Bill of Lading

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Bill of lading
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A bill of lading (also referred to as a BOL or B/L) is a document issued by a carrier, e.g. a ship's master or by a company's shipping department, acknowledging that specified goods have been received on board as cargo for conveyance to a named place for delivery to the consignee who is usually identified. A through bill of lading involves the use of at least two different modes of transport from road, rail, air, and sea. The term derives from the noun "bill", a schedule of costs for services supplied or to be supplied, and from the verb "to lade" which means to load a cargo onto a ship or other form of transport.

Short statement of principle

The standard short form bill of lading is evidence of the contract of carriage of goods and it serves a number of purposes:
it is evidence that a valid contract of carriage, or a chartering contract, exist, and it may incorporate the full terms of the contract between the consignor and the carrier by reference (i.e. the short form simply refers to the main contract as an existing document, whereas the long form of a bill of lading issued by the carrier sets out all the terms of the contract of carriage);
it is a receipt signed by the carrier confirming whether goods matching the contract description have been received in good condition (a bill will be described as clean if the goods have been received on board in apparent good condition and stowed ready for transport); and
it is also a document of transfer, and a negotiable instrument, i.e. it governs all the legal aspects of physical carriage, and, like a cheque or other negotiable instrument, it may be endorsed affecting ownership of the goods actually being carried. This matches everyday experience in that the contract a person might make with a commercial carrier like FedEx for mostly airway parcels, is separate from any contract for the sale of the goods to be carried, however it binds the carrier to its terms, irrespectively of who the actual holder of the B/L, and owner of the goods, may be at a specific moment.

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Terms and conditions

Samples 

Bill of lading
Straight bill of lading
Order bill of lading
Bearer bill of lading
Surrender bill of lading
Air waybill