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George Connolly Aylwin (1824-1904)

The Aylwin's in New Denver

Selected Excerpts from Newspapers 1891-1912

As the children of George C. Aylwin began to reach adulthood in the 1870's and 1880's all of them left their home in Quyon, Quebec one by one and eventually moved westward. By the year 1900 George Aylwin himself and all but one of his six living children were living in the New Denver area of British Columbia. Below are some snippets extracted from New Denver BC area newspapers referencing the Aylwin family in New Denver.

The Miner [Nelson], 24 Oct 1891:


The following are the names on the Dominion voters' list for the Nelson and Ainsworth polling divisions. Some of the names are misspelled, others are duplicated, and several are of men who are not British subjects. Judge Walkem will be at Nelson on the 27th to hold a court of revision, and it is the duty of every voter not only to see that his name is on the list, but to see that it is spelled correctly; also to send in the names of any voters not already on the list and furnish any information that will aid in making the list an accurate one:


14 Aylwin, Chas.



All parties are hereby warned against purchasing any furniture or other goods from Charles Aylwin, or his agents, the said furniture and goods were formerly in the Tecumseh house on Josephine street, Nelson, and are now in the McDonald building, Nelson, as we, the undersigned, have claims against said furniture and other goods, and have instituted suit to recover same.

Nelson, B.C., October 16th, 1891.

[The first mention I could find of an Aylwin in the Kootenay region were these two October 1891 references to Charles William Cushing Aylwin from the same issue of the Nelson Miner newspaper. Charles Aylwin's nephew, Jack Aylwin, would later write in his 1981 family history: "Charles Aylwin went into the New Denver area via way of the Slocan River and Slocan Lake in 1891. He worked at various jobs in connection with the mining industry and at one time owned a hotel in New Denver called 'The Denver House', which eventually burned. He had a considerable apple orchard and kept bees." ]

The Miner [Nelson], 7 Nov 1891:


The following is a revised and corrected list of names on the Dominion voters’ list for Nelson polling division of Yale-Kootenay district:

15. Aylwin, Charles…. Innkeeper

[Since the town of New Denver had no buildings prior to 1892, it's possible that Charles owned a hotel in Nelson, Sandon, or another small town in the area. It's also possible that Charles was only an employee hotel manager or bartender at another hotel in the area, as opposed to owning his own hotel in 1891.]

The Miner [Nelson], 19 Mar 1892:


Notice is hereby given that we intend to make application to the licensing board, at its next sitting at Nelson, for a license for a hotel known as the Pioneer House, at the mouth of Carpenter creek, West Kootenay district.

Dated, March 18th, 1892. AYLWIN BROS.

[Here is notice of an application for a hotel license from Charles Aylwin and his youngest brother Thomas John 'Jack' Aylwin made in March of 1892. This is the first reference I have found to Jack Aylwin in the New Denver area. Jack Aylwin's nephew, also named Jack Aylwin, wrote in 1981: "Thomas John (Jack) Aylwin first came into the New Denver area in April 1892 having been preceded by his older brother Charley in 1891. He put himself through dental college in Portland, Ore. and had his practice in Kamploops for many years."  The place description 'mouth of Carpenter Creek' is the future site of New Denver.]

The Miner [Nelson], 21 May 1892:

W. H. Smith has struck what promises to be a bonanza within 3 miles of Eldorado City [former name of New Denver]. The ledge has been traced for over 3000 feet and mineral found on 3 locations. There are from 15 to 30 inches of solid ore, but the mineralised rock is much wider. Specimens brought to Nelson this week and taken, from spots 500 feet apart assayed 150 and 103 ounces silver to the ton respectively. The percentage of lead is high. The following locations have been made in the neighborhood of the new strike: The Mammoth, by B. A. Anderson; The Farmer's Boy, by J. D. McDonald; The Mountain Chief, by W. H. Smith; The Dixie, by J. M. Walter; The Belle, by James Hayes; The Egypt, by Sam. Brown; The Aylwin, by Charles Aylwin; The Belle Isle, by Chas. J. Sinclair, Evan Jones &; J. M. Harris.

[Notice of a small mining claim by Charles Aylwin.]

The Tribune [Nelson], 22 Dec 1892:

Mr. Aylwin returned from Nakusp and reports that place as being almost deserted. The sleigh road between the head of the lake and Nakusp, he says, is in first class condition, and all that is required is more snow, especially at the Nakusp end.

The Tribune [Nelson], 12 Jan 1893:

Charles Aylwin intends building a $5000 hotel here [New Denver] in the spring. The order for the lumber has already been given to the Wharton sawmill, which is rented by Mr. Mactagert for the winter. The mill is still running, despite the fact that it was generally thought there would be insufficient water supply.


Although New Denver was started late in the fall of 1891, little progress was made in the erection of buildings until the spring of 1892, when about 10 log houses were erected. The following is a partial list:

Charles Alwyn, hotel…………... $200

Charles Alwyn, dwelling……… $150


Charles Alwyn of New Denver was in Nelson this week purchasing supplies. He reports the Wharton mill cutting about 2500 feet of lumber a day and the Hills getting out logs for their mill, which will be put up at the head of the lake, and not at the point first selected. They have let a contract to Jack Madden to get out 300 cords of shingle bolts at $2.75 a cord. Mr. Alwyn has out logs for a hotel at the mouth of Sandon creek [Carpenter Creek, New Denver], and will begin erecting the building in March. He took back two tons of supplies (coal oil and whisky) for himself and Jim Delaney.

[Three separate mentions of Charles Aylwin in the same Nelson paper on this day. The second snippet gives us a lot of useful information. It tells us that New Denver didn't really exist until the fall of 1891, but by the spring of 1892 there were 10 log houses in the village. By January of 1893, the date of this paper, there was now a hotel owned by Charles 'Alwyn' in town. This hotel was possibly the same one, the 'Pioneer House' that the March 1892 license request was for. The other two snippets seem to indicate that Charles was also going to build a new hotel, or perhaps substantially enlarge the Pioneer House, in the spring.]

The Tribune [Nelson], 26 Jan 1893:

Charles Aylwin and Jim Delaney have both brought in a large supply of liquors, etc., by way of Kaslo and Three Forks. The trail between New Denver and Three Forks is in excellent condition, being entirely free from snow-slide debris, thanks to the energy of the above named hustlers.


