ECTS

What is a credit system?
A credit system is a systematic way of describing an educational program through the allocation of credit to their modules. The definition of credits in higher education systems may be based on different parameters, such as student workload, learning outcomes and contact hours between students and teachers (classes).
 
 
What is ECTS?
The European System of Credit Transfer and Accumulation System is a student-centered, based on the student workload required to achieve the objectives of a program, which are preferably defined in terms of learning outcomes and competences to be acquired .
 
 
How was ECTS developed the?
ECTS was introduced in 1989 in the context of the Erasmus program, which is currently part of Socrates program. This is the only credit system tested and used successfully in Europe. The ECTS was originally set for the transfer of credits. The system facilitated the recognition of periods of study abroad, thus promoting the quality and volume of student mobility in Europe. Recently, the ECTS develops into an accumulation system to be implemented at institutional, regional, national and European level. This is a fundamental objective of the Bologna Declaration of June 1999.
 
 
Why introduce ECTS?
ECTS facilitates the reading and comparison of the curricula for all students, domestic and foreign. It also aids the mobility and recognition of academic qualifications. ECTS helps universities to organize and revise their curricula. Can be used in several different programs and operating models. ECTS makes European higher education more attractive to students from other continents.
 
 
What are the key features of ECTS?
On the basis of ECTS is the convention that 60 credits represent the workload of a full time student during one academic year. The workload of a student with a program of study full time in Europe amounts in most cases to 36/40 weeks per year and in these cases, one credit corresponds to 24-30 hours. The workload is the time at which to expect an average student achieves the learning outcomes required.
A credit is also a way to quantify learning outcomes, which are skill sets that represent what the student knows, understands and is able to apply after the completion of the learning process, be it short or long duration. ECTS credits can only be obtained after completion of the work required with an assessment of learning outcomes.
The allocation of ECTS credits is based on the official length of a cycle program of studies. The total workload necessary to obtain a diploma of the first cycle, which lasts officially for three or four years, equivalent to 180 or 240 credits.
The student workload in ECTS includes the time spent in the frequency of classes and seminars, independent study, preparation and conduct of examinations, etc..
Credits are assigned to all components of an educational curriculum (modules, courses, intern-ships, dissertations, etc.). Reflecting the amount of work each component requires in relation to the overall volume of work required to achieve a full year of studies at program.
The student performance is attested by a second grade from the classification system local / national. It is best practice to add a classification obtained according to the ECTS scale, especially in the case of credit transfer. The ECTS grading scale ranks each student on a statistical basis. Therefore, the existence of statistical data on student performance is a prerequisite for applying the ECTS grading system. The ratings are assigned among students approved as follows: The top 10%, 25% following B, C next 30% D next 25%, and 10% following
A distinction is made between the classifications used for FX and F students are not approved. FX means "insufficient - need some additional work for approval" and F means "insufficient - need a considerable additional work." The inclusion of failure rates in the Bulletin of Assessment is optional.
 
 
What are the key documents of ECTS?
The Information Guide / Catalog of Disciplines of the establishment to be published in two languages (English only or in the case of programs taught in English) on the Internet and / or paper in one or more brochures. The Information Guide / Catalog of Courses should include the elements of the checklist attached to this document, including providing information to students.
The Learning Agreement contains the list of courses to be attended by the student and agreed between the latter and the body responsible for the academic institution. In the case of credit transfer, the Learning Agreement has to be agreed between the two institutions involved and the student before he left for the period of study abroad, must be updated immediately when changes occur.
The Transcript of Records documents the performance of a student and includes a list of courses attended, the credits obtained, and the marks obtained in accordance with the classification system for local and, if possible, according to the ECTS scale. In case of credit transfer, the Transcript of Records of students leaving for abroad must be issued by the establishment of origin in case of visiting students, will be the host institution responsible for issuing, at the end of their period of study.
ECTS facilitates the reading and comparison of the curricula for all students, domestic and foreign. It also aids the mobility and recognition of academic qualifications. ECTS helps universities to organize and revise their curricula. Can be used in several different programs and operating models. ECTS makes European higher education more attractive to students from other continents.