Training: Papers‎ > ‎

(Keena + 2017)


DOI or Website Link:   DOI: 10.1007/s12103-017-9385-7
Publication:  American Journal of Criminal Justice pp 1–22
Authors:
  • Linda Keena
  • Laura Krieger-Sample

Date:   11 January 2017
Affiliation(s):  
Citation: 

Comments: 
  •   



Abstract:   

Today’s students show very little appreciation for the importance of empathy in community-based correctional treatment. This descriptive mixed-method study reports on a pilot program designed to examine how and to what extent a criminal justice education program enhanced or fostered empathy. Over a period of 7 years (2007–2014), 52 students participated in an intervention class, while 97 attended a controlled course.

 The study utilized a two-stage measurement technique involving a pencil and paper test of empathy and actual interviews with students. A phenomenological analysis was conducted to investigate how students understand and transform experiences into perceptions both individually and as shared meaning. A Paired Two Sample for Means t-test was computed on the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) pre- and posttest data to analyze change in the students’ perceived empathy. 

The intervention group scores from pretest to posttest indicated a statistically significant change in students’ empathy levels in all seven subscales. This program should serve as a model curriculum for criminal justice students.


Quotes: (Any pithy quotes)


Topic Area: (In which field / sector / perspective was this study conducted?)


Definition(How was empathy defined?)


Benefits(Were any benefits of empathy mentioned?)

Criticisms  (Were any criticisms, negative effects or risks of empathy mentioned?)


Methods(What were the methods used to train empathy?)
  •  

Target Group:  (Who participated in this study / training?)


Measurements(About the assessment: How was the change in empathy measured before/after the intervention/method?) 


Result: (What was the result?)


Posted By:  
 

Notes:  
(Any other relevant information)