The Tribune [Nelson], 27 Apr 1893:


Although Kootenay District Owes Much to the Progressive Citizens of the Republic to the South, Many of Its People Are Not Americans, Even if They Are Hospitable and Liberal Minded.

The Spokane Review takes the Tribune to task for saying that the people of British Columbia, as a whole, are hospitable, liberal-minded, and not exclusive, and in doing so argues, that as this section of British Columbia was discovered by Americans that it must of necessity be peopled almost exclusively by Americans, and that if the people are hospitable to strangers, it is simply the hospitality of one American to another.

[Sarcastic response from the Tribune to a Spokane Review editorial discussing why the inhabitants of British Columbia are so friendly. Spokane is about half the distance from New Denver as Vancouver is, and in fact many prospectors were from Washington and Idaho.]

The Tribune [Nelson], 4 May 1893:


April 28th. Since our last notes we have had another rush of visitors, amongst whom were Mr. Neil, colonel Lindsley, Mr. Field, Mr. Gill, and a gentleman who is known to us only as Mr. Moriarity. In addition to the above Mr. McClement, who brought his wife and family from Kaslo, and is running the dining room at Getting & Henderson's hotel. While on hotel news we may note that Con Doherty takes over the dining room at Fletcher's hotel, and that the Bolander house will be open for the reception of visitors on the 1st of May. We further understand that our creature comforts in respect to fresh meat and poultry will this summer be attended to by Henry Aylwin, a newly-imported brother of the owner of the Pioneer hotel. The “Pig and Whistle" is to be rechristened.

[The first mention of Henry 'Harry' Aylwin in New Denver. Harry's nephew, Jack Aylwin, writes of him in 1981: "Henry (Harry) lived for some years in Winnipeg, Man. before coming to the New Denver area in the early 1900's. He married Florence O'Neill. They had no children. Harry made a modest living for some years in New Denver by playing the stock market." It appears Harry may have been the new cook at the Pioneer House when he first arrived in the area from Winnipeg. (Harry's sister, Clara Aylwin, had died in Winnipeg in 1887.) The phrase 'Pig and Whistle' is an English term for a generic British pub name. The reference to the 'Pig and Whistle' being rechristened may indicate that the name of the Aylwin's hotel was changing from 'The Pioneer House' to 'The Denver House'.]

The Tribune [Nelson], 18 May 1893:

To the Editor of the Tribune:

In your issue of the 27th ultimo, under the heading of “An Explanation Asked For,” a great injustice is done against Mr. Sproat, the recorder here, by James Delaney. Being the saloonkeeper referred to, I should be glad to be allowed to state the following facts:

Mr. Sproat did not “collect a whisky bill.” I happened to be in the record office when the party referred to tendered Mr. Sproat a $10 bill, and was told by that gentleman that he had no change. Mr. Sproat never took the bill from the party at all. I volunteered to change the bill, and in doing so told the party I had deducted an old outstanding account, to which he made no objection whatever at the time. It was not until other parties had worked up a case that any objection was made to my retaining what was due to me.

Trusting you will publish this explanation in justice to Mr Sproat, I am, yours, etc.,


The instance referred to by Mr. Delaney is reported not the only one in which Mr. Sproat, the mining recorder at New Denver, has acted as a quasi-collector of whiskey debts for Mr. Aylwin. It is indeed strange that a public office should be turned into a lounging place for saloonkeepers, and that public officials should take so much interest in collecting debts of saloonkeepers. EDITOR, TRIBUNE

[An illuminating letter to the editor from Charles Aylwin, followed by the Nelson Tribune's sarcastic response. All five of the Aylwin brothers were bartenders at one time or another in their lives. This particular letter to the editor is part of an ongoing squabble between Charles Aylwin and James Delaney. Delaney operated a competitive hotel and saloon, was justice of the peace, and was possibly Aylwin's former partner.]

The Tribune [Nelson], 20 Jan 1894:


Aylwin, Henry
Aylwin, Thomas John

[Charles Aylwin was missed on this initial voter list of 1894.]

The Tribune [Nelson], 10 Feb 1894


A Public Meeting of New Denver Citizens Unanimously Favor the Convention.

New Denver, February 6th.

A crowded public meeting, with William Hunter in the chair, was held in New Denver on Monday night to discuss various mutters of importance to the town. It was resolved to petition the chief commissioner of lands and works to expend the money appropriated last session for a wharf before the water began to rise in Slocan lake, as a wharf will be urgently needed in the spring. The question of the wagon road was next taken up. The meeting was unanimous and enthusiastic about keeping the road in repair all the time; and the statement that if the government, who is large property holder, the owners of the McGillivray addition, and the citizens could not keep five miles of road up, when the existence of the town depended on it, the sooner New Denver was taken off the map the better, was received with applause. Messrs Neil Gething, Charles Alwyn, and D. B. Bogle were appointed a committee to communicate with all the parties interested and to represent the, citizens in the matter.

The Ledge [New Denver], 8 Mar 1894:

The fire brigade of New Denver has been re-organized, C. Aylwin being elected President and Neil McInnes chief.

[New Denver finally received it's own newspaper, 'The Ledge' , in 1894.]

The Tribune [Nelson], 10 Mar 1894:

A fire brigade has been started in New Denver. A. Aylwin is president and Neil Mclnnes chief. A considerable sum has been subscribed to purchase buckets and ladders, and an entertainment is to be given shortly to raise more money for the purposes of the brigade.

The Ledge [New Denver], 29 Mar 1894:

C. Aylwin, proprietor of the Denver Hotel, in New Denver, came over on Tuesday.

The Tribune [Nelson], 12 May 1894:


Aylwin, Henry, New Denver, clerk
Aylwin, Thomas John, New Denver, hotelkeeper
Aylwin, Charles, New Denver, hotelkeeper

[A nice record showing three of the Aylwin men living in New Denver in May of 1894.]

The Tribune [Nelson], 19 May 1894:

W. H. Brandon, “Jack” Delaney, and Charles Aylwin, all of New Denver, arrived at Nelson on Friday. They report the road fairly good from Bell’s down to Kelso. From Bell’s to Three Forks it is slushy. From Three Forks to New Denver the old trail has to be used.

The Tribune [Nelson], 26 May 1894:

The long-awaited session of the county court opened at Nelson on Monday, judge Spinks of Vernon presiding. By noon on Wednesday the cases were all disposed of. The following are the cases in which judgments were rendered:

Charles W. Aylwin vs. James Delaney; damages, etc., $153; judgment for the plaintiff for half the amount sued for.

