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(Ming Lam + 2011)*

Title:  Empathy Training: Methods, Evaluation Practices, and Validity
DOI or Website Link:  
Publication: Journal of MultiDisciplinary Evaluation, Volume 7, Number 16ISSN 1556-8180
Authors:   
  • Tony Chiu Ming Lam
  • Klodiana Kolomitro
  • Flanny C. Alamparambil
Date:   July 2011
Affiliation(s):  University of Toronto
Citation: 

Abstract:    Meta Empathy Training Study
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to use narrative review method to analyze studies of empathy training in human service and social science disciplines over the past thirty years to address the questions: 
  • “How have people been trained in empathy and what are the findings?” and 
  • “How was empathy training evaluated and how valid are these evaluation findings?” 
Twenty-nine articles pertaining to empathy training evaluation research were identified based on an advanced computer search on the following databases: 
  • “Education Full Text,”
  •  “ProQuest Education Journals,”
  •  “Web of Knowledge” and
  •  “Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC). 
Seven types of training methods were noted in these 29 evaluations with the most popular being  didactic related (42%).



Topic Area: (In which field / sector / perspective was this study conducted?)
  • human service and social science disciplines
  • a meta study of  29 studies

Definition(How was empathy defined?)

"Empathy is an individual’s capacity to understand the behavior of others, to 
experience their feelings, and to express  that understanding to them." 

"A majority of the studies did not clearly define empathy, provide training as defined, and/or measure what is being trained; conceptualization of empathy across  studies was not consistent either. "


Benefits:
(Were any benefits of empathy mentioned?)   Sort

"Empathic ability is an asset both personally and professionally.

Empathic expression with a partner enhances relationship satisfaction (Long et al. 1999;  Ridley et al. 1982).

For example, empathetic teachers should be more effective in inspiring students to change poor work habits and to learn than non-empathetic teachers, because they are able to view the world from the students’ perspectives and hence more likely to connect with them.

Findings from Aspy, Roebuck, and Aspy (1984) research appear to support that  hypothesis as they found that teacher empathy was positively correlated with student attendance and student achievement on tests.  

Herbek and Yammarino (1990) cite several studies showing empathy as an important factor in the success of several professions. They wrote:

Coffman (1981) and Bochner and Yerby (1977), among others have demonstrated that empathy is an important instructor variable that positively affects learning outcomes by creating a psychologically safe learning environment.

Von Bergen and Shealy (1982) indicate that empathy training for salespeople is a key component in successful selling. 

Empathy is also a significant part of supervision and one of the core components of the effective supervisor’s skills (Boyd, 1978).

 Moreover, empathy has been identified as key aspect of the practice patterns of successful and litigation-free physicians (Reiser & Rosen, 1984) 

and has been shown to be essential for effective leadership in groups and organizations (Bas, 1981). (Herbek & Yammarino, 1990, p. 281.)

Methods:
 (What were the methods used to train empathy?)
  • Didactic 
  •  Modeling.  Layton (1979)
  • Skill  training,
  • Video stimulus
  • Writing
  • Mindfulness training
  • Experiential Training
    • Reflective Learning Cycle, Kolb (1984)
  • videotapes of the couple’s  argument - Long, Angera, and Hakoyama (2006)
  • Simulation and Games

Mixed methods
  • Didactic and experiential,
  • Didactic and skill training
  • etc



Target Group:  
(Who participated in this study / training?)

human service and social science disciplines
studies span across various groups such as

Measurements
(
About the assessment: How was the change in empathy measured before/after the intervention/method?) 


Result:
(What was the result?)
  • "All but two studies (93%) reported positive findings, mainly in regard to learning (86%), or the cognitive component of empathy."

Posted By:  Edwin Rutsch
 
Notes: 
(Any other relevant information)

They ask. 
Is it possible to enhance people’s empathic ability? the research say yes. 



The Actual Studies Evaluated and Comments

1. *Ancel, G. (2006). Developing empathy in nurses: An in-service training program. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 20(6), 249-257. 

2. *Aspy, D. N., Roebuck, F. N., & Aspy, C. B. (1984). Tomorrow’s resources are in today’s classroom. Personnel and  Guidance Journal, 62(8), 455-459. 

3 *Avery, A. W., & Thiessen, J. D. (1982). Communication skills training for divorcees. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 29(2), 203-205. 

4 *Barak, A., Engle, C., Katzir, L., & Fisher, W. A. (1987). Increasing the level of empathic understanding by means of a game. Simulation and Games, 18(4), 458–470. 

5 *Barone, D. F., Hutchings, P. S., Kimmel, H., Traub, H. L., Cooper, J. I., & Marshall, C. M. (2005). Increasing empathic accuracy through practice and feedback in a clinical interviewing course. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24(2), 156-171. 

6 *Beddoe, A. E., & Murphy, S. O. (2004)Does mindfulness decrease stress and foster empathy among nursing students? Journal of Nursing Education, 43(7), 305-312. 

7 *Block-Lerner, J., Adair, C., Plumb, J. C., Rhatigan, D. L., & Orsillo, S. M. (2007). The case for mindfulnessbased approaches in the cultivation of empathy: Does nonjudgmental, present-moment awareness increase capacity for perspective-taking and empathic concern? Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33(4), 501-516. 

