What are embedded environmental costs?
(Source). Still, solar panels produce a lot of hazardous waste which must be factored into utilitarian calculations in assessing solar's net contribution to a cleaner environment.
A notable point about rooftop Solar PV systems like mine: "Although distributed-generation rooftop PV occupies no land, some utility-scale plants have caused concern regarding their impact on threatened species' habitat, the report notes." (Source).
But I don't understand this: "Not surprisingly, PV ranks ahead of CSP in the water-usage category. Lifetime water withdrawals for PV are estimated to be between 225 and 520 gallons/MWh, with thin film generally beating out crystalline silicon." (Source). My array consumes no water, except maybe 30 gallons every March when I spray pollen off my panels.