The Ledge [New Denver], 31 May 1894:

The case of Aylwin v. Delaney, a suit for damages, tried in the County Court, resulted in a verdict for the former for $70 and damages. The case arose over an icehouse erected at New Denver, by Aylwin, on a lot claimed by Delaney. The latter caused the building to be razed, hence the suit.

The Ledge [New Denver], 24 Jan 1895:

E. Shannon has purchased from C. Aylwin an eighth interest in the Iron Mountain claim paying therefore $50.

The Ledge [New Denver], 31 Jan 1895:



C. Aylwin to R. Mactagert ¼ in the Iron Mountain on January 21. Recorded January 28.

[As the last two news item show, Charles Aylwin was able to make a little money buying and selling mineral claims.]

The Ledge [New Denver], 7 Mar 1895:

There was a good attendance of citizens in Aylwin's hall, on Thursday evening, called together for the purpose of organizing the brass band. A. Brindle acted as chairman and C. E. Smitheringale as secretary. Considerable preliminary business was disposed of; among other things it was shown that there was close on to $10 still owing on account of freight. The payment of this has been secured. After discussion the following were appointed, office-bearers: President, Wm. Thomlinson; secretary, C. E. Smitheringale; treasurer. A. Sproat; leader, A. Brindle. The band starts with a membership of seven: Messrs. Brindle, J. Aylwin, Taylor, Smitheringale, Teasdale, Currie, and Shannon. This number will be increased in the spring, as a number of outside, musicians purpose this place their home. Regular practice nights have been set for Tuesdays and Fridays.

The Ledge [New Denver], 18 Apr 1895:

Bellevue avenue, fronting Shannon’s hall to the corner, has been fixed up. The Aylwin boys have also greatly improved their portion of Slocan Avenue, and extended the sidewalk to Bellevue.

The Ledge [New Denver], 23 May 1895:



Aylwin – C.W. Aylwin, on May 18

The Ledge [New Denver], 6 Jun 1895:

A Foolhardy Exploit

Sunday afternoon C. Aylwin and W. Smith conceived the idea of shooting down the creek in a canoe. They packed their frail bark two or three blocks from the lake and launched it into the flood. Everything went fine till they almost reached the mouth of the creek, when they fouled a snag. In a moment they were searching for diamonds in the creek bed, with enough icy liquid on top of them to cool off their foolhardy ambition. Smith went under the canoe and had a close shave. They managed to secure their canoe and get ashore, and beyond a thorough ducking were none the worse for their exploit.

The Ledge [New Denver], 21 Nov 1895:



Denver No. 3 – Next to the Baltic claim, by W K and C W Aylwin.

The Ledge [New Denver], 31 Dec 1896:

The hospital staff desire to thank Mr. Hoben, Messrs. Aylwin Bros. and Messrs. McLennon for their kind remembrances at Xmas.

The Ledge [New Denver], 7 Jan 1897:

The hotel at Aylwin City, on Ten Mile was opened to the world this week.


Miss Aylwin has charge of the telephone exchange in New Denver.

[Two interesting items from 'The Ledge' on this day. The first mentions a new hotel at 'Aylwin City on Ten Mile'. Aylwin City was a mining camp that sprung up to support the large Enterprise mine on Ten Mile Creek. The first building erected at the mining camp was a hotel/boarding house put up by Charles Aylwin. Charles named his hotel 'The Aylwin House' and put his older brother George in charge of running the hotel. George Aylwin had been living in Vancouver, where he was probably working as a tugboat operator. Silver had been found at the head of Enterprise Creek in 1894 and a mine was opened shortly thereafter. The Enterprise Mine was owned by John Finch and his nephew George Aylard, both originally from Spokane. Finch and Aylard sold the Enterprise for $1,000,000 ($25.8 million in 2012 dollars) in 1899. The other news item this day mentions that 'Miss Aylwin' is the new telephone operator in New Denver. Miss Aylwin is Mary Ella 'Nellie' Aylwin, sister to the Aylwin brothers. Nellie had been living the last several years in Tacoma with her brother Frank and his daughter Tracy. Nellie's nephew, Jack Aylwin, would write in 1981: "Mary Ella (Nellie) lived for about eight years with Mr. & Mrs. A.P. McDonald - he was a successful contractor and built part of the Lachine Canal - where she learned telegraphy. She was a telegraph operator in Tacoma just prior to her marriage to George Aylard in New Denver in 1898... (the Aylard's) moved to Victoria in 1911..."]

The Ledge [New Denver], 21 Jan 1897:

Mining Records, Transfers, January 11:

C W Aylwin to D A Van Doren – 5/8 Iron Mountain, Dec. 15; $800

The Ledge [New Denver], 10 Jun 1897:


New Denverites Preparing for Good Time Dominion Day


Saturday evening' a representative meeting of the citizens of New Denver was hold in the Williamson block for the purpose of discussing the advisability of holding a celebration on July 1st, and mapping out the best plan of going about it to make it a success. The meeting was well attended and great interest was manifested, it being the unanimous verdict that New Denver would celebrate, and in the grandest manner possible. After this had been settled and suggestions made regarding the getting up of the affair, the meeting adjourned to Monday evening.

On reconvening Monday evening the attendance was general and renewed interest was shown. Without further ado committees were appointed to take the matter in hand and at once push the thing to a successful termination.

H. O. Alexander was made permanent chairman or president, and H. M. Walker, secretary. Committees were named as follows:
General-Messrs. Finucane, Fauquier, Beers, Knox, J. Aylwin, Gibbs. D. Walker, Alexander, VV. Taylor, H. M. Walker, A. Mclnnes, R. Thompson and McLeod.
On Transportation-Messrs. Finucane, Lowery and Thomlinson.
On Grounds-J. Aylwin, W.H. Gibbs and D. Walker.
On Sports-Messrs. Fauquier, W. Taylor Beers, J. Aylwin, D. Walker, Gibbs and Alexander.


The Semi-Annual meeting of the New Denver Band took place in their band room on Sunday, 30th May. The minutes of previous meeting were read and adopted. A vote of thanks was tendered to the officers for their services during the past term, and by unanimous vote re-elected for another term.

A. E. Fauquier. President; Joe Millward. Leader; Howard West, Sec.-Treasurer; Executive. Committee: John Aylwin, W. P. Evans and Howard West.

