No. 1 Autographic Kodak Junior

camera No. 1 Autographic Kodak Junior
type folding
film 120, 6x9 cm
producer Eastman Kodak Co.
place Rochester, NY
country USA
date 1914-1927
shutter Ball Bearing
speeds 25, 50, B, T
lens Meniscus Achromatic 11/130?


English is not my native language. Please, contact me about any grammar or spelling mistake, thanks!

Kodak autographic cameras appeared on 1914. They were like the previous folding cameras, but the back cover incorporated the autographic feature: a small window in which photographers could write notes on the negative with a metal stylus.

In order to write on the negative you had to load the camera with autographic film. According to Brian Coe, autographic film was sold in different sizes: A116, A118, A120, A122, A123, A126, A127 and A130. "A" prefix stands for "autographic", but they were the same size as conventional films without the A prefix.

Inventor Henry J. Gaisman had patented the autographic feature in 1913 and again in 1914.
The autographic film was covered by a carbon copy sheet and a thin red paper. When you wrote on these papers with the stylus, the pressure turned them transparent. Then, the light would expose your writing in the film. You could write in the space between each picture or right over the picture. In the finished prints, the text would appear in white letters over a black background.

Kodak had been researching for several years trying to find a way to write data in the negatives, without any success. Then, Kodak's founder George Eastman liked Gaisman's idea and bought him the rights for $300,000. It was such a huge ammount of money (around today's $6-7 million) that it was published in the New York Times on July 1914.

"In the negotiations for the sale of my Kodak patent, the Eastman concern recogniced first that it was only just to me to pay me the value of my time for the four hours I worked on my device. That sum was arrived at and put down doubled as an element in fixing the price. Next came the cost of the laboratory in which I worked. That was put down and doubled. And then enough more was added to make me a rich man, as far as the needs of one giving his time to inventions goes", declared Gaisman to the New York Times.

But why that huge ammount of money? Instead of receiving royalties, Gaisman asked for one single payment. According to his own declarations to the New York Times, Gaisman used part of the money to make a trip to Europe with his mother.
Gaisman had patented several safety razors and after the death of Mr. Gilette, he became the leader of the Gillete Razor Corportation. When he was 82 he married his 33-year-old nurse and lived together in his 136 acres land in Hartsdale, near New York. They made donations to the hospital where his wife used to work. Finally, Gaisman died in 1974 at the age of 104!

The autographic feature was introduced starting from 1914 in Kodak's folding cameras: Kodak Junior, Kodak Special, Folding Pocket Kodak series and some Folding Brownies and Vest Pockets. It was just a small change, since it only required to make a new back cover.


The No. 1 Autographic Kodak Junior


Introduced in 1914, this model is one of the first autographic cameras made by Kodak. It replaced the folding camera No. 1 Kodak Junior. Except for the autographic feature, both cameras are the same.

The prefix "No. 1" indicates 2¼ x 3¼ inches (6x9 cm) size in 120 film. In this case, in order to use the autographic feature, the camera was loaded with A120 film, which was discontinued before WW2. Fortunately, you can still load this camera with conventional 120 film, but obviously you can't use the autographic function.
"Junior" means that this was a less expensive version, unlike the "Special" models with better lenses, shutters or finish.

Kodak produced millions of autographic cameras and it seems that they were very successful. Only of the No. 1 Autographic Junior were made around 800,000 units, according to Brian Coe.
However, some researchers have noticed that there are very few pictures preserved with writings. Cameras may have been sold very well, but people may not have used the autographic feature at all!




Shutter

The No. 1 Autographic Junior can be found with different shutters.
First versions were fitted with a Kodak Ball Bearing Shutter, a simple and very well aging resistant shutter. It usually has shutter speeds of 1/25, 1/50, B and T, but may have been versions up to 1/100.
According to Brian Coe, the Ball Bearing shutter was replaced later by the Diomatic and Kodex shutters. British versions of the camera could have also a Compur shutter.

My camera has a typical Ball Bearing shutter. Through its lifespan, it has different appearances.
The shutter is released without having to cock it, you just have to press the shutter release button. Its sound is amazing!