8 *Crabb, W. T., Moracco, J. C., & Bender, R. C. (1983). A comparative study of empathy training with programmed  instruction for lay helpers. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 30(2), 221- 226. 

9 *Dasgupta, S., & Charon, R. (2004)Personal illness narratives: Using reflective writing to teach empathy. Academic Medicine, 79(4), 351 – 356. 

10 *Evans, B. J., Stanley, R. O., & Burrows, G. D. (1993). Measuring medical students’ empathy skills. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 66(2), 121-133. 

11 *Feighny, K. M., Monaco, M., & Arnold, L. (1995). Empathy training to improve physician–patient communication  skills. Academic Medicine, 70(5), 435– 436. 

12 *Fernández-Olano, C., Montoya-Fernndez, J., & Salinas-S nchez, A. S. (2008). Impact of clinical interview training on the empathy level of medical students and medical residents. Medical Teacher, 30(3), 322-324. 

13 *Fraser, J. A. H., & Vitro, F. T. (1975). The effects of empathy-training on the empathic response levels and selfconcepts of students in a teachertraining program. Canadian Counsellor, 10(1), 25-28. 

14 *Gantt, S., Billingsley, D., & Giordano, J. A. (1980). Paraprofessional skill: Maintenance of empathic sensitivity after training. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 27(4), 374-379. 

15 *Hatcher, S. L., Nadeau, M. S., Walsh, L. K., Reynolds, M., Galea, J., & Marz, K. (1994). The teaching of empathy for high school and college students: Testing Rogerian methods with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Adolescence, 29(116), 961-974. 

16 *Haynes, L. A., & Avery, A. W. (1979). Training adolescents in self-disclosure and empathy skills. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 26(6), 526- 530. 

17 *Higgins, E., Moracco, J., & Danford, D. (1981). Effects of human relations training on education students. Journal of Educational Research, 75(1), 22-25. 

18 *Layton, J. M. (1979). The use of modeling to teach empathy to nursing students.   Research in Nursing and Health, 2(4), 163-176. 

19 *Long, E. C. J., Angera, J. J., Carter, S. J., Nakamoto, M., & Kalso, M. (1999). Understanding the one you love: A longitudinal assessment of an empathy training program for couples in romantic relationships. Family Relations, 48(3), 235-242. 

20 *Long, E. C. J., Angera, J. J., & Hakoyama, M. (2006). Using videotape feedback during intervention with married couples: A qualitative assessment. Family Relations, 55(4), 428-438. 

21 *McConnell, D. M., & LeCapitaine, J.E. (1988). The effects of group creativity training on teachers’ empathy and interactions with students. Reading Improvement, 25(4), 269-275. 

22 *Nerdrum, P. (1997). Maintenance of effect of training in communication skills. A controlled follow-up study of level of communicated empathy. British Journal of Social Work, 27(5), 705- 722. 


23 *Nerdrum, P., & Ronnestad, M. H. (2002). The trainees’ perspective: A qualitative study of learning empathetic Communication in Norway. The Counseling Psychologist, 30(4), 609-  629. 


24 *Ridley, C. A., Jorgensen, S. R., Morgan, A. G., & Avery, A. W. (1982). Relationship enhancement with premarital couples: An assessment of effects on relationship quality. American Journal of Family Therapy, 10(3), 41- 48. 

25 *Seto, A., Young, S., Becker, K. W., & Kiselica, M. S. (2006). Application of the triad training model in a multicultural counseling course. Counselor Education and Supervision, 45(4), 304-318. 

26 *Shapiro, J., Rucker, L., Boker J., & Lie, D. (2006). Point-of-View writing: A method for increasing medical students’ empathy, identification and expression of emotion, and insight. Education for Health, 19(1), 96-105. 

27 *Shapiro, S. L., Schwartz, G. E., & Bonner, G. (1998). Effects of mindfulness based stress reduction on medical and premedical students. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 21(6), 581-599. 

28 *Warner, R.E. (1984). Enhancing teacher affective sensitivity by a videotape  program. Journal of Educational Research, 77(6), 366-368. 






References: * included study

*Ancel, G. (2006). Developing empathy in nurses: An in-service training program. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 20(6), 249-257. 

*Aspy, D. N., Roebuck, F. N., & Aspy, C. B. (1984). Tomorrow’s resources are in today’s classroom. Personnel and  Guidance Journal, 62(8), 455-459. 

*Avery, A. W., & Thiessen, J. D. (1982). Communication skills training for divorcees. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 29(2), 203-205. 

*Barak, A., Engle, C., Katzir, L., & Fisher, W. A. (1987). Increasing the level of empathic understanding by means of a game. Simulation and Games, 18(4), 458–470. 

*Barone, D. F., Hutchings, P. S., Kimmel, H., Traub, H. L., Cooper, J. I., & Marshall, C. M. (2005). Increasing empathic accuracy through practice and feedback in a clinical interviewing course. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24(2), 156-171. 

