British first census is performed. This provides demographics of the population and information of the number of people especially important in times of war. http://www.british-history.ac.uk/Default.aspx -Julia Murphy 3/25/08 12:50 PM
Beethoven’s "Moonlight Sonata" was composed in the summer of 1801 in < xml="true" ns="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" prefix="st1" namespace="">Hungary, on an estate belonging to the Brunswick family. The composition was published in 1802 and was dedicated to inspiration, despite the sadness that is felt throughout the piece.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page -Julia Murphy 3/25/08 12:49 PM
Beethoventype here -Julia Murphy 3/25/08 12:51 PM
Fulton’s submarine – The Nautilus. Robert Fulton, born Nov. 14 1769, was a U.S. engineer and inventor who is credited with developing the first commercially successful steam-powered boat. He also designed a new type of a steam warship. In 1800 he was commissioned by Napoleon Bonaparte to design Nautilus, which was the first practical submarine in history. In his successful invasions of most European nations, Napoleon was constantly looking for new military applications of the new technologies of the times.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page-Julia Murphy 3/25/08 12:52 PM
In 1801, Matthew Flinders was given command of the "Investigator" to chart the remaining unexplored coastline of Australia. He had previously engaged in Australian coastal exploration and was a navigator of outstanding ability. He proved that Australia was not divided into two large islands as some people had imagined. Setting out again from Port Jackson in July, 1802, Flinders followed the coast northward and arrived in Torres Strait in October. Having charted the Gulf of Carpentaria, he continued his voyage and, stopping at Timor for repairs, sailed round the continent, to arrive in Sydney on 9th June, 1803.http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/interactive/timelines/british/index.shtml -Julia Murphy 3/25/08
March 27, (1802), an agreement signed at Amiens, France, by Britain, France, Spain, and the Batavian Republic (the Netherlands), achieving a peace in Europe for 14 months during the Napoleonic Wars. It ignored some questions that divided Britain and France, such as the fate of the Belgian provinces, Savoy, and Switzerland.http://www.british-history.ac.uk/Default.aspx -Julia Murphy 3/25/08 12:52 PM
The 1802 Health and Morals of Apprentices Act: Industrialization and striving for big profits brought about common practices for factory owners to employ poor or orphaned children in their mills as "apprentices". The practice had been started by Sir Robert Peel, MP, a factory owner of Bury in Lancashire, whose son was a Prime Minister. In his mills, conditions were so bad that an outbreak of "fever" had caused most of the poor apprentices to die. He did not pay the children, thus cutting the cost of the finished textiles. Robert Owen, a philanthropist who own a mill factory and was concerned about his workers, refused to employ children under the age of ten. He also built a housing and school on the mill grounds. Being a decent man, he persuaded Peel to put through parliament the Health and Morals of Apprentices Act. This was the first attempt at reforming working conditions. The Act attempted to legislate for "pauper apprentices" and fixed a maximum twelve hour working day for the children. Other terms of the Act were
mills must have sufficient windows to ensure a flow of fresh air
the walls and floor of the mill must be washed regularly
separate bedrooms must be provided for the two sexes
there must be no more than two children to a bed
two suits of clothing must be provided for each child, one to be new each year
for at least the first four years of their apprenticeship, children must be instructed in reading, writing and arithmetic
In the Campbell’s Foreign Semi-Monthly Magazine on micro film there is an article on the horrible conditions in mines throughout Wales and several pictures show how narrow and small they were made. Only children could crawl inside. Needless to say, there was no ventilation and very often they suffocated from the poison gasses in the air inside. Another sketch shows a woman lowering two children in a open well of a mine, using the strength of her hands with what appears to be a rope on a reel. type here -Julia Murphy 3/25/08 12:53 PM
THE AUTHOR AND THE TWO COMEDIANS; OR THE ADOPTED CHILD; A NOVEL.
London: Printed for M. Allen, 15, Paternoster-Row; and sold by all Booksellers in the United Kingdom, 1802.
1 vol. (iv, 228p). 12°.
Newberry Library, Chicago Y.155.A961; EN2 1802: 1; xNSTC; Xoclc.
Imprint on t.p. after imprint date reads: 'The Profits of this Edition will be appropriated to the Benefit of the Charity-Schools of Castle-Baynard Ward and Pentonville'.