A new uniform cap was ordered for Jubilee celebration also music pouches. The boys intend to stay by it, and all efforts will be made to win the championship of the Kootenay. They also intend to give a series of open-air concerts during the season.

The Ledge [New Denver], 17 Jun 1897:

A band stand has at last been erected for the band, Messrs. Aylwin and Angrignon putting up a very pretty and commodious one on the corner of Slocan and Bellevue Avenues.


Mining Records, Transfers,

Henry Aylwin to Andrew Jacobson 1/8 Campania and Britannia, July 19, $300

The Ledge [New Denver], 28 Oct 1897:

Mining records, Transfers,

Rattler ¼, David Whitley to Jack Aylwin Oct 19.

The Ledge [New Denver], 4 Nov 1897:


Notice is hereby given that we will not be responsible for any debts contracted by anyone other than ourselves. C.W. Aylwin & Co., New Denver, B.C. Nov 1, 1897.

The Ledge [New Denver], 23 Dec 1897:

Jack Aylwin returned on Monday from a trip up Ten Mile and reports Aylwin as the most active camp in the district. The Enterprise has 42 men on the payroll. Eight men are employed in the sawmill. A number of small properties in the immediate vicinity are working with lighter forces. The Brindle Group, located on the townsite has a 50-foot tunnel in with promising indications.

The Ledge [New Denver], 6 Jan 1898:


If New Denver continues to grow in the next year as it has in the past twelve months its name will he associated with the history of the rich Slocan as the queen of the lake and metropolis of this great mineral belt.

It is customary with the commencement of the new year to look back, over the past, and recount our steps forward or backward. There is something in nature that impels us onward; individually and collectively we are naturally prone to cover up our weaknesses and proudly flaunt before the gaze of our neighbors and the world our good qualities and the advance steps we have taken, whether in perilous times or times of peace, plenty and happiness.

This is as true of communities as of individuals; and it is refreshing, too, that such is the case. An individual that would brood over past errors is as useless in this world as a community that would hide under a bushel its resources, and fail to present to the world its seasons for, and manner of, existence.

New Denver is not one of the useless kind. As a residential centre in this white metal belt of the mountains, it has a future that is not to be equaled. Its present, too, is of no less importance, and it would he an injustice, indeed, not to refreshen the memory of the thousands whose heads are turned this way, that, despite the fact that the white metal market has been on a downward tendency during the past year, yet the confidence of its citizens, who have weathered many an adversity before, has not in the slightest degree been shaken, but they stand shoulder to shoulder in the race for residential supremacy of the world. And they are prepared to show their faith by their works.

For two years prior to the year just closed New Denver made very little, if any, advancement. But the early pioneers were here and, knowing that vast wealth laid hidden in the mountains, they patiently waited until by steadfast perseverance against all the ills an isolated mining camp is heir to, they overcame the prejudices of capital and over sagacious speculators.

When, in the fall of 1893 investors began to turn this way these men, knowing how slow outside capital is to turn to the building up of a town, and seeing the importance of making New Denver what it apparently was destined to be, the residential centre, they prepared to meet the demand for homes and business blocks, and as early in the spring of '97 as it was possible to begin the work the erection of buildings was commenced. For a month or two they met with adversities enough to dishearten anyone. The famine for lumber was the prime bone of contention. It seemed impossible to get building material on the ground when wanted and many a half-erected building was water-soaked. But they were accustomed to adversities and philosophically withstood the various drawbacks. Finally one building was completed, then another and another in such rapid succession that in the space of a few months, the quiet little Slocan town was transformed into a lively mining camp assuming all the necessary adjuncts to business, home and pleasure. Such as a bank, freight, ticket and express offices, telegraph and long distance telephone. A commodious amusement hall, school house, churches, electric light plant, competition in various branches of trade, comfortable homes, and a first class brass band of resident musicians.

Many of the business blocks erected would be a credit to any city, and the stocks of goods carried are in many instances far ahead of the present' demand. The character of the homes erected is illustrative of the confidence of the men who have borne aloft New Denver's banner these several years. They are not men of great means, but they are men willing to place what little they have back into the town from which, by dint of courage and hard work, they made it. Too much cannot be said of New Denver's homes and the men and women who make them.

New Denver's principle business blocks are the Clever. Bourne Bros., New Market, Hoben, Williamson, Bolander, Thompson, Merkley, Bank Building, McLachlan, Fox and The Ledge building. There are many smaller buildings used for business purposes, hut hardly of enough importance to characterize as business blocks.

In the way of hotel buildings New Denver has, the New Market, Stege, St. James, Windsor, Aylwin, Grand Central, and Columbia. These have sleeping accommodations for about 1,000 persons. Then there are private rooming and boarding houses where the proverbial comforts of home are ever to be found.

In the way of business concerns New Denver has to-day two large general merchandise stores, two tailoring establishments, two exclusive dry goods and shoe stores, one jewelry store, a drug and stationery store, hardware store carrying a $20,000 stock, a bakery and confectionery store, two furniture and undertaking establishments, a grocery store, assay office, livery and feed stable, two draying companies, three brokerage concerns, two practicing attorneys, one physician, two barber shops, one butcher shop, a house and sign painting company, a tin shop, cobbler shop, three hand laundries, one notion store, and the various institutions that essentially follow. Many of these were established during the past year. But the institutions that go to prove; the camps advancement are the Slocan Hospital, Bank of Montreal, Club House, Record Office, two churches, electric light plant, telegraph, telephone, freight, ticket and express offices, and the importation by The Ledge of a cylinder press of 2,500 revolutions per hour capacity, with all the improved machinery that goes with such a machine.

The Tribune [Nelson], 5 Feb 1898:

Geo. Aylard, ex-manager of the Enterprise mine on Ten Mile creek, is to be married next week, at New Denver, to Miss N. Aylwin, of that town. They will honeymoon in Southern California via Vancouver.

The Ledge [New Denver], 10 Feb 1898:


Monday evening at 8 o'clock, at the bride's home, in the presence of the near relatives of the contracting parties, Geo. H. Aylard and Miss M. E. Aylwin were united in marriage by the Vicar of Revelstoke, Frank A. Ford. The wedding was a private affair and Mr. and Mrs. Aylard left the following morning for the coast. They will spend some time in Vancouver and Victoria, thence will go to Seattle, Tacoma and on to Los Angeles, Cal., where they will spend the greater part of their honeymoon. Mr. and Mrs. Aylard take with them the best wishes of their host of friends here, where they are esteemed highly by all who know them, and the hope that their path will be ever strewn with roses.

