FriedrichLab Publications

Quick view: Google scholar compilation and stats

Book reviews:

Friedrich, M. (2009) Using Darwin to explain Hamlet and Superman. A review of William Flesch, Comeuppance: Costly signaling, altruistic punishment, and other biological components of fiction. Evolutionary Psychology 7, 581-584.

Friedrich, M. (2009) Perspectives in Animal Phylogeny and Evolution. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 48, 87-88.

Book chapters:

Friedrich M., Dong Y., Liu Z., Yang, I. (2013) Genetic regulation of early eye development in non-dipteran insects. In: Molecular Genetics of Axial Patterning, Growth and Disease in the Drosophila Eye, Editors: Amit Singh, Madhuri Kango-Singh, pp 295-328 (link)

Friedrich, M. (2013) Development and evolution of the Drosophila Bolwig’s organ: A compound eye relict. In: Molecular Genetics of Axial Patterning, Growth and Disease in the Drosophila Eye, Editors: Amit Singh, Madhuri Kango-Singh,  pp 329-357 (link)



Friedrich, M. (2015) Evo-Devo gene toolkit update: at least seven Pax transcription factor subfamilies in the last common ancestor of bilaterian animalsEvolution & Development 17: 255-257. (link)


Friedrich, M. (2013) Biological clocks and visual systems in cave-adapted animals at the dawn of speleogenomics. Integrative and Comparative Biology 53: 50-67. (link)


Friedrich M.: Drosophila as a developmental paradigm of regressive brain evolution: proof of principle in the visual system. Brain Behavior & Evolution 78:199-215.

Friedrich M, Wood EJ, Wu M.: Developmental evolution of the insect retina: insights from standardized numbering of homologous photoreceptors. Journal of Experimental Zoology, Series B. Molecular and Developmental Evolution 316, 484-499.


Friedrich, M.: Evolution of visual performance-associated genes in Drosophila. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, [DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0022898]

Caravas, J. and Friedrich M.: Of mites and millipedes: Recent progress in resolving the base of the arthropod tree. BioEssays 32: 488-495.


Buschbeck, E. and Friedrich M.: Evolution of insect eyes: tales of ancient heritage, deconstruction, reconstruction, remodeling and recycling. Evolution: Education and Outreach 1: 448–462. [pdf]

Friedrich M.: Opsins and cell fate in the Drosophila Bolwig organ: tricky lessons in homology inference. BioEssays 30: 980-993. (link)





Friedrich, M., Dong, Y., and M. Jackowska: Insect interordinal relationships: insights from the visual system. Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny 64: 133-148. [pdf]

Friedrich, M.: Continuity versus split and reconstitution: exploring the molecular developmental corollaries of insect eye primordium evolution. Developmental Biology 299: 310-329. [pdf]

Friedrich, M.: Ancient mechanisms of visual sense organ development based on comparison of the gene networks controlling larval eye, ocellus, and compound eye specification in Drosophila. Arthropod Structure and Development  35: 357-378. [pdf]


Friedrich, M.: Evolution of insect eye development: first insights from fruit fly, grasshopper and flour beetle. American Zoologist 43, 508-521.






Tautz, D., Friedrich, M. and Schröder, R.: Insect embryogenesis - what is ancestral and what is derived? Development 1994 Supplement  (Akam, M., Holland, P., Ingham, P. and Wray, G., eds.), pp. 193-199. The Company of Biologists Limited, Cambridge.

Research Papers:


Zhao C, Escalante LN, Chen H, Benatti TR, Qu J, Chellapilla S, Waterhouse RM, Wheeler D, Andersson MN, Bao R, Batterton M, Behura SK, Blankenburg KP, Caragea D, Carolan JC, Coyle M, El-Bouhssini M, Francisco L, Friedrich M, Gill N, Grace T, Grimmelikhuijzen CJ, Han Y, Hauser F, Herndon N, Holder M, Ioannidis P, Jackson L, Javaid M, Jhangiani SN, Johnson AJ, Kalra D, Korchina V, Kovar CL, Lara F, Lee SL, Liu X, Löfstedt C, Mata R, Mathew T, Muzny DM, Nagar S, Nazareth LV, Okwuonu G, Ongeri F, Perales L, Peterson BF, Pu LL, Robertson HM, Schemerhorn BJ, Scherer SE, Shreve JT, Simmons D, Subramanyam S, Thornton RL, Xue K, Weissenberger GM, Williams CE, Worley KC, Zhu D, Zhu Y, Harris MO, Shukle RH, Werren JH, Zdobnov EM, Chen MS, Brown SJ, Stuart JJ, Richards S. (2015) A massive expansion of effector genes underlies gall-formation in the wheat pest Mayetiola destructor. Current Biology, published online: doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2014.12.057 (link)


