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Coordinating Conjunctions -- Join two independent clauses with a coordinating conjunction to create a compound sentence.

and, or, nor, but, for, yet, so


Subordinating Conjunctions -- Join an independent clause with a dependent clause to create a complex sentence.  If you begin the sentence with the subordinate clause, then follow the clause with a comma.  If you end the sentence with the subordinate clause, then do not use a comma preceding the subordinating conjunction.

Common Subordinating Conjunctions

after                 as though                     in order that                until

although          because                       provided that               when

as                     before                          since                            whenever

as far as           considering tha            so that                          where

as if                  even though                 than                             whereas

as long as        if                                  though                         wherever

as soon as        inasmuch as                unless                          while


Conjunctive Adverb -- Join two independent clauses with a semicolon followed by a conjunctive adverb and comma to create a compound sentence.

Common Conjunctive Adverbs

accordingly                 equally             in addition                   nevertheless

additionally                 finally              indeed                          on the other hand

also                              for example     in fact                          otherwise

as a result                    for instance      instead                         similarly

at the same time          furthermore     likewise                        still

besides                         hence               meanwhile                   therefore

consequently                however           moreover                     thus


Correlative Conjunctions -- Join two independent clauses with a correlative conjunction at the beginning of the first clause and the other correlative conjunction at the beginning of the second clause to create a compound sentence.

Correlative Conjunctions

both . . . and                just as . . . so (too)                   not only . . . but (also)

either . . . or                 neither . . . nor                         whether . . . or


Relative Pronouns -- Introduce s subordinate clause with a relative pronoun to create a complex sentence.  Use commas to indicate a non-restrictive clause; use no commas to indicate a restrictive clause.

Relative Pronouns

who, whose, whom, which, that


Compound-complex sentence -- To create a compound-complex sentence combine the preceding compound sentence types with the complex sentence types.



Four Sentence Types



Clause -- a group of words with a subject and verb

§  an independent clause expresses a complete thought

§  a dependent or subordinate clause expresses an incomplete thought and must attach itself to an independent clause to create a sentence



Four Sentence Types


Simple                         one independent clause


Compound                 two or more independent clauses joined by

§  a comma followed by a coordinating conjunction

§  a semicolon with a conjunctive adverb

§  a semicolon without a conjunctive adverb

§  a colon

§  correlative conjunctions



Complex                     one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses that begin with

§  a subordinating conjunction

§  a relative pronoun



Compound-Complex              two or more independent clauses and one of more dependent clauses

§  combine a compound sentence type with a complex sentence type.       


Seven Sentence Patterns


Pattern 1          Compound sentence;  semicolon, no conjunction [two short related sentence joined by a semicolon]

                        . . . independent clause . . . ; . . . independent clause.


Pattern 2          Compound sentence:  using conjunctive adverb, semicolon, and two  independent clauses

                        .  . . independent clause . . . ; conjunctive adverb, . . .independent clause.


Pattern 3          Compound sentence:  using a coordinating conjunction and two independent clauses

                        . . . independent clause . . .,  coordinating conjunction . . . independent clause.


Pattern 4          Complex sentence:  using a subordinating conjunction and dependent clause at the beginning of the sentence followed by an independent clause.

                        Subordinating conjunction + dependent clause, . . . independent clause.


Pattern 5          Complex sentence:  using an independent clause followed by a subordinating conjunction and dependent clause at the end of the sentence.

                        Independent clause . . . subordinating conjunction + dependent clause.


Pattern 6          Complex sentence:  using a relative pronoun and dependent clause within the independent clause

                        Independent clause begins . . . relative pronoun + dependent clause . . . independent clause continues.


Pattern 7          A combination of any type of complex sentence with a compound sentence choice to create a compound-complex sentence.