APA References

APA - American Psychological Association
Used by many classes in the social and natural sciences and in business.
The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 6th ed. Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association, 2010. Available in the library for checkout: Call#  BF 76.7 P83 2010 

Digital Object Identifier

APA guidelines require the addition of the digital object identifier (DOI) to the citation.  A DOI is a unique string of numbers assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to online journals to identify their content and provide a consistent link to their locations on the Internet (see sections 6.31-6.32 and 7.01 of the APA Publications Manual).  The publisher assigns a DOI when an article is published and made available electronically.  The DOI number is usually located on the first page of the electronic journal article and on the databases often will be found on the citation or first page of the article record. When the DOI is present, the URL or website address is not included, but when the DOI is not present, then the URL or website is required.
When the DOI is present:
            General format:
                                Author A. A. (date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume(number),
                                                page numbers. doi: xx.xxxxxx

                                Garcia, D., & Siddiqui, A. (2009). Adolescents’ psychological well-being and memory

                                                for life events: Influences on life satisfaction with respect to temperamental

                                                dispositions. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10(4), 407-419. doi: 10.1007/



When DOI is not present:

                General format

                                Author, A. A. (date of publication). Title of Article. Title of Journal, volume(number),

                                                page numbers. Retrieved from URL or website address



                                Broman, C. L. (2008). Family structure and mediators of adolescent drug use. Journal

                                                of Family Issues, 29(12), 1625-1649. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.



Citation Examples
Double-space citations. Use the Times New Roman font.
  • Sources from Fullerton College Databases
  • Print Sources
  • Online Sources
Sources from Fullerton College Databases

Annals of American History Online

Ross, M. (1937). Why Social Security? Social Security Board Publication No. 15. Retrieved from



Washington, G. (1789). First inaugural address. Retrieved from http://america.eb.com/america/article?



CQ Researcher

Masci, D. (2004, May 7). Future of marriage. CQ Researcher, 14, 197-420. Retrieved from


EBSCOhost Databases

If the article has no author, start the citation with the title.  For popular magazines and newspapers you need the full date; for scholarly articles only the year is needed.  For popular magazines (e.g., TimeNewsweekNation) you do not need the volume number; for scholarly journals you will need the volume number and issue number (if provided). The DOI (if available) or URL (i.e., the Permalink) is on the first or citation page (click on the article title).     

Global warming (2006, April 3). Time, 28-33. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?        


Hawkins, D. (2000, January 17). Cheap video cameras are monitoring our every move. U.S. News &

     World Report, 52. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=



Thompson, J. A., & Halberstadt, A. G. (2008). Children’s accounts of sibling jealousy and their implicit

     theories about relationships. Social Development, 17(3), 488-511. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-


Gale Virtual Reference Library

Citation information on this database will be at the start of each reference source (e.g., dictionary, encyclopedia, handbook, etc.) entry.  If there is no author for the entry, start with the title.  The URL or website address will be under the How to Cite feature. 


Garman, B. (2000). Dylan, Bob.  In S. Pendergast & T. Pendergast (Eds.), St. James Encyclopedia of

     Popular Culture (Vol. 1, pp. 780-783). Detroit: Gale. Retrieved from http://find.galegroup.com/gvrl/



Santora, P. B., & Henningfield, J. E. (2005). Nicotine. In J. Goodman (Ed.), Tobacco in History and  
    Culture: An Encyclopedia 
(pp. 387-392). Detroit: Gale. Retrieved from 


Opposing Viewpoints in Context

This database includes a variety of sources: viewpoint essays, articles, book chapters, etc.; each is cited differently.  The URL or website will be found under the How to cite feature. 


Brave, R, (2001, December 10). Governing the genome: Which genetic modifications should be

     encouraged and which outlawed? Nation, 18. Retrieved from http://find.galegroup.com/ovrc/



Kaliher, W. B. (2003). Partner notification of HIV status should be mandatory. In T. L. Roleff (Ed.),

     Opposing Viewpoints: AIDS. San Diego: Greenhaven Press. Retrieved from http://find.galegroup.com/




Zbogar, H. (2002). Q & A: Integrating ethics into the mental health and addiction fields. Journal of

     Addiction and Mental Health, 6(1), 16-17. Retrieved from http://find.galegroup.com/ovrc/




Bauman, A. (2000). [Review of the book Jane Austen and the fiction of her time, by M. Waldron]. Tulsa

Studies in Women’s Literature,19, 342­345. Retrieved from http://www.utulsa.edu/tswl


Golden, R. M. (1997). American perspectives on the European witch hunts. History Teacher, 30, 409­426.


LexisNexis Academic

This database includes a variety of sources: journals, magazines, and newspapers (1st example), company dossiers (2nd example), and legal sources (http://j.mp/pyGDxe).

Wildstrom, S.H. (1999, April 5). A big boost for net privacy. Business Week, p. 23. Retrieved from
    LexisNexis Academic database

LexisNexis. Harley Davidson, Inc. (2010). Retrieved 2010, January 10 from LexisNexis Academic database

RAND California

Click on Statistics Summary to find the author or agency responsible for the data; the date is the last date of the compiled statistical data. 


California Dept. of Education (2007). Ethnic enrollment statistics—Orange County. Retrieved from



Research & Analysis Unit at the Chancellor's Office (2007). Community college enrollment statistics.