The Ledge [New Denver], 17 Feb 1898:


If the first masquerade ball given by the Knights of Pythias Lodge of New Denver was a success, the second one, given Monday night under the auspices of the order, was the crowning effort. In every particular it surpassed the former ball, and this is saying a great deal for that was a highly successful event. Monday evening the floor was better, arrangements were better perfected, and carried out; the costumes were brighter, handsomer and better put on; the ladies were more numerous and the dancers all, entered into the spirit of the occasion and contributed to the gaiety of the evening.

Some very pretty costumes were worn by tine ladies and many surprises were furnished by them, but taken as a whole, the gentlemen were better costumed and the characters better taken. Mrs. Watson as the "Gipsy Queen" carried off the honors for the best lady's costume, and for the gentlemen honors were even between M.D. Walker as a Torradore (Spanish bull fighter) and F.B. Jeffery, in the character of George Washington. Wm. Bouch, as policeman, and Ted Eyton, as a British man-o'-war tar, were good impersonators, and acted the characters well. Many other costumes worn were worthy of note.

About 40 couples were present in costume and half as many as spectators. At 9 o'clock the grand march took place and from that time until the early morning hours the dancers tripped the light fantastic to the excellent music furnished by Prof. Millward's orchestra of four pieces. Supper was served in the dining room of Hotel Slocan.

The gentlemen present in costume were:

J. Aylwin, Chevalier.

The Ledge [New Denver], 10 Mar 1898:

Mrs. Hill, of Los Angeles, Cal., is visiting her brothers, the Messrs. Aylwin.

["Mrs. Hill" is the former Ann Blake Aylwin. Ann's nephew, Jack Aylwin, wrote the following in 1981: "Ann Blake, probably named after her uncle's third wife - became a nurse - married Chauncey Kellogg Hill in San Francisco and they had one daughter - Halcyon (Mrs. Ernest Carson widowed and living in Victoria BC) before they separated. Annie came to New Denver, BC after separating from her husband and was Matron of the Hospital there for many years."  Ann was married in 1895 in Los Angeles, and she may have already been living in New Denver with her daughter by the date of this newspaper. Ann Aylwin Hill died in Kamloops, BC in 1942.] 


Fire Warden Aylwin is greatly improving his premises on Slocan Avenue. The house is being set back from the street, the whole property will be fenced and a great variety of fruit trees, berry bushes, and flowers planted.


Monday an election was held in New Denver, and it was a lively affair. True, it was only for fire wardens, but the interest was quite as great as if the offices to be filled were those of big salary and long pull. Six candidates were placed in the field and 65 votes were cast. In previous years it has been difficult to get 10 men out to vote, and considerable pressure had to be brought to bear on three citizens to persuade them to stand as candidates. The candidates nominated on Monday, and the votes received were as follows: H.T. Bragdon, 45; C. W. Aylwin, 44; J. Millward, 28; Amos Thompson, 27; T. H. Hoben, 27; H. Clever, 15. Messrs. Bragdon, Aylwin and Millward receiving the highest number of votes, were declared elected for the ensuing year.

The Ledge [New Denver], 28 Apr 1898:

Water has been reached in the Slocan Avenue well in front of the C.W. Aylwin property, and Mr. Aylwin and neighbors are utilizing it for irrigating purposes. The well is down 53 feet. The work of improving the residence property in New Denver goes steadily on, and already the systematic tree planting and garden work has greatly added to the appearance of the town.

The Ledge [New Denver], 5 May 1898:


George Cooper Meets a Horrible Death as a Result of Drink

Yesterday morning, says the Nelson Tribune, acting constable Thompson found George Cooper wandering round in the eastern part of the city, in a shocking condition. His tongue was hanging out of his mouth and badly swollen with a gaping wound on the tip of it. The neck and face were also swollen and discolored, and altogether he presented a most shocking sight. When spoken to, Cooper could not speak intelligibly so Thompson brought him up to Teetzel’s drug store, while he went to Dr. Hall to secure a ticket of admission for the man into the Kootenay Lake General Hospital. Thompson had hardly left before the man expired, those in attendance being of the opinion that he had died of poisoning. Dr. Arthur, coroner, was notified and an inquisition was held in the afternoon.

Cooper was a painter by trade, and had worked in various parts of the district. He was much given to drink, and would resort to various schemes to appease, his appetite for whiskey. He had been working for a while recently and then got off on a drunk. Thursday he was wandering round the streets, with eyes rolling and an open pocket knife in his hand. In the afternoon he was noticed to jab the knife blade in his tongue, causing the blood to flow freely, and he went around in this condition, pointing to his mouth when asked any question. He was also observed sticking toothpicks into the wound. Cooper will be remembered in New Denver. When broke he has been known to wound himself to get into the hospital for a while. This he did at New Denver last summer while working for C. W. Aylwin Cooper struck himself on the leg with a hammer, causing a nasty wound, and so endeavored to get into the hospital here.

The Ledge [New Denver], 26 May 1898:

Mr. and Mrs. Aylard returned from Los Angeles, Cal., Tuesday evening, greatly pleased with their trip yet glad to reach home in little New Denver, where possibly the flowers do not bloom so profusely and the trolley cars move less swiftly, but where peace and quiet reign supremely and there is not the hustle and bustle of California life to disturb one's peaceful slumbers.

The Ledge [New Denver], 23 Jun 1898:


Those of the Slocan Lake Side of the Divide


Following is a list of the names of voters placed on the voters list for New Denver, Slocan City, Roseberry, Sandon, Silverton, Cody, Three Forks, Vevey, and Aylwin:

Aylwin, Charles
Aylwin, Henry
Aylwin, Thos. John

Aylwin, George S

[The 1898 voter list shows four of the Aylwin brothers living in New Denver and Aylwin City. Sister Nellie married to George Aylard lived nearby; and sister Ann was probably living in New Denver as well by that time. The only Aylwin sibling not living in New Denver by now is Frank, who lived in Tacoma.]

The Ledge [New Denver], 28 Jul 1898:

The first apple grown in the Slocan is now in process of maturity in the Aylwin garden. One year ago this garden, now yielding so abundantly in garden truck, was an unsightly field of stumps.

The Ledge [New Denver], 18 Aug 1898:

Little 10-year-old Tracy Aylwin is visiting her uncles, the Aylwin brothers, from her home in Seattle. She made the trip to New Denver alone, and her only misfortune was caused by a horrid man stupidly checking her valise to New York and leaving his for her. A surprise party awaits him when he goes to get a change of clothes.