Luan Q, Chen Q, Friedrich M. The Pax6 genes eyeless and twin of eyeless are required for global patterning of the ocular segment in the Tribolium embryo. Developmental Biology 394: 367–381. (link)

Mahato S, Morita S, Tucker AE, Liang X, Jackowska M, Friedrich M., Shiga Y., Zelhof A.C.: Common transcriptional mechanisms for visual photoreceptor cell differentiation among Pancrustaceans. PLoS Genetics 10(7): e1004484 (link)

International Glossina Genome Initiative. Genome sequence of the tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans): vector of African trypanosomiasis. Science 344: 380-386. (link)


Caravas J., and Friedrich M.: Shaking the Diptera tree of life: performance analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data partitions. Systematic Entomology 38: 93-103. (link)


Riyue Bao, Tami Fischer, Renata Bolognesi, Susan J. Brown, and Markus Friedrich:
Parallel duplication and partial subfunctionalization of β-Catenin/Armadillo during insect evolution
Molecular Biology and Evolution 29: 647-662. doi:10.1093/molbev/msr219

Patel MV, Hallal DA, Jones JW, Bronner DN, Zein R, Caravas J, Husain Z, Friedrich M, VanBerkum MF: Dramatic expansion and developmental expression diversification of the methuselah gene family during recent Drosophila evolution. Journal of Experimental Zoology, Series B. Molecular and Developmental Evolution 318:368-387.doi: 10.1002/jez.b.22453


Wiegmann BM, Trautwein MD, Winkler IS, Barr NB, Kim JW, Lambkin C, Bertone MA, Cassel BK, Bayless KM, Heimberg AM, Wheeler BM, Peterson KJ, Pape T, Sinclair BJ, Skevington JH, Blagoderov V, Caravas J, Kutty SN, Schmidt-Ott U, Kampmeier GE, Thompson FC, Grimaldi DA, Beckenbach AT, Courtney GW, Friedrich M, Meier R, Yeates DK.: Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 108: 5690-5695. (link) (feature in ScienceDaily and Faculty of 1000 recommendation)

Friedrich M, Chen R, Daines B, Bao R, Caravas J, Rai PK, Zagmajster M, Peck SB.: Phototransduction and clock gene expression in the troglobiont beetle Ptomaphagus hirtus of Mammoth cave. The Journal of Experimental Biology 214: 3532-3541.

Friedrich M, Caravas J.: New insights from hemichordate genomes: prebilaterian origin and parallel modifications in the paired domain of the Pax gene eyegone. Journal of Experimental Zoology, Series B. Molecular and Developmental Evolution 316:387-92.

Zarinkamar N, Yang X, Bao R, Friedrich F, Beutel R, Friedrich M.: The Pax gene eyegone facilitates repression of eye development in Tribolium. EvoDevo 2:8.


Dong, Y., and Friedrich
M. (2010) Enforcing biphasic visual system development in a directly developing insect by transient knockdown of single eye selector genes. Journal of Experimental Zoology, Series B. Molecular and Developmental Evolution 314: 104-114. (link)


Yang, X., Weber, M., ZarinKamar, N., Posnien, N., Friedrich, F., Wigand, B., Beutel, R., Damen, W.G.M., Bucher, G., Klingler, M., and Friedrich M. (2009) Probing the Drosophila retinal determination gene network in Tribolium (II): the Pax6 genes eyeless and twin of eyeless. Developmental Biology 333: 215-227 pdf  

Yang, X., ZarinKamar, N., Bao, R. and Friedrich M. (2009) Probing the Drosophila retinal determination gene network in Tribolium (I): the early retinal genes dachshund, sine oculis and eyes absent. Developmental Biology 333: 202-214. pdf

Bao, R. and Friedrich M. (2009) Molecular evolution of the Drosophila retinome: 


