Glossary

A.H.
After Hijrah (see Hijrah).
 
`Aad
Rebellious people of Irum. Community to which Hood was sent.
 
Ahzaab
Parties; Battle of Al-Ahzaab.
 
`Alem
Religious scholar. Scientist. Knowledgeable person. Plural is `Ulama.
 
Al-Hamdu Lillah
Praise be to God.
 
Allah
God, The God, The only God.
 
Allahu Akbar
God is Great.
 
Allat
Idol of Idolatrous Arabia before Muhammad; claimed to be "daughter of God!"
 
Arafat
Knoll near Mecca where pilgrims spend a day of commemorating God during Hajj or Umrah pilgrimage.
 
Ansaar
The helpers or allies. Inhabitants of Medina who were the first to embrace Islam. They offered help to the immigrants who fled Mecca (see Muhajireen).
 
Ayah
Sign. Miracle. Verse.
 
Ayaat
Plural of Ayah.
 
Ayyoub
Job, a messenger of God.
 
Azan
The call to Salat prayer.
 
B.H.
Before Hijrah (see Hijrah)
 
Badr
Name of a place near Mecca. The first battle between Muhammad's followers and the idolators.
 
Basmalah
First verse. Opening statement for every sura, except Sura 9.
 
Bismillah
In the name of God.
 
Gabriel
Angel responsible for carrying God's messages and revelations to planet Earth.
 
Gematria
The numerical values of the letters of the alphabet prior to the invention of numerals.
 
Hadith
Narrations or utterances falsely attributed to Muhammad. Appeared 250 years after Muhammad's death. 45:6 enjoins believers from upholding any Hadith besides the Quran.
 
Hajj
Pilgrimage to Mecca during the Sacred Months (see Sacred Months)
 
Halal
Lawful; permitted.
 
Haraam
Unlawful; prohibited.
 
Haram
Sacred. "Al-Masjid Al-Haram" is the Sacred Mosque of Mecca.
 
Hawwa
Eve.
 
Hijrah
Immigration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina. Islamic Calendar began that year.
 
Hijrah Calendar
Lunar Calendar. Names and numbers of the months are:

1. Muharram.7. Rajab.
2. Safar. 8. Sha`ban.
3. Rabi` I. 9. Ramadan.
4. Rabi` II.10. Shawwal.
5. Jumada I.11. Zul Qi`dah.
6. Jumada II. 12. Zul Hijjah.
 

Hood
Messenger of God. Sent to `Aad.
 
Hunayn
Battle of Hunain; a place.
 
Iblis
Satan.
 
Imam
Religious leader. Leader.
 
In Shaa Allah
God willing.
 
Injeel
Gospel. Jesus' scripture.
 
Irum
City where the community of `Aad lived, and to which Hood was sent.
 
Islam
Submission and devotion to God alone. The only religion acceptable to God (3:19).
 
Israa'
27th night of Ramadan, 13 B.H. Night journey of Muhammad to the highest Heaven where the Quran was placed in his soul. See "Night of Power."
 
Jannah
Paradise. Heaven.
 
Jahannaum
Gehenna; Hell.
 
Jinns
Descendants of Satan. Invisible, constant companions of every human being from birth to death. When freed upon death of the human being, they become Jinns.
 
Jum`ah
Friday. The Friday Congregational Prayer. Mandatory for all Muslim men and women every Friday noon.
 
Ka`bah
A building in form of a cube. The cube-shaped shrine built by Abraham in Mecca. The point towards which Muslims face during their contact prayers (Salat).
 
Kaafer
Disbeliever. Heathen. Atheist.
 
Kitab
Book. Scripture.
 
La Elaha Ella Allah.
Islam's creed: "There is no other god besides God." The First Commandment in all scriptures.
 
Laylat Al-Qadr
(see Night of Power)
 
Maa Shaa Allah
This is God's will.
 
Manaat
Iol of idolatrous Arabia before Muhammad; claimed to be "daughter of God."
 
Midyan
Ancient community north of Sinai. Community of Shu'aib.
 
Mu'azzin
One who chants the Azan. Caller to the Salat prayer. Announcer.
 
Muhajireen
Plural of Muhajir; immigrants who fled Mecca to Medina because of persecution.
 
Mullas
Religious teachers.
 
Mu'men
Believers who got rid of all doubt; higher rank than "Muslim."
 
Munafeq
Hypocrite.
 
Mushrik
Idol worshiper. Idolater. (See Shirk.)
 
Muslim
One who decided to submit to God and uphold His commandments, 
but he may still has doubts.
 
Nabi
Prophet; a messenger of God who delivers a new scripture. Muhammad was the final Nabi, because he deliverd the final scripture.
 
Night of Power
Night of Destiny or Laylat Al-Qadr. 27th night of Ramadan, 13 B.H. Night during which the Quran was revealed. Muhammad was taken to the highest Heaven to receive the Quran.
 
Qaaroon
Wealthy slave driver. A Hebrew traitor who served Pharaoh by enslaving his own people.
 
Qiblah
Direction Muslims face during their contact prayers (Salat).
 
Rak`ah
One unit of contact prayer (Salat).
 
Rasoul
Messenger of God, or prophet, who may or may not deliver a new scripture (see Nabi). Every Nabi was a Rasoul, but not every Rasoul is a Nabi. See definitions in 3:81.
 
Saaleh
Messenger of God.
 
Sacred Months
The 12th, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd months of the Islamic Calendar. Months during which Muslims observe Hajj.
 
Sacred Mosque
Al-Masjid Al-Haraam. The great mosque in Mecca, where the Ka'bah is located.
 
Salam
Peace. Greeting.
 
Salamun `Alaikum
Peace be unto you; greeting.
 
Salat
Daily contact prayers - dawn, noon, afternoon, sunset, & night prayers.
 
Seyam
Fasting; usually during the month of Ramadan. Abstaining from food, drink, and sex from dawn to sunset. Also silence vows.
 
Shaikh
Old man, or religious teacher, or head of the tribe.
 
Shirk
Idolatry. Idol worship. Associating any other name with God's name. Believing that any creatures possess any kind of power to benefit or harm.
 
Subhan Allah
God be glorified.
 
Subhanahu Wa Ta`aala
Glory be to the Most High.
 
Sunna
Practices attributed falsely to the prophet Muhammad; practiced by those who idolize Muhammad against his will. In Quran, God forbids all Sunnas, except His Sunna.
 
Shu`aib
of Midyan. Messenger of God.
 
Sura
Chapter in the Quran.
 
Talut
Saul.
 
Tayammum
Dry, waterless, ablution.
 
Thamoud
Rebellious people of Saaleh.
 
Uhud
Mountain near Medina. Battle of.
 
Ulama
Religious scholars; plural of "`Alem."
 
Umrah
Pilgrimage to Mecca any time of the year, including the Sacred Months (see Hajj & Sacred Months).
 
Uzzah
Idol of idolatrous Arabia before Muhammad; claimed to be "daughter of God."
 
Wudu'
Ablution.
 
Yahya
John
 
Yathrib
Ancient name of Medina.
 
Yousuf
Joseph
 
Zakat
Obligatory charity; 2.5% of one's net income that must be given upon receiving such income to needy people according to a specific distribution system.
 
Zul Qarnain
The one with two horns. Messenger of God who helped confine Gog & Magog. Most probably Buddha.
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