[Tracy Aylwin is the daughter of Francis 'Frank' Walton Aylwin. Frank was a saloonkeeper by trade who lived in Tacoma.]

The Ledge [New Denver], 15 Sep 1898:

Harry Aylwin was admitted to the hospital Wednesday, sick with fever.

The Ledge [New Denver], 22 Sep 1898:

Geo. Aylwin left for the east Wednesday morning. He will spend some time months with relatives in Quion, Que.

[Oldest brother George Sisson Aylwin leaves New Denver temporarily to return to Quyon, Quebec probably with the intention of bringing his father, George Connolly Aylwin, back to New Denver with him.]

The Ledge [New Denver], 20 Oct 1898:

The first and only apple grown in the Slocan was carefully plucked by C. W. Aylwin a few days ago. It grew on one of the young trees planted by him last year. This historical apple, which has no connection with the disreputable apple which grew long time ago, will be carefully preserved in alcohol, and placed in the honorable company of such articles as Eli Carpenters pick and rifle, a piece of the first cabin erected in this camp, the pioneer grindstone, and subscription list having the original signatures of the pilgrim fathers who came up the Slocan river in 1891.

The Ledge [New Denver], 24 Nov 1898:

Married – On Monday, November 21st, by the Rev. C.F. Yates, Charles W. Aylwin to Mary Elizabeth Gathercole, both of New Denver.



Monday evening C. W. Aylwin was married to Miss L. O'Neill, by the Rev. C.F. Yates, at the latter's residence. The news came as a great surprise to everyone, but their numerous friends join in wishing the newly married pair the longest of happy lives. Mr. and Mrs. Aylwin left by the early train Tuesday morning en route for Spokane, where they purpose remaining some time.

[Here we have two notices of Charles Aylwin's wedding to Elizabeth Gathercole. Both notices are from The Ledge's 24 Nov 1898 edition. The second notice states C. W. Aylwin was married to a Miss L. O'Neill. 'O'Neill' is the name of the "foster" family that Lily Gathercole grew up with. She probably went by 'Lilly' because her foster mother and foster sister were also named 'Mary Elizabeth'.'    

The Ledge [New Denver], 8 Dec 1898:

Mr. and Mrs. C. W. Aylwin returned from their honeymoon on Tuesday evening. They were accompanied by George Aylwin, who has been visiting in Quebec, and their father, Dr. Aylwin.

[George S. Aylwin returns from his trip back to Quyon with his retired father, Dr. George C Aylwin. George C. Aylwin would live in New Denver until his death in 1904.]



Following is the report of the New Denver public school for November, the standing of pupils in the various classes being in the order given:

IV. Class - Oma Young, Edith Yates, Daisy Crowley.
III. Class - Wm. Vallance, Champion Nesbitt, Charlie Millward.
II. Class - Tracy Aylwin, Clarence Vallance, Harold Baker.
II. Part Class - Otto Etabrooks, Grace Baker.
I. Class Primer - Maud Nesbitt, Elizabeth Taylor, Marion Mclnnis.

The average daily attendance was 30.

[Tracy Aylwin, the daughter of Frank Aylwin, apparently attended school in New Denver for the 1898 school year. Tracy's mother, Mary 'Mamie' McGraw, committed suicide with a bullet to the heart in October of 1897. Tracy's father Frank had just remarried in October of 1898. Tracy may have lived with her aunt Nellie Aylard in New Denver, as Nellie had lived with her brother Frank when she was in Tacoma.] 

The Ledge [New Denver], 15 Dec 1898:

In the Home of his Birthplace

So says the Pontiac Advance, published at Quyon, Que. Mr. Geo. Aylwin who has been visiting his many friends here for the past two months, left for his home in New Denver, B.C., Tuesday morning. He was accompanied west by his father, Dr. Aylwin, who has been residing here for the last five years. George, while renewing acquaintances with many old friends, also made many new acquaintances who were very sorry to see him leave, but the one bright ray of hope left is that he will soon return to the land of his birth and the dear friends of his childhood, where he will always find a welcome.

[Here we have a good record that shows George C Aylwin did in fact move to New Denver in December of 1898, and his son George returned back to Quebec to get him. The Ledge quotes the Pontiac Advance as saying George Sr. moved to Quyon in about 1893.] 

The Ledge [New Denver], 16 Feb 1899:

A greater success could not have been than the masquerade ball given Tuesday night in Bosun hall by the local K. of P. lodge. The costuming was unusually fine and the dancers one and all had a merry, merry time. In the gallery a large number of spectators, assembled and witnessed the gaily attired dancers below.

… Jack Aylwin, Indian Chief

The Ledge [New Denver], 6 Apr 1899:


If anyone is impressed with the idea that New Denver will allow the 24th May to go by and not celebrate it as the townspeople have wont to do, they should have attended the meeting held in Bosun hall Saturday night to complete arrangements for the celebration.

Six months ago the citizens of New Denver gave notice that this town would celebrate the Queen's Birthday. Last year, out of respect for sister towns, and to avoid a conflict of interests, our citizens kindly withdrew and allowed the celebration at Silverton to be made the success it ought to have been. This after the fact, had already been advertised that New Denver patriotism would bubble over on that day. But this will not be the case this year. New Denver will celebrate as she never has celebrated before. And the fact that the citizens are enthusiastic and determined to make the event a success, such it will surely be.

Already notices have been sent to the citizens of neighboring towns, and a cordial invitation extended to all to participate with us in making the day one long to be remembered. Plans are already working to have with us on that day several hundred of the citizens of Nelson, many from Kaslo, Sandon, Slocan City, Silverton, Nakusp and waypoints. After the kindly feeling engendered by the visit of the New Denver Band to Nelson last year, accompanied by the train load of our citizens, and their hearty co-operation there, it is but reasonable to expect a return of compliments from that city. So it ought to be with the citizens of the other towns named, and so it will be, despite the efforts of the handful of johnny-come-latelies, whose main desire seems ever to be to keep alive and foster in every conceivable way that narrow, foolish sectional feeling that has but one effect, and tnat is detrimental to the town that is pestered with them.

