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Plagiarism rules & handbook

Bibliographies, references and citations

Your extended essay must reflect intellectual honesty in research practices and provide the reader with the exact sources of quotations, ideas and points of view through accurate bibliographies and referencing. Producing accurate citations, referencing and a bibliography is a skill that you should be seeking to perfect; it is not a nuisance or something to be taken lightly as it will follow you throughout your academic career and further. Documenting your research in this way is vital: it allows readers to evaluate the evidence for themselves and it shows your understanding of the importance of the sources used.

Failure to comply with this requirement will be viewed as plagiarism and will, therefore, be treated as a case of malpractice!

Not sure what to do? Follow the plagiarism flow chart:

What is a bibliography?

A bibliography is an alphabetical list of every source used to research and write the essay. Sources that are not cited in the body of the essay, but were important in informing the approach taken, should be cited in the introduction or in an acknowledgement. The bibliography should only list those sources cited.

There are a number of different documentation styles available for use when writing research papers; each academic field has its own style, which comes with its own rules. At the International School Groningen, we have opted to use only one style of documentation: Modern Language Association (MLA).

It is important that you have a clear understanding of this documentation style is used and it is something you need to apply from the very start of your research.

Below is an instructional video from the OWL Purdue writing lab that explains what your bibliography or works cited list should look like in MLA format:

What is a reference?

A reference is a way of indicating to the reader, in an orderly form, where information has been obtained. A reference provides all the information needed to find the source material. References must be cited because they acknowledge the sources used, and enable the reader to consult the work and verify the data that has been presented.

References must be given whenever someone else's work is quotes or summarized. References can come from many different sources, including books, magazines, journals, newspapers, emails, internet sites and interviews.

The more important a particular point is to the essay, the more the quality of its source needs to be evaluated. It is therefore that you should be cautious with information from the internet. Make sure the websites you use, use references and sources that can be cross-checked against other sources.

What is a citation?

A citation is a shorthand method of making a reference in the body of an essay, which is linked to the full reference at the end of the essay. A citation provides the reader with accurate references so that he or she can locate the source easily.

This Power-point shows you how to do citations in the required format:

OWL MLA Guide.ppt

Or you can use Word to help you keep track.

Using Word to keep track of your references

What is a (direct/in-direct) quotation?

A direct quotation is a report or representation of the exact words of a source of information. Direct quotations can range from one word to several sentences. A direct quotation shorter than 3 lines will be embedded in your writing and set off by double quotation marks. It is followed by a citation, showing the reader what bibliography reference it belongs to. Quotations longer than three lines are put into block quotes, which require no quotation marks, but do need to be set apart by a white line before and after the quote, as well as an indentation of all lines of the quotation.

The space, in which "My [her] noble Father was borne and my [her] blessed Mother dyes" (Clifford 235), was not only important to Clifford due to these historical facts, but also because she had it decorated in a curious but very characteristic way and Spense wrote on the subject that:

Anne's room at Brougham would have appeared unusual to most visitors. Bishop Rainbow wrote that 'although she had not many Books in her Chamber yet is was dressed up with the flowers of a library'. This is because she decorated the walls, her bed, hangings and furniture with sayings or remarks from authors she had read or learned. (Spense 216)

So this last period, all important features of her life seem to have come together in just one room: her family, the family history, her religion, her reading and her diary.

In direct quotations, pay close attention to the spelling, grammar and punctuation. Do not correct any things you perceive to be a mistake. Copy the text as it is in the original. If you feel any clarification is needed

An indirect quotation or paraphrase is a restatement of a text or source in another form or other words. It is often used to shorten or simplify an idea. In a paraphrase, you retain all of the original source except the words, which is why a paraphrase also needs a citation. Make sure you indicate where a paraphrase starts and always have it followed by a citation. You can start a paraphrase with a sentence such as 'Shakespeare said: ...'. A paraphrase does not require quotation marks.


Both direct and in-direct quotations are used to add validity to your line of argumentation. Use sources to add support from experts in the field, doing so (correctly) will give your work extra, not less, credibility.

Kim Bergman,
14 jan. 2014 04:26
Kim Bergman,
14 jan. 2014 04:26