Some bacteria use a
whip-like organ called a “flagellum” to move about in a liquid environment. This
organ is embedded in to the cell membrane and enables the bacterium to move at
will in a chosen direction at a particular speed.
|Sperm cells, too, use a flagellum in order to
Scientists have known
about the flagellum for some time. However, its structural details, which have
only emerged over the last decade or so, have come as a great surprise to them.
It has been discovered that the flagellum moves by means of a very complicated
“organic motor” and not by a simple vibratory mechanism as was earlier believed.
engine is constructed on the same mechanical principles as an electric motor.
There are two main parts to it: a moving part ("the rotor") and a stationary one
flagellum is different from all other organic systems that produce mechanical
motion. The cell does not utilise available energy stored as ATP molecules.
Instead, it has a special energy source: bacteria use energy from the flow of
ions across their outer cell membranes. The inner structure of the motor is
extremely complex. Approximately 240 distinct proteins go into constructing the
flagellum. Each one of these is carefully positioned. Scientists have determined
that these proteins carry the signals turning the motor on or off, form joints
to facilitate movements at the atomic scale, and activate other proteins that
connect the flagellum to the cell membrane. The models constructed to summarise
the working of the system are enough to depict the complicated nature of the
structure of the bacterial flagellum is sufficient all by itself to demolish the
theory of evolution, since the flagellum has an irreducibly complex structure.
Even if one single molecule in this fabulously complex structure were to
disappear, or become defective, the flagellum would neither work nor be of any
use to the bacterium. The flagellum must have been working perfectly from the
first moment of its existence. This fact again reveals the nonsense in the
theory of evolution's assertion of “step by step development”.
There are amazing designs even in the creatures
that evolutionists regard as “simple”. The bacterial flagellum is one of
countless examples. Bacteria travel in water by moving this organ on their
membrane. When the inner details of this well-known organ were revealed, the
scientific world was extremely surprised to find that bacteria had an
extraordinarily complicated electric motor. The electric motor, which is
comprised of about fifty different molecular parts, is a wonder of design as
flagellum is clear evidence that even in supposedly "primitive" creatures, there
is an extraordinary design. As humanity becomes more deeply immersed in details,
it becomes increasingly obvious that the organisms scientists of the 19th
century, including Darwin , considered to be the simplest, are in fact just as
complex as any others. In other words, as the perfection of the creation becomes
clearer, the senselessness of the struggle to find alternative explanations for
the creation is much more obvious.
Bacteria swim in
viscous liquid environments by rotating helical propellers called flagella
flagellum is a nanomachine made of about 25 different proteins, each of them in
multiple copies ranging from a few to tens of thousands. It is constructed by
self-assembly of these large numbers of proteins, each into a different part
that exerts a different function, such as a rotary motor, bushing, drive shaft,
rotation-switch regulator, universal joint, helical propeller, and rotary
promoter for self-assembly.
Flagellar proteins are
synthesized within the cell body and transported through a long, narrow central
channel in the flagellum to its distal (outer) end, where they self-assemble to
construct complex nano scale structures efficiently, with the help of the
flagellar cap as the assembly promoter. The rotary motor, with a diameter of
only 30 to 40 nm, drives the rotation of the flagellum at around 300 Hz, at a
power level of 10 -16 W with energy conversion efficiency close to 100 %.
The structural designs
and functional mechanisms to be revealed in the complex machinery of the
bacterial flagellum could provide many novel technologies that would become a
basis for future nanotechnology, from which we should be able to find many