Fine Tuning Of The Universe


Recent Stu
dies have confirmed the fine tuning of the cosmological constant. This cosmological These numbers represent the maximum deviation from the accepted values, that would either prevent the universe from existing now, not having matter, or be unsuitable for any form of life.constant is a force that increases with the increasing size of the universe. First hypothesized by Albert Einstein, the cosmological constant was rejected by him, because of lack of real world data. However, recent supernova 1A data demonstrated the existence of a cosmological constant that probably made up for the lack of light and dark matter in the universe. However, the data was tentative, since there was some variability among observations. Recent cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurement not only demonstrate the existence of the cosmological constant, but the value of the constant. It turns out that the value of the cosmological constant exactly makes up for the lack of matter in the universe.

The degree of fine-tuning is difficult to imagine. Dr. Ross gives an example of the least fine-tuned of the above four examples in his book, The Creator and the Cosmos, which is reproduced here: One part in 1037 is such an incredibly sensitive balance that it is hard to visualize. The following analogy might help: Cover the entire North American continent in dimes all the way up to the moon, a height of about 239,000 miles (In comparison, the money to pay for the U.S. federal government debt would cover one square mile less than two feet deep with dimes.). Next, pile dimes from here to the moon on a billion other continents the same size as North America. Paint one dime red and mix it into the billion of piles of dimes. Blindfold a friend and ask him to pick out one dime. The odds that he will pick the red dime are one in 10 to the power of 37.



Strong nuclear force constant
if larger: no hydrogen would form; atomic nuclei for most life-essential elements would be unstable; thus, no life chemistry
if smaller: no elements heavier than hydrogen would form: again, no life chemistry

Weak nuclear force constant
if larger: too much hydrogen would convert to helium in big bang; hence, stars would convert too much matter into heavy elements making life chemistry impossible
if smaller: too little helium would be produced from big bang; hence, stars would convert too little matter into heavy elements making life chemistry impossible

Gravitational force constant
if larger: stars would be too hot and would burn too rapidly and too unevenly for life chemistry
if smaller
: stars would be too cool to ignite nuclear fusion; thus, many of the elements needed for life chemistry would never form.

Electromagnetic force constant
if greater: chemical bonding would be disrupted; elements more massive than boron would be unstable to fission
if lesser: chemical bonding would be insufficient for life chemistry

Ratio of electromagnetic force constant to gravitational force constant
if larger: all stars would be at least 40% more massive than the sun; hence, stellar burning would be too brief and too uneven for life support
if smaller
: all stars would be at least 20% less massive than the sun, thus incapable of producing heavy elements

Ratio of electron to proton mass
if larger: chemical bonding would be insufficient for life chemistry
if smaller: same as above

Ration of number of protons to number of electrons
if larger: electromagnetism would dominate gravity, preventing galaxy, star, and planet formation
if smaller: same as above

Expansion rate of the universe
if larger: no galaxies would form
if smaller
: universe would collapse, even before stars formed

Entropy level of the universe
if larger: stars would not form within proto-galaxies
if smaller: no proto-galaxies would form

Mass density of the universe
if larger: overabundance of deuterium from big bang would cause stars to burn rapidly, too rapidly for life to form
if smaller: insufficient helium from big bang would result in a shortage of heavy elements

Velocity of light
if faster: stars would be too luminous for life support
if slower: stars would be insufficiently luminous for
life support

Age of the universe
if older: no solar-type stars in a stable burning phase would exist in the right (for life) part of the galaxy
if younger: solar-type stars in a stable burning phase would not yet have formed

Initial Uniformity of radiation
if more uniform: stars, star clusters, and galaxies would not have formed
if less uniform: universe by now would be mostly black holes and empty space

Average distance between galaxies
if larger:: star formation late enough in the history of the universe would be hampered by lack of material
if smaller: gravitational tug-of-wars would destabilize the sun's orbit

