Coordinating Conjunctions -- Join two independent clauses with a coordinating conjunction to create a compound sentence.
and, or, nor, but, for, yet, so
Subordinating Conjunctions -- Join an independent clause with a dependent clause to create a complex sentence. If you begin the sentence with the subordinate clause, then follow the clause with a comma. If you end the sentence with the subordinate clause, then do not use a comma preceding the subordinating conjunction.
Common Subordinating Conjunctions
after as though in order that until
although because provided that when
as before since whenever
as far as considering tha so that where
as if even though than whereas
as long as if though wherever
as soon as inasmuch as unless while
Conjunctive Adverb -- Join two independent clauses with a semicolon followed by a conjunctive adverb and comma to create a compound sentence.
Common Conjunctive Adverbs
accordingly equally in addition nevertheless
additionally finally indeed on the other hand
also for example in fact otherwise
as a result for instance instead similarly
at the same time furthermore likewise still
besides hence meanwhile therefore
consequently however moreover thus
Correlative Conjunctions -- Join two independent clauses with a correlative conjunction at the beginning of the first clause and the other correlative conjunction at the beginning of the second clause to create a compound sentence.
both . . . and just as . . . so (too) not only . . . but (also)
either . . . or neither . . . nor whether . . . or
Relative Pronouns -- Introduce s subordinate clause with a relative pronoun to create a complex sentence. Use commas to indicate a non-restrictive clause; use no commas to indicate a restrictive clause.
who, whose, whom, which, that
Compound-complex sentence -- To create a compound-complex sentence combine the preceding compound sentence types with the complex sentence types.
Four Sentence Types
Clause -- a group of words with a subject and verb
§ an independent clause expresses a complete thought
§ a dependent or subordinate clause expresses an incomplete thought and must attach itself to an independent clause to create a sentence
Four Sentence Types
Simple one independent clause
Compound two or more independent clauses joined by
§ a comma followed by a coordinating conjunction
§ a semicolon with a conjunctive adverb
§ a semicolon without a conjunctive adverb
§ a colon
§ correlative conjunctions
Complex one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses that begin with
§ a subordinating conjunction
§ a relative pronoun
Compound-Complex two or more independent clauses and one of more dependent clauses
§ combine a compound sentence type with a complex sentence type.
Seven Sentence Patterns
Pattern 1 Compound sentence; semicolon, no conjunction [two short related sentence joined by a semicolon]
. . . independent clause . . . ; . . . independent clause.
Pattern 2 Compound sentence: using conjunctive adverb, semicolon, and two independent clauses
. . . independent clause . . . ; conjunctive adverb, . . .independent clause.
Pattern 3 Compound sentence: using a coordinating conjunction and two independent clauses
. . . independent clause . . ., coordinating conjunction . . . independent clause.
Pattern 4 Complex sentence: using a subordinating conjunction and dependent clause at the beginning of the sentence followed by an independent clause.
Subordinating conjunction + dependent clause, . . . independent clause.
Pattern 5 Complex sentence: using an independent clause followed by a subordinating conjunction and dependent clause at the end of the sentence.
Independent clause . . . subordinating conjunction + dependent clause.
Pattern 6 Complex sentence: using a relative pronoun and dependent clause within the independent clause
Independent clause begins . . . relative pronoun + dependent clause . . . independent clause continues.
Pattern 7 A combination of any type of complex sentence with a compound sentence choice to create a compound-complex sentence.