[a work in progress]
In this Glossary, all of the Mannish languages of the Third Age are represented as languages from more recent ages. Tolkien only applied this "fictive translation" scheme to the Northman languages (as Germanic), and to the remnants of the ancient Bree-speech (as the Old British language) and of the Old Marish-speech (as Old Welsh). Ethnically similar languages from our own medieval and modern times serve as stand ins. The author is aware that some might object to such equations, yet this is offered as a flavorful way to write and speak all the Mannish languages, such as for roleplay—until Tolkienian philologists are able to artistically craft those actual languages.
Westron is represented as English, in several dialects.
Vale-speech as Old English, in three dialects: (For reference, "A Thesaurus of Old English" and Dictionary)
Upper Woodman—the language of the northerly town on the Mirkwood map—as Old Saxon.
Lower Woodman—the language of the southerly town on the Mirkwood map—as Old High German.
Northern—the language of Lake-town, Dale, and the lands west and south of Dale; of the Variags of the wide East and of Khand; and of the supposed Gallowglasses, one of three kinds of evil men in northern Angmar—is represented as Old Norse.
Dunlendish—the language of the Hillmen of Dunland and of the Kerns, one of the supposed kinds of evil men in northern Angmar—is represented as Old Irish.
Redshank-speech, of one of the supposed kinds of evil men in northern Angmar, is represented as Celtic Pictish, as it might be artistically reconstructed as an alteration of Old Welsh, with a Pictish-style spelling, such as "uu" instead of "f". The Redshanks are conceived as descendants of Easterlings of the First Age who later adopted the Halethian language of the Hillmen of Rhudaur, who were themselves destroyed in the mid-Third Age, at the Battle of Fornost. For reference, "An Etymological Dictionary of Old Welsh".
Drûgish would be represented as Ossetian until the actual Drûgish language is artistically crafted. Here's why: the Woses of Anórien are geographically evocative of the Picts of Thrace mentioned in the Cashel Psalter. This is the same nation known to the ancient Greeks as the Agathyrsi, who were said to be a Scythian nation who were later absorbed by the Alans, another Scythian tribe. The present-day descendent of the Alans are the Ossetes, so their language serves as a fictive stand-in for the actual language of the Drûgs. If it were translated into Ossetic, the name Ghân-buri-Ghân might be represented as Sær-furt-Sær "Head-son-of-Head", in the sense of "headman" and "chief".
Púkel-speech is represented as Basque because Andrast is geographically evocative of Aquitania, and the Pictones tribe of the ancient Aquitanians are known as the Picts of France. Tradition held them to be related to the Picts of Thrace, Ireland, and Scotland. The Old Aquitanian language is essentially the ancestor of modern Basque. The actual Púkel-speech would be artistically crafted to be a Basque-flavored cognate of Anórien Drûgish.
Fisher-folk speech is represented as the language of the Cruthins, the Picts of Ireland who occupied the north-eastern frindge of the island. In this Glossary the Cruthin language is approximated as Old Welsh, since the Cruthins are imagined by some to have been Britons with a P-Celtic language. The name "Kreenie" is suggested as a synonym for the Fisher-folk. The actual Kreenie language would be artistically crafted to be a phonaesthetically Brythonic cognate of Anórien Drûgish. Though the Redshank-speech of northern Angmar is also represented as a variety of Old Welsh, that actual language would not be cognate to actual Fisher-folk speech; rather it would be a Halethian language. But both, like Sindarin, would have Brythonic phonaesthetic flavor. The Redshanks are the Picts of Scotland and the Kreenies are the Picts of Ireland (though the word only survived in southwestern Scotland to refer to short dark-haired people supposed to be from Ireland).
Vinithish—the language of the supposed Viniths of the eastern and southern eaves of Mirkwood, and of the Axe-men of the wide East—is represented as Old Slavic.
Núrnian—the chief language of the Mannish slaves of Mordor—is represented as Classical Armenian.
Snowman-speech is represented as the Saami languages, with Southern Saami as representative of language of the ancient Skidfinns.
Dorwinion-speech is represented as Old Georgian.
Near Southron is represented as Classical Arabic.
Far Southron—the chief language of the black men of Far Harad—is represented as Ge'ez, also known as Old Ethiopic.
Black Adûnaic—the supposed language of the Black Númenoreans of Harad—is represented as Coptic, with Sahidic as representative. The actual language would be a phonaesthetically Coptic cognate of actual Westron, with both languages descended from ancient Adûnaic.
Khandish is represented as Khazarian Old Turkic.