      Retrieved from http://ca.rand.org/cgi-bin/annual.cgi  

                 Back to Top

Print Sources


Books, Reference Books, and Book Chapters (7.02, pp. 202-205)


Burkhardt, J. M. (2003). Teaching information literacy: 35 practical, standards-based exercises for college

     students. Chicago, IL: American Library Association.


Kender, S. E. (Ed.). (1996). Crime in America. New York, NY: Wilson.


Strunk, W., Jr., & White, E. B. (1979). The elements of style (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Macmillan.


Reference Books (Dictionaries, Encyclopedias, Atlases, etc.) (7.02.27, p. 204)

APA concise dictionary of psychology. (2009). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.


Rogelbert, S. G. (Ed.). (2007). Encyclopedia of industrial and organizational psychology (Vols. 1-2).

     Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


Waclawski, J. (2007). Focus groups. In S. G. Rogelbert (Ed.), Encyclopedia of industrial and organizational

      psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 255-256). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


Book Chapters

Binks, G. (2001). Eating disorders are not necessarily harmful. In J. A. Hurley (Ed.), Eating disorders:

     Opposing viewpoints (pp. 31-36). San Diego, CA: Greenhaven. (Reprinted from The joys of anorexia,

     by G. Binks, 2000, January 27, Salon).


Conrad, J. (1959). The secret sharer. In R. G. Davis (Ed.), Ten modern masters: An anthology of short

      stories (2nd ed., pp. 98-136). New York, NY: Harcourt. 


Victor, J. S.  (2002). The extent of Satanic crime is exaggerated. In T. L. Roleff (Ed.), At issue:

     Satanism (pp. 32-48). San Diego, CA: Greenhaven. (Excerpted from Satanic panic: The creation of

     a contemporary legend, by J. S. Victor, 1993).


Electronic or Online Books

Place of publication and publisher information are not needed for online books.


Tonry, M. H. (2004). Thinking about crime: Sense and sensibility in American penal culture.  Retrieved

     from http://www.netlibrary.com/Reader/

Electronic or Online Version of Republished Book (7.02.21, p. 203)

London, J. (2004). Call of the wild. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books (Original work

     published 1903)


Newspaper, Popular Magazine, and Journal Articles (7.01.3, 7.01.7, 7.01.10, p. 198-203)  
If there is no author, start with the title. Popular magazines do not require a volume/issue number.


Blue, L. (2009, August 3). Preventing preemies. Newsweek, 37-40.


Mershon, D. H. (1998, November/December). Star Trek in the brain: Alien minds, human minds.

     American Scientist, 86(6), 585.


Nude model riles MoMA (2009, August 29). Los Angeles Times, p. D2.


Rodriguez, A. (2009, August 10). Pakistani Taliban preys on youth. Los Angeles Times, pp. A1, A15.

 Back to Top


Online Sources

Article from an Online Scholarly Journal

O’Hara, L. (1998, June). Body image and eating behaviours: Preventing disease or promoting health?

     Eating Disorders Online, 1(2). Retrieved from http://www.eda.org.au/internetwork/journal/



Article from an Online Popular Magazine (e.g., Time, Newsweek, Vanity Fair)

Clark, K. (2009, August 27). How a new tax credit can help you pay for college. U.S. News & World

     Report.  Retrieved from http://www.usnews.com/blogs/college-cash-101/2009/08/27/how-a-new-tax-



Article from an Online Newspaper (7.01.11,  p. 200)

Gertenzang, J. (2006, May 9). Bush makes final push for Medicare drug program. Los Angeles Times.

      Retrieved from http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-050906bush_lat,o,5382305.



Article from a Database with DOI Present (6.31, 7.01,  pp. 188-192, 198-199)

Kortteinen, H., Narhi, V., & Ahonen, T. (2005).  Does IQ matter in adolescents’ reading disability?

     Learning & Individual Differences, 19(2), 257-261. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2009.01.003


Article from a Database without DOI (7.01.03,  p. 199)

Siu, A. M. H., & Shek, D. T. L. (2005). The Chinese version of the social problem-solving inventory: Some

     initial results on reliability and validity. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61(3), 347-360. Retrieved from



Entry in an Online Encyclopedia (7.01.29, p. 205)

If the entry has no author, then start with the title.


Photosynthesis. (2009). In Encyclopedia Britannica online. Retrieved from http://www.brittanica.com/



Pope, H. (1910). St. Mary Magdalen. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://www.newadvent.




If there is no date on the website use n.d.in parentheses.


Amnesty International. (2005, May 10). Growing network of arms brokers and transporters fuelling kills,

      rage, and torture.  Retrieved from http://news.amnestry.org/index/ENGPOL300132006


Library of Congress. (2001, March 23).  Born in slavery: Slave narratives from the Federal Writers’

      Project, 1936-1938. Retrieved from http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/snhtml/


Liu, V. (n.d.). Emma: A literary analysis on character techniques.  The Jane Austen homepage.  Retrieved

     from http://www.geocities.com/Athens/8563/essays/essay1.html?20093


Rusche, H. (2004). Lost poets of the great war. Retrieved from http://www.english.emory.edu/LostPoets/


U. S. Bureau of the Census. (2009, March 31). Income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in the

     United States: 2007. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/www/hlthins/hlthin07.html



 Additional Resources