Lens

The camera used to be equipped with a Meniscus Achromatic lens, placed right behind the shutter.
For more money, you could have the better Rapid Rectilinear, Kodak Anastigmat f/7.7 or Kodar f/7.9. British versions could have the Tessar f/6.3 or Kodak Anastigmat f/6.3.

My camera has a simple Meniscus Achromatic lens. Focal distance is unknown, probably around 130 mm.
Focusing is made moving the lens board through a track, with stops for 100, 25 and 8 feet.

Diaphragm

The diaphragm is made up of eight blades. Instead of the standard f/ number system, some Kodak cameras had the Uniform System (US) or the 1-2-3-4 sequence, this last one very common on cameras with simple lenses such as the Meniscus.
According to Mischa Koning, these are the equivalances:
f/ 8 11 16 22 32
US 4 8 16 32 64
1-2-3-4 - 1 2 3 4

Other information

The folding finder can be rotated to compose the picture vertically or horizontally. The image seen is very small and very low quality.

The serial number camera is behind the foot which holds the camera steady. This foot also has a beautiful Kodak nameplate in gothic style. My serial number camera is 322,631, but as far as I know there is no information concerning Kodak's serial numbers.

The camera was sold with its stylus and a shutter release cable. Stylus are usually lost. Fortunatley, I have mine, although I don't have the release cable.

Dating

There are three different ways to date your autographic camera:

1. According to Brian Coe, lens and shutter combinations may help to know when your camera was made:

date lens shutter
1914- ? Meniscus Achromatic Ball Bearing
1914-1924 Rapid Rectilinear Ball Bearing
1915-1924 Kodak Anastigmar Ball Bearing
1924-1926 Kodak Anastigmar Diomatic
1925 Rapid Rectilinear Kodex
1925-1926 Kodar f/7.9 Kodex
1926-1927 Anastigmat f/6.3 (UK) Kodex (UK)
1926-1927 Tessar f/6.3 (UK) Compur (UK)


2. Besides, autographic windows had three different designs, according to Misha Koning and Brian Coe:

1914-1916 Sliding latch which also retains the stylus.
1916- ? Hinged window with stylus retaining rings (my own version).
1920s Sliding window. Stylus is hold on one side of the lens board.


3. Last, patents are also useful for dating your camera. You can deduce that your camera wasn't made after the last date you can read. For example, the latest patent date of my camera is 1917. Therefore, my own camera was made sometime starting from 1917, but not earlier.





Patents

Long time ago there were people known as "inventors". They were very common in the late XIX and early XX centuries. The most lucky ones sold their patents and lived the rest of their lives with royalties.

First Kodak cameras are full of different patents. They don't refer to the camera itself, but to the various designs involved in it: shutter, finder, winding knob, focusing system... and autographic system, of course.
Patent dates are written inside the back of the camera, in the pressure plate, and some are to be found in the shutter. For each patent date, you have to look for the patent number in patent search engines, such as Google Patents or FPO.
Bear in mind that there are two different dates: filing date and patent date. The date written in the camera usually refers to the patent date and may be several years different from the filing date. It usually took many time to patent an idea since it was filed.

My own No. 1 Autographic Junior was protected by these patents:

patent date
patent no.
invention inventor

Patent dates are engraved inside the back cover, in the pressure plate.
Patents concerning the shutter are written on the shutter itself.

JAN 21 1902 691,592 Folding camera
Frank A. Brownell
APR 29 1902 698,901 Folding camera
Frank A. Brownell
JULY 8 1902 704,335 Front cover with rails
Charles E. Hutchings
SEPT 7 1909 933,713 Focusing device
Robert Kroedel
JAN 18 1910 946,679 Shutter Paul J. Marks
JAN 7 1913 1,049,379 Shutter Paul J. Marks
MAY 6 1913 1,238,505 Autographic camera
Henry J. Gaisman
JULY 8 1913 1,066,848 Folding viewdinder
Alfred A. Ruttan and Charles E. Hutchings
MAY 19 1914 1,096,954 Camera bed
John A. Robertson
JUNE 16 1914 1,100,100 Film spool center
John A. Robertson
OCT 6 1914 1,112,525 Tripod socket
Harry R. Darling
JUNE 22 1915 1,144,140 Camera back
Robert Kroedel and Charles F. Speidel
FEB 1 1916 1,169,882 Film winding key
Charles F. Speidel
MAY 30 1916 1,184,941 Autographic window
Henry J. Gaisman
AUG 22 1916 1,195,400?
1,195,747?
Autographic window
Autographic film roll
John A. Robertson and William A. Riddell
Albert F. Sulzer
JUNE 19 1917 1,230,399 Autographic camera
Henry J. Gaisman

