Garry Kasparov (born April 13, 1963 in Baku) is a Soviet-Russian chess grandmaster, 13th World Chess Champion (1985), whom many consider the greatest chess player of all time. He was born to an Armenian mother (Klara Kasparova) and Jewish father (Kim Weinstein).
He became the youngest ever undisputed World Chess Champion in 1985 and held the official FIDE world title until 1993. His ratings achievements include being rated world #1 almost continuously from 1986 until his retirement in 2005 and holding the all-time highest rating of 2851. He also holds records for consecutive tournament victories and Chess Oscars. Kasparov twice tied for first place in the USSR Chess Championship, in 1980–81 and 1981–82. In 2004 he won Russian Chess Championship. He played in a total of eight Chess Olympiads, representing the Soviet Union four times and Russia four times, and won a total of 19 medals. In 2004, Kasparov played in "Armenia vs. the Rest of the World" match, representing the Armenian team.
Other results include: 1st at Bugojno 1982; 1st at Moscow 1982; 1st at Niksic 1983; 1st at Brussels 1986; =1st at Brussels 1987; 1st at Amsterdam 1988; 1st at Belfort 1988; =1st at Moscow 1988; 1st at Reykjavik 1988; =1st at Barcelona 1989; =1st at Skelleftea 1989; 1st at Tilburg 1989; 1st at Belgrade 1989; 1st at Linares 1990; 1st at Tilburg 1991; 1st at Linares 1992; =1st at Dortmund 1992; 1st at Linares 1993; 1st at Amsterdam 1994; =1st at Novgorod 1994; 1st at Horgen 1994; 1st at Riga 1995; 1st at Novgorod 1995; =1st at Amsterdam 1996; 1st at Las Palmas 1996; 1st at Linares 1997; 1st at Novgorod 1997; =1st at Tilburg 1997; 3rd at Linares 1998; 1st at Wijk aan Zee 1999; 1st at Linares 1999; 1st at Sarajevo 1999; 1st at Wijk aan Zee 2000; =1st at Linares 2000; 1st at Sarajevo 2000; 1st at Linares 2001; 1st at Astana 2001; 1st at Linares 2002; =2nd at Linares 2004; 1st at Linares 2005.
Kasparov retired from professional chess in 2005 and has since devoted himself to political activities related to promoting democracy in Russia. He formed the United Civil Front movement, and joined as a member of The Other Russia, a coalition opposing the administration of Vladimir Putin. He became a candidate for the Russian presidency in 2007 but was barred from running because he had not been nominated by a registered political party.
Kasparov is also well-known author. His books include: Caro-Kann: Classical 4.Bf5 (co-written with his trainer Alexander Shakarov; 1984); Child of Change: An Autobiography (1987); My Great Predecessors (5 volume: 2003-2006); How Life Imitates Chess (2007); Garry Kasparov on Modern Chess (3 volume: 2007-2009).