Bao, R. and Friedrich M.: Conserved cluster organization of insect Runx genes. Development Genes and Evolution 218: 567-574. (link)

Tribolium Genome Sequencing Consortium: The genome of the developmental model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum. Nature 452: 949-955. (link)

Bao, R., and M. Friedrich: Fast co-evolution of sevenless and bride of sevenless in endopterygote insects. Development Genes and Evolution 218: 215-220. (link)


Jackowska, M., Liu, Z., Bao, R., McDonald, E.C., Cook, T.A., and M. Friedrich: Genomic and gene regulatory signatures of cryptozoic adaptation: loss of blue sensitive photoreceptors through expansion of long-wavelength opsin expression in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Frontiers in Zoology 4: 24. (open access) (featured in ScienceDaily)


Liu, Z., Yang, X., Dong, Y. and Friedrich, M. (2006) Tracking down the "head blob": comparative analysis of wingless expression in the developing insect procephalon reveals progressive reduction of embryonic visual system patterning in higher insects. Arthropod Structure and Development 35: 341-356. (pdf)


Dong, Y., and Friedrich, M. (2005) Nymphal RNAi: Systemic RNAi mediated gene knockdown in juvenile grasshopper. BMC Biotechnology 5: 25 (open access).

Dong, Y., and Friedrich, M. (2005) Comparative analysis of Wingless signaling in the embryonic grasshopper eye. Development Genes and Evolution 215: 177-197.





Liu, Z. and Friedrich, M. (2004) The Tribolium homologue of glass and the evolution of insect larval photoreceptors. Developmental Biology 269, 36-54.


Dong, Y., Dinan, L. and Friedrich, M. (2003) The effect of manipulating ecdysteroid signaling on embryonic eye development in the locust Schistocerca americana. Development Genes and Evolution 213, 587-600.

Friedrich, M. and Muqim, N. (2003) Sequence and evolutionary analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Molecular Phylogentics and Evolution 26: 502-512.





Friedrich, M. and Tautz, D. (2001) Arthropod rDNA phylogeny revisited: A consistency analysis using Monte Carlo simulation. Annales de la Societe entomologique de France (N.S.) 37: 21-40.

Hwang, U.W., Friedrich, M., Tautz, D., Park, C.J. and Kim, W. (2001) Mitochondrial protein phylogeny joins myriapods with chelicerates. Nature 413:154-157.



Friedrich, M. and Benzer, S. (2000) Divergence of decapentaplegic expression patterns in compound eye development and the evolution of insect metamorphosis. Journal of Experimental Zoology (Molecular and Developmental Evolution) 288:39-55.


Hwang, U. W., Kim, W., Tautz, D. and Friedrich, M. (1998) Molecular phylogenetics at the Felsenstein-zone: New approaches to the Strepsiptera problem using 5.8S and 28S rDNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 9: 470-480.


Friedrich, M. and Tautz, D. (1997) An episodic change of rDNA nucleotide substitution rate has occurred at the time of the emergence of the insect order Diptera. Molecular  Biology and Evolution 14: 644-653.

Friedrich, M. and Tautz, D. (1997) Evolution and phylogeny of the Diptera: A molecular phylogenetic analysis using 28S rDNA sequences. Systematic Biology 46: 674-698.


Friedrich, M., Rambold, I. and Melzer, R. R. (1996) The early stages of ommatidial development in the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). Development Genes and Evolution 206: 136-146.


Friedrich, M. and Tautz, D. (1995) Ribosomal DNA phylogeny of the major extant arthropod classes and the evolution of myriapods. Nature 376: 165-167.


Kuhnlein, R. P., Frommer, G., Friedrich, M., Gonzalez, G. M., Weber, A., Wagner, B. J., Gehring, W. J., Jackle, H. and Schuh, R. (1994) spalt encodes an evolutionarily conserved zinc finger protein of novel structure which provides homeotic gene function in the head and tail region of the Drosophila embryo. Embo Journal 13: 168-79.


Friedrich, M. and Makings, P. (1990) Supplementary taxonomic characters for the discrimination of Petrobius brevistiylis Carpenter from P. maritimus (Leach) in both sexes (Microcoryphia, Machilidae). The Entomologist 109: 231-239.