Nothing in biology makes sense except in thelight of evolution

Theodosius Dobzhansky (1973)
[See also]

This Website was first created for Science Week 1997 in the Chester College (later University of Chester) webspace, after which it has continued to be devoted to Evolutionary (Darwinian) Medicine, under constant review and open to your ideas and comments. In the summer of 2007, it was revised and updated as a 'sub-site' within my wider research interests into the concepts of illness, disease and health.

However, after the summer vacation of 2009, I returned to work to find that all of my pages had vanished in a reorganization of the institutional website. Material that used to appear there is no longer available via the old hyperlinks. (I have tried to have them re-established but to no avail.) However, I thought this experience a timely hint to move all my work elsewhere. All material that used to appear at Chester, now appears here plus new material has been and continues to be added from time to time.

A number of significant sites used to link to the Chester site. Where possible, I would be very grateful if such links could now be directed here instead.

The emphasis of this site is on, what might be described as 'somatic evolutionary medicine'. That is, those aspects of evolutionary medicine applicable to physical ailments, to pathophysiology and the development of anatomical or physiological lesions. Those aspects of evolutionary medicine applicable to psychological conditions are not dealt with directly here.

This site also seeks to focus on the more fundamental aspects of the discipline. As it has developed in  recent years, the ideas behind evolutionary medicine have been applied to many and varied health-related issues. It is not the intention of this site to kept abreast of all of these developments or provide a information, links etc. to sources of such information. It should be noted that it does not necessarily follow that everything using the label 'evolutionary medicine' belongs to the field or ought to be included under its umbrella. Many have embraced the term and its associated notions enthusiastically - that is good and is welcome. However, in the absence of a careful philosophical analysis, perhaps only the test of time will tell which truly belong.

The amusing illustrations at the head and foot of this page light-heartedly ask some serious questions: 'For what environment and role is humankind best suited?' 'Which aspects of the modern world are good, and which are bad, for us?' and 'What different versions of humankind have there been and could there be?'

My Own Work

A (Pictorial) Ascent of Man(kind) (one of my external sites)

ASU - Center for Evolution and Medicine

Postgraduate Education (UK)

MSc in Evolutionary Medicine at Durham University

(Leaflet available here)

Relevant Academic Journals

Those Interested and Involved:

A list of people interested and involved in evolutionary medicine can be found at the Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health Foundation.
[See the list] [Join the List]

Not all agree

How well - or intelligently - are our bodies 'designed'?

Opposition to the teaching of evolution

Evolution - Just a matter of choice? Consider this link.

A Question for Creationists - 'The Sun-Day Paradox' (still unanswered)
(See also: Rational Wiki)

Not unsurprisingly, Creationists are not sympathetic to Evolutionary (Darwinian) Medicine. If you would like to read something of what they are saying, you can visit 'Darwinian Medicine: A Prescription for Failure' (external site) where you will even find me quoted!

Margie Profet - An early (now elusive) thinker

A profile of her work and some alternative views.


'It is almost unbelievable how much the atmosphere changed as a consequence of the publication, in 1859, of The Origin of Species. Our whole outlook, our picture of the universe, has changed, as never before. The Darwinian revolution is still proceeding. But now we are also in the midst of a counter-revolution, a strong reaction against science and against rationality. I feel that it is necessary to take sides on this issue.

'My position, very briefly, is this. I am on the side of science and of rationality, but I am against those exaggerated claims for science that have sometimes been, rightly, denounced as 'scientism'. I am on the side of the search for truth, and of intellectual daring in the search for truth; but I am against intellectual arrogance, and especially against the misconceived claim that we have the truth in our pockets, or that we can approach certainty. It is important to realize that science does not make assertions about ultimate questions about the riddles of existence, or about Man's task in this world.'

Karl Popper
From: Brown, P. (2006). Letter to God. BMJ, 332 (3 June), 1341.
(Click citation for original article at the BMJ)
(Click image for full sized version)

... and let's not forget that there were two founders of modern biology:
(Each fish is clickable)