Examples Of Cultural Diffusion

    cultural diffusion
  • The spread of a culture and/or an individual trait, and the factors that account for such a spread.
  • Cultural diffusion, as first conceptualized by the famous Alfred L. Kroeber in his influential 1940 paper Stimulus Diffusion, or trans-cultural diffusion in later reformulations, is used in cultural anthropology and cultural geography to describe the spread of cultural items—such as ideas,
  • the spreading of a cultural trait (e.g., material object, idea, or behavior pattern) from one society to another.
  • A printed or written problem or exercise designed to illustrate a rule
  • (example) exemplar: something to be imitated; "an exemplar of success"; "a model of clarity"; "he is the very model of a modern major general"
  • (example) model: a representative form or pattern; "I profited from his example"
  • A person or thing regarded in terms of their fitness to be imitated or the likelihood of their being imitated
  • (example) an item of information that is typical of a class or group; "this patient provides a typical example of the syndrome"; "there is an example on page 10"
  • A thing characteristic of its kind or illustrating a general rule
examples of cultural diffusion
DOMESTICATED FOWL : The chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the Red Jungle fowl. As one of the most common and widespread domestic animals, and with a population of more than 24 billion in 2003, there are more chickens in the world than any other species of bird. Humans keep chickens primarily as a source of food, consuming both their meat and their eggs. The chicken's "cultural and culinary dominance" could be considered amazing to some in view of its believed domestic origin and purpose and it has "inspired contributions to culture, art, cuisine, science and religion" from antiquity to the present. The traditional poultry farming view of the domestication of the chicken is stated in Encyclopædia Britannica (2007): "Humans first domesticated chickens of Indian origin for the purpose of cockfighting in Asia, Africa, and Europe. Very little formal attention was given to egg or meat production... "[3] Recent genetic studies have pointed to multiple maternal origins in Southeast, East, and South Asia, but with the clade found in the Americas, Europe, the Middle East and Africa originating in the Indian subcontinent. From India the domesticated fowl made its way to the Persianized kingdom of Lydia in western Asia Minor, and domestic fowl were imported to Greece by the fifth century BC. Fowl had been known in Egypt since the 18th Dynasty, with the "bird that gives birth every day" having come to Egypt from the land between Syria and Shinar, Babylonia, according to the annals of Tutmose III. > Terminology In the UK, Ireland and Australia adult male chickens over the age of 12 months are primarily known as cocks, whereas in America and Canada they are more commonly called roosters. Males under a year old are cockerels. Castrated roosters are called capons (surgical and chemical castration are now illegal in some parts of the world). Females over a year old are known as hens, and younger females are pullets. In Australia and New Zealand (also sometimes in Britain), there is a generic term chook (play /ˈtʃʊk/) to describe all ages and both sexes. Babies are called chicks, and the meat is called chicken. "Chicken" originally referred to chicks, not the species itself. The species as a whole was then called domestic fowl, or just fowl. This use of "chicken" survives in the phrase "Hen and Chickens", sometimes used as a British public house or theatre name, and to name groups of one large and many small rocks or islands in the sea (see for example Hen and Chicken Islands). In the Deep South of the United States chickens are also referred to by the slang term yardbird. > General biology and habitat Chickens are omnivores. In the wild, they often scratch at the soil to search for seeds, insects and even larger animals such as lizards or young mice. Chickens may live for five to ten years, depending on the breed. The world's oldest chicken, a hen, died of heart failure at the age of 16 according to the Guinness Book of World Records. Roosters can usually be differentiated from hens by their striking plumage of long flowing tails and shiny, pointed feathers on their necks (hackles) and backs (saddle) which are typically of brighter, bolder colors than those of females of the same species. However, in some breeds, such as the Sebright, the rooster has only slightly pointed neck feathers, the same color as the hen's. The identification must be made by looking at the comb, or eventually from the development of spurs on the male's legs (in a few breeds and in certain hybrids the male and female chicks may be differentiated by color). Adult chickens have a fleshy crest on their heads called a comb or cockscomb, and hanging flaps of skin either side under their beaks called wattles. Both the adult male and female have wattles and