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*Beddoe, A. E., & Murphy, S. O. (2004)Does mindfulness decrease stress and foster empathy among nursing 
students? Journal of Nursing Education, 43(7), 305-312. 

*Block-Lerner, J., Adair, C., Plumb, J. C., Rhatigan, D. L., & Orsillo, S. M. (2007). The case for mindfulnessbased approaches in the cultivation of empathy: Does nonjudgmental, present-moment awareness increase capacity for perspective-taking and empathic concern? Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33(4), 501-516. 

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*Crabb, W. T., Moracco, J. C., & Bender, R. C. (1983). A comparative study of empathy training with programmed 
instruction for lay helpers. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 30(2), 221- 226. 

*Dasgupta, S., & Charon, R. (2004)Personal illness narratives: Using reflective writing to teach empathy. Academic Medicine, 79(4), 351 – 356. 

Davis, M. H. (1980). Individual differences in empathy: A multidimensional approach. Dissertation Abstracts International, 40 (7-B), 3480. 

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*Evans, B. J., Stanley, R. O., & Burrows, G. D. (1993). Measuring medical students’ empathy skills. British 
Journal of Medical Psychology, 66(2), 121-133. 

*Feighny, K. M., Monaco, M., & Arnold, L. (1995). Empathy training to improve physician–patient communication  skills. Academic Medicine, 70(5), 435– 436. 

*Fernández-Olano, C., Montoya-Fernndez, J., & Salinas-S nchez, A. S. (2008). Impact of clinical interview training on the empathy level of medical students and medical residents. Medical Teacher, 30(3), 322-324. 

*Fraser, J. A. H., & Vitro, F. T. (1975). The effects of empathy-training on the empathic response levels and selfconcepts of students in a teachertraining program. Canadian Counsellor, 10(1), 25-28. 

*Gantt, S., Billingsley, D., & Giordano, J. A. (1980). Paraprofessional skill: Maintenance of empathic sensitivity 
after training. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 27(4), 374-379. 

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*Hatcher, S. L., Nadeau, M. S., Walsh, L. K., Reynolds, M., Galea, J., & Marz, K. (1994). The teaching of empathy for high school and college students: Testing Rogerian methods with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Adolescence, 29(116), 961-974. 

*Haynes, L. A., & Avery, A. W. (1979). Training adolescents in self-disclosure and empathy skills. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 26(6), 526- 530. 

Herbek, T. A., & Yammarino, F. J. (1990). Empathy training for hospital staff nurses. Group and Organization Management, 15(3), 279-295. 

*Higgins, E., Moracco, J., & Danford, D. (1981). Effects of human relations training on education students. Journal of Educational Research, 75(1), 22-25. 

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*Layton, J. M. (1979). The use of modeling to teach empathy to nursing students.   Research in Nursing and Health, 2(4), 163-176. 

LaMonica, E.L., Carew, D.K., Winder, A.E., Haase, A.M.B & Blanchard, K.H. (1976). Empathy training as a major thrust of a staff development program. Nursing Research, 25(6), 447-451. 

*Long, E. C. J., Angera, J. J., Carter, S. J., Nakamoto, M., & Kalso, M. (1999). Understanding the one you love: A longitudinal assessment of an empathy training program for couples in romantic relationships. Family Relations, 48(3), 235-242. 

*Long, E. C. J., Angera, J. J., & Hakoyama, M. (2006). Using videotape feedback during intervention with married couples: A qualitative assessment. Family Relations, 55(4), 428-438. 

*McConnell, D. M., & LeCapitaine, J.E. (1988). The effects of group creativity training on teachers’ empathy and interactions with students. Reading Improvement, 25(4), 269-275. 

Mehrabian, A. & Epstein, N. (1972). A measure of emotional empathy. Journal of Personality, 40, 525-543. 

*Nerdrum, P. (1997). Maintenance of effect of training in communication skills. A controlled follow-up study of level of communicated empathy. British Journal of Social Work, 27(5), 705- 722. 

*Nerdrum, P., & Ronnestad, M. H. (2002). The trainees’ perspective: A qualitative study of learning empathetic Communication in Norway. The Counseling Psychologist, 30(4), 609-  629. 

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*Ridley, C. A., Jorgensen, S. R., Morgan, A. G., & Avery, A. W. (1982). Relationship enhancement with premarital couples: An assessment of effects on relationship quality. American Journal of Family Therapy, 10(3), 41- 48. 

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*Seto, A., Young, S., Becker, K. W., & Kiselica, M. S. (2006). Application of the triad training model in a multicultural counseling course. Counselor Education and Supervision, 45(4), 304-318. 

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*Shapiro, J., Rucker, L., Boker J., & Lie, D. (2006). Point-of-View writing: A method for increasing medical students’ empathy, identification and expression of emotion, and insight. Education for Health, 19(1), 96-105. 

*Shapiro, S. L., Schwartz, G. E., & Bonner, G. (1998). Effects of mindfulnessbased stress reduction on medical and premedical students. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 21(6), 581-599. 

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*Warner, R.E. (1984). Enhancing teacher affective sensitivity by a videotape  program. Journal of Educational Research, 77(6), 366-368. 


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