work in progress
Ilya Ivanovich Ivanov
born Aug. 1, 1870, Shigry, Kursk guberniya [province], Russia
died March 20, 1932, Alma-Ata, Kazakh S.S.R. [now Almaty, Kazakhstan]
Soviet biologist who developed a method for artificially inseminating domestic animals.
In 1898 Ivanov established in Moscow several zoological laboratories where he studied the structure and vital processes of sex organs of farm animals, including the secretions of accessory sex glands during impregnation. From his observations he concluded that the single condition necessary for impregnation was the union of spermatozoon and egg and that spermatozoa retain their motility and potency for a certain length of time if properly preserved. Ivanov succeeded in developing techniques for obtaining, preserving, and disinfecting semen, in addition to devising a procedure for artificial insemination that could be used for all types of livestock.
In 1901 Ivanov founded the world’s first centre for artificially impregnating horses at Dolgoe Village, Orlovskaya guberniya. He proceeded to experiment with interspecies hybridization, crossbreeding domestic animals with wild varieties by means of artificial insemination. His object was to produce commercially usable hybrids and to develop new breeds more resistant to illness and more adaptable to the harsh Russian winters. He produced, for example, a hybrid of domestic horse by crossbreeding a zebra and Przewalski’s horse (Equus caballus przewalskii), the only true wild horse still in existence. He also sought to preserve certain endangered species of wild animals, such as the wisent (European bison).
"Ilya Ivanovich Ivanov." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 30 Nov. 2009 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/298224/Ilya-Ivanovich-Ivanov>.
Ilya Ivanovich Ivanov. (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved November 30, 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/298224/Ilya-Ivanovich-Ivanov
Human-ape hybridization experiments
The most controversial of Ivanov's studies was his attempt to create a human-ape hybrid. As early as 1910 he had given a presentation to the World Congress of Zoologists in Graz in which he described the possibility of obtaining such a hybrid through artificial insemination.
In 1924, while working at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, Ivanov obtained permission from the Institute's directors to use its experimental primate station in Kindia, French Guinea, for such an experiment. Ivanov attempted to gain backing for his project from the Soviet government. He dispatched letters to the People's Commissar on Education and Science Anatoliy Vasilievich Lunacharsky and to other officials. Ivanov's proposal finally sparked the interest of Nikolai Petrovich Gorbunov, the head of the Department of Scientific Institutions. In September 1925 Gorbunov helped allocate US$10,000 to the Academy of Sciences for Ivanov's human-ape hybridization experiments in Africa.
In March 1926 Ivanov arrived at the Kindia facility, but stayed only a month without success. The Kindia site, it turned out, had no sexually mature chimpanzees. He returned to France where he arranged through correspondence with French Guinea's colonial governor to set up experiments at the botanical gardens in Conakry.
Ivanov reached Conakry in November 1926 accompanied by his son, also named Ilya, who would assist him in his experiments. Ivanov supervised the capture of adult chimpanzees in the interior of the colony, which were brought to Conakry and kept in cages in the botanical gardens. On February 28, 1927, Ivanov artificially inseminated two female chimpanzees with human sperm (not his own or his son's). On June 25, he injected a third chimpanzee with human sperm. The Ivanovs left Africa in July with thirteen chimps, including the three used in his experiments. They already knew before leaving that the first two chimpanzees had failed to become pregnant. The third died in France, and was also found not to have been pregnant. The remaining chimps were sent to a new primate station at Sukhumi.
Although Ivanov attempted to organize the insemination of human females with chimpanzee sperm in Guinea, these plans met with resistance from the French colonial government and there is no evidence such an experiment was arranged there.
Upon his return to the Soviet Union in 1927, Ivanov began an effort to organize hybridization experiments at Sukhumi using ape sperm and human females. Eventually in 1929, through the help of Gorbunov, he obtained the support of the Society of Materialist Biologists, a group associated with the Communist Academy. In the spring of 1929 the Society set up a commission to plan Ivanov's experiments at Sukhumi. They decided that at least five volunteer women would be needed for the project. However, in June 1929, before any inseminations had taken place, Ivanov learned that the only postpubescent male ape remaining at Sukhumi (an orangutan) had died. A new set of chimps would not arrive at Sukhumi until the summer of 1930.
In the course of a general political shakeup in the Soviet scientific world Gorbunov and a number of the scientists involved in the planning of the Sukhumi experiments lost their positions. In the spring of 1930 Ivanov came under political criticism at his veterinary institute. Finally on December 13, 1930 Ivanov was arrested. He was sentenced to five years of exile to Alma Ata, where he worked for the Kazakh Veterinary-Zoologist Institute until his death from a stroke on 20 March 1932. The renowned physiologist and psychologist Ivan Pavlov wrote an obituary for him.
^ Интересное чтиво at kokshetau.online.kz