-20th century text, look in the Oxford English Dictionary for possible outdated meanings. (TheOED can only be accessed by students with a subscription or from a library computer that has a subscription. Otherwise, you should find a copy in the local library.)
III. Discerning Patterns:
  • Does an image here remind you of an image elsewhere in the book? Where? What's the connection?
  • How might this image fit into the pattern of the book as a whole?
  • Could this passage symbolize the entire work? Could this passage serve as a microcosm--a little picture--of what's taking place in the whole work?
  • What is the sentence rhythm like? Short and choppy? Long and flowing? Does it build on itself or stay at an even pace? What is the stylelike?
  • Look at the punctuation. Is there anything unusual about it?
  • Is there any repetition within the passage? What is the effect of that repetition?
  • How many types of writing are in the passage? (For example, narration, description, argument, dialogue, rhymed or alliterative poetry, etc.)
  • Can you identify paradoxes in the author's thought or subject?
  • What is left out or kept silent? What would you expect the author to talk about that the author avoided?
IV. Point of View and Characterization:
  • How does the passage make us react or think about any characters or events within the narrative?
  • Are there colors, sounds, physical description that appeals to the senses? Does this imagery form a pattern? Why might the author have chosen that color, sound or physical description?
  • Who speaks in the passage? To whom does he or she speak? Does the narrator have a limited or partial point of view? Or does the narrator appear to be omniscient, and he knows things the characters couldn't possibly know? (For example, omniscient narrators might mention future historical events, events taking place "off stage," the thoughts and feelings of multiple characters, and so on).
V. Symbolism:
  • Are there metaphors? What kinds?
  • Is there one controlling metaphor? If not, how many different metaphors are there, and in what order do they occur? How might that be significant?
  • How might objects represent something else?
  • Do any of the objects, colors, animals, or plants appearing in the passage have traditional connotations or meaning? What about religious or biblical significance?
  • If there are multiple symbols in the work, could we read the entire passage as having allegorical meaning beyond the literal level?



This reading journal is designed to enable students to become familiar with, and comfortable using, the terms applied to the resources of language and related stylistic devices of literature, and to become proficient at analyzing their various effects on tone, theme, rhetoric, and pacing.


Respond to each of the four questions on the next page labeled: Tone, Theme, Rhetoric, and Pacing. Prepare the entry on loose-leaf notebook paper, dividing the page into quarters. In each left-hand box: label and copy the text excerpt you are using as evidence; then, label and list the specific stylistic devices exhibited in the text; then, label and write an assertion, proving the use of these specific stylistic devices in the text. In each right-hand box, label, adapt, and write each question relating to tone, theme, rhetoric, or pacing by modifying the underlined passage (specify the resource[s] of languageSPADITALS, and insert identifying information from the text); then, label and write a full answer.

(Use the following questions as jumping-off points leading to interpretation based on the resources of language.)

S tructure

What are the various parts of this passage? Are there oppositions or contrasts? Are there

repetitive elements? How strongly do these considerations affect interpretation?

P oint of View

What is the effect of the narrative technique being used? How reliable is it? Why might

propaganda be at use? Is there a subjective or objective tone that is prevalent?

A ppeals

Are there strong appeals to emotions, logic, or ethics (either the writer’s or the reader’s)? What are

the effects of these different appeals?

D iction

What does word choice reveal in the way of emotions? To what effect are sound effects used?

Are there contrasts in word choice? How precise or vague is the writer being?

I ronies

What irony is revealed in the text? What reaction does the ironic situation generate? In what ways

are character, plot, and overall meaning affected?

T echniques

What is striking, unusual, predictable, idiosyncratic, hackneyed, or conventional about the writer’s

literary techniques, conventions, or thinking processes?

A mbiguities

Are there any places where the work raises questions? What does a word or phrase mean? For what might certain symbols stand? What are alternative ways of interpreting a character? Are there different ways the speaker views a situation? What are multiple ways of reading the conclusion? What kinds of opposition of “worlds” (e.g., good vs. evil) are evident? What different ideas might comprise the writer’s main subject?

L anguage (Figurative)

What are the distinguishing qualities of the figurative language that characterize this work? To

what effect is it used? What unique uses of language are evident?

S yntax

How does sentence structure generate meaning? What repetitive elements emerge? How is rhythm generated by the order of words? What is the effect of the rhythm?

Questions based on language used by Dr. Jack Stillinger, University of Illinois, 1995.

Tone: What does/do the resource(s) of language reveal about the speaker's attitude toward the subject and/or the audience?

Theme: How does/do the resource(s) of language contribute to conveying the underlying meaning of the selection or the position (thesis) the speaker takes?

Rhetoric: What effect does/do the resource(s) of language have on the speaker's attempt to involve/persuade the audience?

Pacing: How does/do the resource(s) of language contribute to variation in the pace of the writing, and how does this shift/progression affect tone, theme, or rhetoric?

(Note: Each part of the acronym, SPADITALS, represents a broad category often termed “a resource of language.”)

S tructure

plot (include donée, setting, characterization) order/organization of ideas based on purpose and mode verse patterns and any deviations
genre/literary form

P oint of view

narrative techniques (include first-person/participant..., third-person/non-participant...) second-person forms of address
objective vs. subjective

A ppeals

rhetorical appeals (ethos, pathos, logos), plausibility, relevance

D iction

language, denotation/connotation, concrete/abstract, monosyllabic/polysyllabic, title, synonym/antonym, assonance/consonance, cacophony(dissonance)/euphony, jargon, malapropism, pun, onomatopoeia, oxymoron, alliteration, rhyme, dialect, colloquialism

I rony

verbal, situational, dramatic

T echniques

allegory, allusion, alter ego, amplification, anachronism, anecdote, aphorism, apostrophe, archetype, assertion, comic relief, conventions (aside, concealment, soliloquy, setting, acting, deus ex machina), detail, didacticism, digression, dilemma, epigram, epithet, euphemism, fable, flashback, foil, foreshadowing, grotesque, hero, imagery, juxtaposition, litotes, meiosis/understatement, motif, myth, parable, paradox, parody, propaganda, qualification, sarcasm, satire, stereotype, style, syllogism, symbolism, wit

A mbiguities

verbal, symbolic, tonal, character, closure, cosmographical, subject material

L anguage (Figurative)

figures of speech (include conceit, personification, simile, epic/Homeric/heroic simile, direct/indirect

metaphors, synecdoche, metonymy, hyperbole), analogy

S yntax

sentence construction, type, and structure
anastrophe, caesura, ellipsis, polysyndeton, asyndeton, parallelism, isocolon, anaphora, antithesis, epistrophe
rhythm, meter (include types and number of feet)

© 2001 L. Addison Diehl

See Critical Reading Strategies, and Reading Strategies on these websites.