combs, but in most breeds these are more prominent in males. A muff or beard is a mutation found in several chicken breeds which causes extra feathering under the chicken's face, giving the appearance of a beard. Domestic chickens are not capable of long distance flight, although lighter birds are generally capable of flying for short distances, such as over fences or into trees (where they would naturally roost). Chickens may occasionally fly briefly to explore their surroundings, but generally do so only to flee perceived danger. Chickens are gregarious birds and live together in flocks. They have a communal approach to the incubation of eggs and raising of young. Individual chickens in a flock will dominate others, establishing a "pecking order", with dominant individuals having priority for food access and nesting locations. Removing hens or roosters from a flock causes a temporary disruption to this social order until a new pecking order is established. Adding hens—especially younger birds—to an existing flock can lead to violence and injury. Hens will try to lay in nest
Athenaeum Theatre, Melbourne, Australia
Athenaeum Theatre, Melbourne, Australia
The Melbourne Athenaeum started as Melbourne’s first Mechanics Institute on 12 November 1839 - just four years after Melbourne was itself founded. Its original mission was defined as "the diffusion of literary, scientific and other useful knowledge amongst its members". This was to be achieved by maintaining a circulating library, reading room and art gallery and the establishment of classes and lectures. The building was completed in 1842 and since then has been renovated and redeveloped to accommodate Melbourne’s changing cultural needs. The building is classified by the National Trust and included on the Victorian Historic Buildings Register and the Register of the National Estate. The Athenaeum is now a three-storey brick building with a classical stuccoed façade, which is an example of the boom style architecture applied in the late 1880s. The facade features pilasters, label moulds, a bracketed cornice and a parapet in the centre of which is the niche containing the statue of Athena. The awning features a decorative pressed metal underside. When originally completed, it was a two-storey rendered brick structure set back from and raised above street level on a grassy rise behind a cast iron fence and with a Doric porticoed entrance. It contained a library, reading room, a Hall in which the Municipal Council met and other important meetings were held, and accommodation for the Town Clerk. By 1857, two single-storey wings had been added to the facade on either side of the entrance and out to the street. In 1872, a new Hall, designed by architect Alfred Smith, in the re-named Melbourne Athenaeum, was opened by the Governor. It was approximately thirty metres long by fifteen metres wide with a raised platform extending across the full width at the northern end. Along the east and west walls ran a clerestory of double-hung sashes above which were ventilators behind ornamental grilles. Eight hundred people could be accommodated (seated) in the hall and 150 in the balcony, which was situated at the south end supported on elegant light iron columns. The next phase of construction occurred in the mid 1880s, when the front of the building as it now stands was constructed. In 1886 the new building was opened. This represented essentially a remodelling of the area between the new hall of 1872 and Collins Street. The architects for the new work were Smith and Johnston. In 1910, the upper hall was converted into an Art Gallery, and in 1913 the main Library was renovated. In 1921, the hall was leased to Frank Talbot, who engaged the firm of Henry White and Gurney architects to convert the hall into a theatre. The awning was added at this time and the work was completed in 1924. The Athenaeum's first tenant was the Melbourne City Council which held its meetings here while the Town Hall was built. The Athenaeum housed Melbourne’s earliest museum collection and was the venue for lectures by Mark Twain and Sir Redmond Barry. The first feature film, The History of the Kelly Gang, was premiered as was the first ‘talkie’, The Jazz Singer, before the then cinema space was transformed into theatres. The theatres have been graced by some of the finest Australian and international performers, including Dame Nellie Melba, Sir Laurence Olivier and Barry Humphries. The Athenaeum Art Gallery operated from 1903 to 1971 where many artists and art groups exhibited paintings, including such famous names as Arthur Boyd, Rupert Bunny, Arthur Streeton, William Rowell and H Septimus Power. Throughout the 170 years, the Athenaeum has been home to a subscription-based, lending library. Today, the Library holds a 30,000 strong collection and hosts a growing program of authors talks and book launches. Today's Athenaeum also houses the Athenaeum Theatre and Comedy Club, a café and retail shop - all of which are leased to managers.
examples of cultural diffusion