Balchoth-speech is represented as Bulgar Old Turkic. Though the spoken language of Khand would be different than Balchoth-speech, they are both represented by the same runic Old Turkic written language. Khand would have a higher culture than the Balchoth. The Balchoth would be unlettered, though some might use these "Ulfangic" runes for occasional carvings.
Westron: one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten
Vale-speech: ān (1), twēġen/twā (2), þrīe/þrēo (3), fēower (4), fīf (5), siex (6), seofon (7), eahta (8), nigon (9), tīen (10)
Woodman, Upper: ên (1), tuêna (2), thria (3), fiwar (4), fîf (5), sehs (6), sibun (7), ahtô (8), nigun (9), tehan (10)
Woodman, Lower: ein (1), zwâ (2), drî (3), fior (4), fimf (5), sehs (6), sibun (7), ahto (8), niun (9), zehan (10)
Northern: einn (1), tveir (2), þrír (3), fjórir (4), fimm (5), sex (6), sjau (7), átta (8), níu (9), tíu (10)
Dunlendish: óen (1), da (2), tri (3), cethair/cethir (4), cóic (5), se (6), secht (7), ocht (8), noi (9), deich (10)
Fisher-folk speech and Redshank-speech: un (1), dou/deu (2), tri (3), petwar (4), pimp (5), chwech (6), seyth (7), oith (8), naw (9), dec (10)
Drûgish: iw (1), dywwæ (2), ærtæ (3), tsyppar (4), fondz (5), ækhsæz (6), avd (7), ast (8), farast (9), dæs (10)
Púkel-speech: bat (1), bi (2), hiru (3), lau (4), bost/bortz (5), sei (6), zazpi (7), zortzi (8), bederatzi (9), hamar (10)
Vinithish: jedinŭ (1), dĭva (2), trĭje/tri (3), četyre (4), pętĭ (5), šestĭ (6), sedmĭ (7), osmĭ (8), devętĭ (9), desętĭ (10)
Núrnian: mi (1), erk'u (2), erekh (3), chorkh (4), hing (5), vech (6), evthn (7), uth (8), inn (9), t'asn (10)
Snowman, Southern: akte (1), guokte (2), gulme (3), nieljie (4), vïjte (5), guvte (6), tjitje (7), gaaktie (8), uktsie (9), lükkie (10)
Near Southron: wāḥid (1), ʼiṯnān (2), ṯalāṯä (3), ʼarbaʿä (4), ḫamsä (5), sittä (6), sabʿä (7), ṯamāniyä (8), tisʿä (9), ʿašarä (10)
Far Southron: ʔaħadu (1), kilʔe (2), shelestu (3), ʔarba`ittu (4), xammistu (5), siddistu (6), seb`atu (7), sementu (8), tes`attu (9), `ashshertu (10)
Black Adûnaic: wa (1), shesnawna (2), shomenti (3), ftow (4), tiw (5), sow (6), sashef (7), shmoun (8), psis (9), mēt (10)
Khandish and Balchoth: bir (1), iki (2), üç (3), tört (4), biş (5), altı (6), yidi (7), sekiz (8), tokuz (9), on (10)
Were-worm speech: qjit (1), njiih (2), sam (3), siih (4), ngox (5), liuk (6), chit (7), pret (8), kiux (9), zjip (10)
Noldo/Deep Elf/High Elf
Penn/Wood Elf/Sylvan Elf
Vale-speech: Ælfwine "elf-friend" (Alvin, Elwin)
Northern: Alfvin / Ǫlfun "elf-friend" (Alvin, Elwin)
Monsters and Fell beasts
Countries and Places
Redshank-speech and Fisher-folk speech: glas "blue / green"
Money and treasure
Time, Seasons, and Festivals
(Reference: Dictionary of Old English Plant Names)
Clothing and Armour
My name is...
What is your name?
Thanks. Thank you.
I love you.
Goodbye! Fare well!
Some Mannish languages of faraway lands:
The primary tongue of the East of East (spoken by the Were-worms) is represented as Middle Chinese.
Some of the tongues spoken in the vicinity the Third Age predecessor of the Hindu Kush mountains (mentioned in a draft of The Hobbit) would be represented as Middle Persian, the Middle Indic languages, and Old Tibetan. A few of many languages of the East.
The language of the Pygmies (a people of the South mentioned in a draft of the Earendel story in The Book of Lost Tales, volume 2) is represented as the reconstructed Baaka language of the African pygmies. One of many languages of Harad.
The language spoken in the Third Age predecessor of Greenland (mentioned in a draft of the Earendel story in The Book of Lost Tales, volume 2) is represented as Inuit. Many other Mannish languages are spoken in the New Lands.