Density of galaxy cluster
if denser: galaxy collisions and mergers would disrupt the sun's orbit
if less dense: star formation late enough in the history of the universe would be hampered by lack of material

Average distance between stars
if larger:: heavy element density would be too sparse for rocky planets to form
if smaller
: planetary orbits would be too unstable for life

Fine structure constant (describing the fine-structure splitting of spectral lines) if larger: all stars would be at least 30% less massive than the sun
if larger: than 0.06: matter would be unstable in large magnetic fields
if smaller: all stars would be at least 80% more massive than the sun

Decay rate of protons
if greater: life would be exterminated by the release of radiation
if smaller: universe would contain insufficient matter for life

12C to 16O nuclear energy level ratio
if larger: universe would contain insufficient oxygen for life
if smaller: universe would contain insufficient carbon for life

Groundstate energy level for 4He
if larger: universe would contain insufficient carbon and oxygen for life
if smaller
: same as above

Decayrate of 8Be
if faster: no element heavier than beryllium would form; thus, no life chemistry
if slower: heavy element fusion would generate catastrophic explosions in all the stars

Ratio of neutron mass to proton mass
if higher: neutron decay would yield too few neutrons for the formation of many life-essential elements
if lower: neutron decay would produce so many neutrons as to collapse all stars into neutron stars or black holes

Initial excess of nucleons over anti-nucleons
if greater: radiation would prohibit planet formation
if lesser: matter would be insufficient for galaxy or star formation

Polarity of the Water molecule
if greater: heat of fusion and vaporization would be too high for life if smaller: heat of fusion and vaporization would be too low for life; liq
uid water would not work as a solvent for life chemistry; ice would not float, and a runaway freeze-up would result

Supernovae eruptions
if too close, too frequent, or too late: radiation would exterminate life on the planet
if too distant, too infrequent, or too soon: heavy elements would be too sparse for rocky planets to form

White dwarf binaries
if too few:  insufficient fluorine would exist for life chemistry
if too many: planetary orbits would be too unstable for life

Formation of White dwarf binaries
if formed too soon:  insufficient fluorine production
if formed too late: fluorine would arrive too late for life chemistry

Ratio of exotic matter mass to ordinary matter mass
if larger: universe would collapse before solar-type stars could form
if smaller: no galaxies would form

Number of effective dimensions in the early universe
if larger: quantum mechanics, gravity, and relativity could not coexist; thus, life would be impossible
if smaller: same result

Number of effective dimensions in the present universe
if larger:: same result
if smaller: electron, planet, and star orbits would become unstable

Mass of the Neutrino
if larger: galaxy clusters and galaxies would be too dense
if smaller: galaxy clusters, galaxies, and stars would not form

Big Bang Ripples
if larger:galaxies/galaxy clusters would be too dense for life; black holes would dominate; universe would collapse before life-site could form
if smaller: galaxies would not form; universe would expand too rapidly

Size of the Relativistic Dilation Factor
if smaller: certain life-essential chemical reactions will not function properly
if larger: same result

Uncertainty magnitude in the Heisenberg uncertainty principle
if larger:oxygen transport to body cells would be too great and certain life-essential elements would be unstable
if smaller: oxygen transport to body cells would be too small and certain life-essential elements would be unstable

Cosmological Constant
if larger:universe would expand too quickly to form solar-type stars

When looking at the precision of the universe, it is an absolute impossibility for the universe to be a random accidental creation (as atheists would have you believe).

[Quran 41:53] We will show them our proofs in the horizons, and within themselves, until they realize that this is the truth.* Is your Lord not sufficient as a witness of all things? 



Article courtesy of www.DesignandUniverse.com

References
or further information, visit the
website of Dr. Edward Wright, Ph.D., Professor of Astronomy at UCLA

The amount of light and dark matter is only 30% of that necessary for a "flat" universe (one which contains the critical mass - the amount necessary to stop the expansion of the universe).cell, M. 1999. Firming Up the Case for a Flat Cosmos. Science 285: 1831.


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