The meeting Saturday night was attended, by about 50 of our citizens, and was presided over by Wm. Thomlinson. Great enthusiasm was apparent and the slogan cry of all was to celebrate successfully. Little time was lost in complimentaries. Every man was ready for business. A. E. Fauquier was chosen president of the celebration committee; Wm. Thomlinson, vice-president; John Williams, secretary, and Cashier Gibbs,of the Bank of Montreal, treasurer. On the executive committee the following were named: Chas. Nelson, Angus MeGillivray, Chas. Greenlee, H. J. Robie, and John Aylwin.

This committee was given power to add to their number, and to transact all business in connection with the celebration. The minor committees will be appointed by the executive committee, such as the committees on sports, entertainment, reception, etc. It is early yet to even foreshadow what will be the drawing cards for the day. There will be the usual field and aquatic sports; the home band will probably be assisted by the Sandon or Nelson band; baseball, football, lawn tennis and possibly a lacrosse game will be played, and instead of the usual drilling contest a tug-of-war will be given. The day will be closed with a band concert and dance in Bosun hall.

The Ledge [New Denver], 20 Apr 1899:

A.E. Fauquier, Jack Aylwin and Chas. Greenley returned from Nelson Wednesday morning, bringing with them documentary evidence to the effect that Nelson will be at New Denver on May 24th, bag and baggage and the babies. The Odd Fellows of that city also passed a resolution that they would come to New Denver en masse. The Knights of Pythias of Sandon and Nelson will also be on hand. Now all that is necessary is for Kaslo to pin New Denver badges on their coats and join in the procession.

The Ledge [New Denver], 27 Apr 1899:

Mr. and Mrs. George Aylard have had their home blessed with the advent of a bouncing boy baby. Sunday morning he made his appearance.

[Clayton Leslie Aylard]

The Ledge [New Denver], 4 May 1899:

John Aylwin has been confined to his bed the past week, suffering from injuries received in falling from a horse on Friday night. He was removed to the hospital Tuesday, where better treatment can be given him.

The Ledge [New Denver], 11 May 1899:

Geo. Aylwin is making arrangements to re-open his hotel at Aylwin.

The Ledge [New Denver], 25 May 1899:

The sports of the day began at 9:30 when the boat races were called. In the single scull race the entries were W.H. Gibbs, H. McDonald and A. Owens. Gibbs won, with McDonald a very close second.

In the double sculls the entries were McDonald and Gibbs, Harris and Aylwin, and Owens and "Fisherman Jack”. This was won by Harris and Aylwin, with McDonald and Gibbs second. In the canoe race, Harris and Twigg were defeated by Aylwin and Gibbs in a very pretty struggle.

The Ledge [New Denver], 1 Jun 1899:

George Aylard is having his home brushed up handsomely by the painter.


George Aylwin has had his hotel license granted for Aylwin, on Ten Mile creek.



NOTICE IS HEREBY GIVEN that the under mentioned persons have made application under the provisions of the "Liquor License Act 1899" for hotel licenses at the places set opposite their respective names:

JOHN MADDEN, at Slocan Citv,
JOSEPH PAYNE, at, Slocan City,
G. S. AYLWIN, at Aylwin Townsite, near New Denver,
KEEFER & WALNEY, at Collins Rancho near Nelson

A meeting of the Board of License Commissioners of the Slocan License District will be held to consider such applications at the Court House at New Denver on Thursday the fifteenth day of June, 1899, at the hour of eleven o'clock in the forenoon. Provincial Police Office, Robson, B.C., May 27th, 1899.

Provincial License Inspector

The Ledge [New Denver], 8 Jun 1899

Chas. Aylwin is selling great quantities of garden truck off his valuable home property. He has lately added a small sized apiary to his cares and is meeting with flattering success in the bee business.

The Ledge [New Denver], 22 Jun 1899:


* Geo. Aylwin is watchman at the Enterprise.
* Geo. Aylwin secures his hotel license next month.
* The snow has been going very rapidly this week.
* Toronto money is becoming interested on the creek.
* Bears are quite numerous on the creek this season.
* Several fine strings of trout have been caught this spring.
* Ferguson & Munro's pack train is giving every satisfaction.

The Ledge [New Denver], 6 Jul 1899:

Geo. Aylwin has re-opened the Enterprise hotel at Aylwin.



NOTICE IS HEREBY GIVEN that the undermentioned persons have made application under the provisions of the “Liquor License Act 1899” for hotel licenses at the places set opposite their respective names:

Sloan Bros., of Slocan Citv.
C. W. Aylwin & Co.,of New Denver.
Albert Huller. of MeGuigan.
L. M. Knowles, of Silverton.

A meeting of the Board of License Commissioners of the Slocan License District, will be held to consider such applications at the government office at Slocan Citv on Saturday, the 15th day of July, 1899 at the hour of 11 o'clock in the forenoon. Chief Inspector's Office, Robson, B. C. June 27, 1899.

Chief Inspector Slocan L.D.

The Ledge [New Denver], 13 Jul 1899:

… Ten Mile owes its discovery and prominence to the exertions and labors of New Denver prospectors, who are by far the largest owners of claims on the creek. It is about 20 miles long, tapping the Kootenay Lake divide of South Kaslo and Kokanee creeks. There are two forks, the north and south, twelve miles from the lake. A fine rolling valley, with a magnificent forest growth for most of the distance, extends the full length of the creek. One of the best wagon roads in the country has been built to the Enterprise mine, eight miles from the lake, and good pack trails have been built to all the principal properties, and over the Springer Creek, South Kaslo, Kokanee, Granite Creeks, north fork and south fork divides. There are two townsites on the creek, that of Enterprise at the lake shore, owned by R. I. Kirkwood, of New Denver; and Aylwin, commanding the Enterprise basin and owned principally by C. W. Aylwin also of New Denver. C. B. Taylor has a hotel at Enterprise and W. C. E. Koch, feed stables and blacksmith shop. At Aylwin is a hotel owned by Geo. Aylwin; sawmill, by W. Koch and a store by A. Parrish & Co., of Slocan City. Just below the Enterprise mine is a third hotel, owned by P. Stratford, and a number of dwellings.

The Ledge [New Denver], 12 Oct 1899:

Geo. H. Aylard and wife, accompanied by Mrs. Hill, left Tuesday to take in the fair at Spokane.

The Ledge [New Denver], 26 Oct 1899:

Chas. Aylwin is putting more ground under cultivation this fall. He is laying out an extensive garden patch, berry patch, and fruit orchard.