George Cruickshank was born in London on 27th September, 1792. His father was a caricaturist who died as a result of his alcoholism in 1811. After a brief education at an elementary school in Edgeware, Cruikshank set himself up as a caricaturist in London. In 1802 he begins a career as an illustrator. Cruikshank was soon selling his drawings to over twenty different print sellers. This included a large caricature that appeared in each issue of William Jones's satirical magazine, The Scourge. These early drawings included attacks on the royal family and leading politicians. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/interactive/timelines/british/index.shtml-Julia Murphy 3/25/08
Jeremy Bentham, English social reformer, jurist and philosopher. Best known for as a political radical and for his advocacy of utilitarianism and animal rights. Robert Owen, the founder of socialism was his pupil.Bentham's position included arguments in favor of individual and economic freedom, the separation of church and state, freedom of expression, equal rights for women, animal rights, the end of slavery, the abolition of physical punishment (including that of children), the right to divorce, free trade, usury, and the decriminalization of homosexuality. -Julia Murphy 3/25/08 12:53 PM
The story of Richard Trevithick is one of the great, sad romances of the Industrial Revolution. The son of a Cornish mine captain was not simply an engineer - he was an inventor (his railway engines were running a decade before George Stephenson's) a visionary and a larger-than-life adventurer. But he still ended his life in poverty, wondering how it all went wrong. Trevithick was excited by the performance of the world's first locomotive engine after its trials on the Penydarren wagon-way in South Wales. He wrote enthusiastically to his friend Davis Gilbert on February 20th 1804: 'The engine, with water encluded, is abt five tons. It runs up the Tram road... The engine moves forth 9 feet every stroak. The publick is much taken up with it.’ The wagonway had been built two years earlier to move finished iron the 9.5 miles from Merthyr Tydfil to the canal at Abercynon. On its inaugural run, the engine collided with a low bridge and damaged its tall chimney. Trevithick made running repairs and continued the trip uneventfully. type here -Julia Murphy 3/25/08 12:54 PM
Democritus first suggested the existence of the atom but it took almost two millennia before the atom was placed on a solid foothold as a fundamental chemical object by John Dalton (1766-1844). Although two centuries old, Dalton's atomic theory remains valid in modern chemical thought. type here -Julia Murphy 3/25/08 12:54 PM
France and England resume the war.type here -Julia Murphy 3/25/08 12:54 PM
The Louisiana Purchase: Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte had a vision of a renewed western empire for France, and his schemes included the recapture of Louisiana from Spain. Control over this vast territory would halt the westward expansion of the young United States and would supply French colonies in the West Indies with the goods they needed. In 1800, Napoleon signed the secret Treaty of Ildefonso with Spain, an agreement that stipulated that France would provide Spain with a kingdom for the son-in-law of Spain's king if Spain would return Louisiana to France. However, Napoleon's plan collapsed when the twelve-year revolt of slaves and free blacks in the French colony of Saint-Domingue succeeded, forcing French troops to return defeated to France and preventing them from reaching their ultimate destination--Louisiana--and from being able to defend it. As NaThe United States discovered the transfer of Louisiana from Spain to France and sent Robert Livingston to France in 1801 to try to purchase New Orleans. Napoleon initially refused, leading President Thomas Jefferson to send James Monroe to secure the deal. However, in April 1803, just days before Monroe was to arrive in Paris, Napoleon offered to sell the United States not only New Orleans but all of Louisiana. Napoleon's minister of the treasury, the Marquis de Barbé-Marbois, dealt with Livingston and Monroe over terms of the Louisiana Purchase. The United States purchased Louisiana for $11,250,000 and assumed claims of its own citizens against France up to $3,750,000, for a total purchase price of $15 million. type here -Julia Murphy 3/25/08 12:55 PM
William Godwin spends several years on the Life of Chaucer in 1804. -Julia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Pag
Benjamin West paints "Christ Healing the Sick." "And the blind and the lame came to him in the temple; And he healed them." (Matthew 21:14) This was the theme of several paintings by B.West, considered the father of American painting. Born in Philadelphia in 1783 he spends most of his life in England as a member of the Royal Academy and becomes the historical painter of King George III. He opens a studio in London for American students who want to study abroad. type here -Julia Murphy 3/25/08 12:57 PM