There are some British and Australian patents from which I haven't found any information.

Apart from these patents, Henry J. Gaisman patented several ideas about the autographic system between 1912 and 1917:
Autographic cameras and film rolls: 1,184,941, 1,203,603, 1,230,399, 1,238,504, 1,238,505, 1,238,506, 1,256,784 and 1,396,035.
Box autographic cameras (never produced): 1,359,245 and 1,359,246.
Other patents related, but not signed by Gaisman: 1,195,400 and 1,195,747.






The Autographic Kodak family

List of Autographic Kodak cameras, according to Brian Coe's Kodak Cameras: The first hundred years and Kodak's History of Kodak Cameras.
They are all very similar folding cameras. "Junior" versions were fitted with simple lenses and shutters, while "Special" versions had better ones. The No. 3A Autographic Kodak Special was world's first camera with a coupled rangefinder.
This list doesn't include Brownie, Vest Pocket, Pocket Kodak or Vanity Kodak autographic cameras.

camera date film picture size
price other info
No. 1 Autographic Kodak Junior 1914-1927 120 2¼ x 3¼ (6x9 cm) $23
No. 1 Autographic Kodak Special (Model A) 1915-1920 120 2¼ x 3¼ (6x9 cm) $56
No. 1 Autographic Kodak Special (Model B) 1921-1926 120 2¼ x 3¼ (6x9 cm) $79
No. 1A Autographic Kodak 1914-1924 116 2½ x 4¼ (7x11 cm) $21
No. 1A Autographic Kodak Junior 1914-1927 116 2½ x 4¼ (7x11 cm) $24
No. 1A Autographic Kodak Special (Model A) 1914-1916 116 2½ x 4¼ (7x11 cm) $59
No. 1A Autographic Kodak Special (Model B) 1917-1926 116 2½ x 4¼ (7x11 cm) $91 Coupled rangefinder
No. 2C Autographic Kodak Junior 1916-1927 130 27/8 x 47/8 (7x13 cm) $27
No. 2C Autographic Kodak Special 1923-1928 130 27/8 x 47/8 (7x13 cm) $65 Coupled rangefinder






No. 3 Autographic Kodak 1914-1925 118 3¼ x 4¼ (9x11 cm) $41
No. 3 Autographic Kodak Special 1914-1926 118 3¼ x 4¼ (9x11 cm) $86






No. 3A Autographic Kodak 1914-1934 122 3¼ x 5½ (9x14 cm) $50
No. 3A Autographic Kodak Junior 1918-1927 122 3¼ x 5½ (9x14 cm) $29
No. 3A Autographic Kodak Special (Model A) 1914-1916 122 3¼ x 5½ (9x14 cm) $74
No. 3A Autographic Kodak Special (Model B) 1916-1937 122 3¼ x 5½ (9x14 cm) $109 Coupled rangefinder


Pictures




Links


Instructions manuals

Repair, service, disassembly, clean

Patents


Books


COE, Brian. Kodak Cameras. The First Hundred Years. Hove Foto Books, East Sussex, 1988. ISBN 0-906447-44-5.

KODAK. History of Kodak Cameras. Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester (New York), 1999. Available at http://www.kodak.com/global/en/consumer/products/techInfo/aa13/aa13.pdf



Text and pictures by Daniel Jiménez Chocrón. Translated and adapted by the author from the original Spanish edition.

First edition: Feb 22 2013. Last update: May 30 2013.



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