The Ledge [New Denver], 2 Nov 1899:

Aylwin, the upper townsite on Ten Mile, is a busy little burg, owing to the operations of W. C. E. Koch’s sawmill.

The Ledge [New Denver], 23 Nov 1899:

C. W. Aylwin’s deep well, on Slocan avenue, caved in with heavy rain on Saturday night.

The Ledge [New Denver], 7 Dec 1899:


The Liquor License Act, 1899, of B.C.

THE following application's for License have been made and will he considered by the Board of License Commissioners for the Slocan License District, at New Denver, on Friday, the 15th day of December at 10 o'clock a. m.:

C. W. AYLWIN & CO., Denver House, New Denver, Hotel License
GEORGE AYLWIN, Enterprise Hotel, Aylwin, Hotel License

The Ledge [New Denver], 29 Mar 1900:

New Denver can boast of many things. The first apple grown in the Slocan was picked here from a tree planted in the Aylwin garden, and now these gentlemen come forward with the largest hen's egg, measuring 8 ½ inches in circumference.


Possibly no greater improvement has been made round New Denver than that effected on Union street by the Aylwin Bros, and Messrs Byrnes and Strickland. What has heretofore been a thick woods has been transformed into an ideal spot for a fruit orchard and flower and vegetable gardens, which will be planted this spring.


Chas. Aylwin will soon have the finest orchard in the country at Union bay, where, he is transforming the landscape into a summer resort.

A large, assortment of French pansy sets will flower in a month's time; for sale, at 50 cents a dozen Address, Chas. W. Aylwin. New Denver.

The Ledge [New Denver], 17 May 1900:

C. W. Aylwin has succeeded by putting a hydraulic ram to force water from Carpenter creek to his home on Slocan avenue for irrigation purposes.




This hotel is near the Enterprise on Ten Mile creek and convenient to travelers to and from Camp Mansfield and Smuggler mine.

George Aylwin.

The Ledge [New Denver], 7 Jun 1900:

C. W. Aylwin has fruit and vegetables grown in New Denver for sale. His strawberries and vegetables are never picked or pulled until orders are received, consequently they are always palatable. Cut flowers also for sale, and all productions shipped to all parts of the country. Write for prices.


The Ledge [New Denver], 14 Jun 1900:

Mrs. Mallette, a female gin dealer from Nelson, is negotiating for the Denver House.

The Ledge [New Denver], 5 Jul 1900:




Carleton, Ten Mile, Geo. Aylwin

The Ledge [New Denver], 19 Jul 1900:




Pontiac, Ten Mile, J. Aylwin
Emerald, same, G. Aylwin

The Ledge [New Denver], 9 Aug 1900:

Harry and Jack Aylwin are now in full command at the Denver House, Charlie retiring to devote his time to other interests.

The Ledge [New Denver], 30 Aug 1900:




Lady Bell, Ten Mile, G. Aylwin

The Ledge [New Denver], 6 Sep 1900:

Mr. and Mrs. C. Aylwin have returned from a visit to the Halcyon Hot Springs


Born – In New Denver, on Friday, Aug. 31, the wife of George Aylard, a daughter.

[Clara Muriel Aylard]

The Ledge [New Denver], 4 Oct 1900:

Aylwin Bros are putting a new and handsome front to the Denver House.

The Ledge [New Denver], 18 Oct 1900:

Three thousand strawberry plants are being set out this fall in the Aylwin Bros.'s Union Bay gardens. New Denver will soon have an abundant supply of this luscious fruit, and will be better able to supply the enormous demand in the Slocan camps.

The Ledge [New Denver], 6 Dec 1900:


Aylwin Bros, Denver House, New Denver, hotel license
George Aylwin, Aylwin House, Aylwin, B.C., hotel license


The Mining Review [Sandon], 5 Jan 1901:


                                      THE DENVER HOUSE
                       Headquarters for Traveling Men and Miners
                                   The Table is First Class,
  The Bar is always stocked with the best imported Wines, Liquors, and Cigars,
                  The Rooms are that can be desired for comfort.
                                 NELSON & CO., Proprietors.

[This advertisement for the Denver House has the name 'Nelson & Co.' instead of the Aylwin name as proprietors. It's not known whether Charles had sold the hotel, or if only the company name was changed. The Aylwin Bros. had just reapplied for their hotel license barely 30 days before this advertisement.]

The Ledge [New Denver], 13 Apr 1902

A quiet wedding took place Wednesday morning at the residence of Chas. W. Aylwin, when Geo. Aylwin and Miss Sarah Gathercole were united in holy wedlock, Rev. A. E. Roberts, officiating. A sumptuous wedding breakfast was served and the happy twain took the morning boat enroute to Nelson.

[Sarah Gathercole was the sister of Elizabeth Gathercole who married George's brother Charles.]

The Kootenay Mail [Revelstoke], 3 Oct 1902:

Owing to a change in business and our inability to properly attend to it, we will lease to any industrious person the Aylwin market garden, Union bay, for a short or long term, at an extremely low rental. The gardens embrace five acres, and are planted with 300 fruit trees - plums, cherries and apples - 200 will be bearing next year; 300 currant bushes, 200 blackberry bushes, 100 gooseberry bushes, 200 rhubarb roots and 10,000 strawberry plants. All yielding good crops. Ample ground for garden truck under the hoe. No Chinese gardens to compete with. This is a rare opportunity. For terms, etc., apply to,

C. H. Aylwin,
New Denver, B. C.

[It looks like by 1902 Charles had sold his hotel, and had grown his produce business substantially. The above advertisement to lease his produce operation suggests Charles may have been semi-retired, or perhaps interested in doing other things by 1902. Charles had his first child Clara in 1901, and would have 9 children by the time he died in New Denver in 1932 at age 72.]

The Ledge [New Denver], 16 Apr 1908:

Charley Aylwin has sent his family back to New Denver and gone north. He is probably looking for a spot to start another Pig and Whistle [saloon].

The Ledge [New Denver], 14 Mar 1912:

George Aylwin of New Denver has recovered from a severe attack of pneumonia.

The Ledge [New Denver], 4 Apr 1912:

George Aylwin died in New Denver last week from pneumonia.

[Apparently George was not able to survive the severe pneumonia attack after all. George Aylwin died at age 55 and left six children under age 10.]

[Snippets extracted from newspapers digitized and online at British Columbia Historical Newspapers (University of British Columbia).]


This page last updated Sunday, March 17, 2012
All links last checked Sunday, March 17, 2012