References:
  1. Archer, R., Foushee, H. C., Davis, M. H., & Aderman, D. (1979). Emotional empathy in a courtroom simulation: A person-situation interaction. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 9, 275–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bachman, R., & Schutt, R. K. (2014). The practice of research in criminology and criminal justice. Los Angeles: Sage.Google Scholar
  3. Batson, C. D., & Ahmad, N. Y. (2009). Using empathy to improve intergroup attitudes and relations. Social Issues and Policy Review, 3(1), 141–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Batson, C. D., Chang, J., Orr, R., & Rowland, J. (2002). Empathy, attitudes, and action: Can feeling for a member of a stigmatized group motivate one to help the group? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(12), 1656–1666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bernard, H. R., & Ryan, G. W. (2010). Analyzing qualitative data: Systematic approaches. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  6. Birzer, M. L. (2008). What makes a good police officer? Phenomenological reflections from the African-American community. Police Practice and Research, 9(3), 199–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Block, S. (1994). Policing an increasing diverse America. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 63(6), 24–27.Google Scholar
  8. Bloom, P. (2016). Against empathy: The case for rational compassion. New York: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  9. Boag, E. M., & Wilson, D. (2014). Inside experience: Engagement empathy and prejudice towards prisoners. Journal of Criminal Psychology, 4(1), 33–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burke, A. S., & Bush, M. D. (2013). Service learning and criminal justice: An exploratory study of student perceptions. Educational Review, 65(1), 56–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Campbell, M. W., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2011). Ingroup-outgroup bias in contagious yawning by chimpanzees supports link to empathy. PloS One, 6(4), 1–4. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018283.Google Scholar
  12. Carkhuff, R. (1969). Helping and human relations: A primer for lay and professional helpers. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.Google Scholar
  13. Chenault, S., Martin, J., & Matusiak, R. E. (2016). The ripple effect: Empathy statements of participants of an impact of crime on victim’s class. Corrections: Policy, Practice and Research, 1(3), 196–214. doi:10.1080/23774657.2016.1210994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Compton, M. T., Broussard, B., Hankerson-Dyson, D., Krishan, S., & Stewart-Hutto, T. (2011). Do empathy and psychological mindedness affect police officers’ decision to enter crisis intervention team training? Psychiatric Services, 6(62), 632–638. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.62.6.632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Courtright, K. E., Mackey, D. A., & Packard, S. H. (2005). Empathy among college students and criminal justice majors: Identifying predispositional traits and the role of education. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 16(1), 125–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches (3rd ed.). Los Angeles: Sage.Google Scholar
  17. Davis, M. (1980). A multidimensional approach to individual differences in empathy. Catalogue of Selected Documents in Psychology, 10(4), 1–17.Google Scholar
  18. Davis, M. (1983). Measuring individual in empathy: Evidence for a multidimensional approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44(1), 113–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. De Corte, K., et al. (2007). Measuring empathic tendencies: Reliability and validity of the Dutch version of the interpersonal reactivity index. Psychologica Belgica, 47(4), 235–260. doi:10.5334/pb-47-4-235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. de Vos, B., van Zomeren, M., Gordijn, M. H., & Postmes, T. (2013). The communication of “pure” group-based anger reduces tendencies toward intergroup conflict because it increases out-group empathy. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39(8), 1043–1052. doi:10.1177/0146167213489140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Deitz, S., & Byrnes, L. (1981). Attribution of responsibility for sexual assaults: The influence of observer empathy and criminal occupation and attractiveness. Journal of Psychology, 108, 17–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Denzin, N. K. (1998). The art and politics of interpretation. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Collecting and interpreting qualitative materials (pp. 313–344). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  23. Eisenberg, N. (1995). Prosocial development: A multifaceted model. In W. M. Kurtines & J. L. Gerwitz (Eds.), Moral development: An introduction (pp. 401–429). Needham Heights: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  24. Engel, S. (2003). Teaching literature in the criminal justice curriculum. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 14(2), 345–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fraenkel, J. R., & Wallen, N. E. (2003). How to design and evaluate research in education (5th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
  26. Fried, J. (2012). Transformative learning through engagement: Student affairs practice as experiential pedagogy. Sterling: Stylus.Google Scholar
  27. Gerdes, K. E., Lietz, C. A., & Segal, E. A. (2011). Measuring empathy in the twenty-first century: Development of an empathy index rooted in social cognitive neuroscience and social justice. Social Work Research, 35(2), 83–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Giovannoni, J., McCoy, K. Y., Mays, M., & Watson, J. (2015). Probation officers reduce their stress by cultivating the practice of loving-kindness with self and other. International Journal of Caring Sciences, 8(2), 325–332.Google Scholar
  29. Grant, L. (2014). Hearts and minds: Aspects of empathy and wellbeing in social work students. Social Work Education, 33(3), 338–352. doi:10.1080/02615479.2013.805191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Greenleaf, R. K. (1991). The servant as leader. Indianapolis: The Robert K. Greenleaf Center.Google Scholar
  31. Harper, M., & Cole, P. (2012). Member checking: Can benefits be gained similar to group therapy? The Qualitative Report, 17(2), 510–517.Google Scholar
  32. Hatcher, S. L., Nadeau, M. S., Walsh, L. K., Reynolds, M., Galean, J., & Marz, K. (1994). The teaching of empathy for high school and college students: Testing Rogerian methods with the interpersonal reactivity index. Adolescence, 29(115), 961–974.Google Scholar
  33. Hurwitz, J., Peffley, M., & Mondak, J. (2015). Linked fate and outgroup perceptions: Blacks, Latinos, and the U.S. criminal justice system. Political Research Quarterly, 68(3), 505–520. doi:10.1177/1065912915589597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jordan, J. V., Kaplan, A. G., Miller, J. B., Stiver, I. P., & Surrey, J. L. (1991). Women’s growth in connection: Writings from the stone center. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  35. Kohut, H. (1971). The analysis of self. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  36. Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  37. Kremer, J. F., & Dietzen, L. L. (1991). Two approaches to teaching accurate empathy to undergraduates: Teacher-intensive and self- directed. Journal of College Student Development, 32(1), 62–74.Google Scholar
  38. Lennon, R., & Eisenberg, N. (1987). Gender and age differences in sympathy and empathy. New York: Cambridge and University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. A. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  40. Manning, P. K., & Cullum-Swan, B. N. (1998). Narrative, content and semiotic analysis. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Collecting and interpreting qualitative materials (pp. 246–275). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  41. McNeil, F. (2000). Defining effective probation: Frontline perspectives. Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 39(4), 382–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Myrick, R., & Erney, T. (1985). Youth helping youth: Becoming a peer facilitator. Minneapolis: Educational Media Corp.Google Scholar
  43. NameVoyager (2016). NameVoyager wizard. Retrieved from https://blog.mozilla.org/ux/2012/05/picking-pseudonyms-for-your-research-participants/.
  44. Oxley, J. (2011). Moral dimensions of empathy: Limits and applications in ethical theory and practice. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Parra, A. (2013). Cognitive and emotional empathy in relation to five paranormal/anomalous experiences. North American Journal of Psychology, 15(3), 405–612.Google Scholar
  46. Piaget, J. (1965). The moral judgment of the child. Glencoe: Free Press.Google Scholar
  47. Poorman, P. B. (2002). Biography and role playing: Fostering empathy in abnormal psychology. Teaching of Psychology, 29(1), 32–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Posick, C., Rocque, M., & Rafter, N. (2014). More than a feeling: Integrating empathy into the study of lawmaking, lawbreaking, and reactions to lawbreaking. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 58(1), 5–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Richards, L., & Richards, T. (1994). From filing cabinet to computer. In A. Bryman & R. G. Burgess (Eds.), Analyzing qualitative data (pp. 146–172). London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Roberts, J. W. (2012). Beyond learning by doing: Theoretical currents in experiential education. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  51. Robinson, E. V., & Roger, R. (2015). Empathy faking in psychopathic offenders: The vulnerability of empathy measures. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 37(4), 545–552. doi:10.1007/s10862-015-9479-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Shanafelt, T. D., West, C., Zhao, X., Kolars, P. N., Habermann, T., & Sloan, J. (2005). Relationship between increased personal well-being and enhanced empathy among internal medicine residents. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 20(7), 559–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Singer, T. (2006). The neuronal basis and ontogeny of empathy and mind reading: Review of literature and implications for future research. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 30(6), 855–863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Spears, L. C. (2004). The understanding and practice of servant-leadership. In L. C. Spears & M. Lawrence (Eds.), Practicing servant-leadership: Succeeding through trust, bravery, and forgiveness (pp. 2–24). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  55. Spiro, H. (1992). What is empathy and can it be taught? Annals of Internal Medicine, 116(10), 843–860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Stinchcomb, J. B. (2002). Prisons of the mind: Lessons learned from home confinement. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 13(2), 463–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Taub, D. E. (1991). Strengthening the social within social psychology: An experiential learning approach. Teaching Sociology, 19, 186–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Tsoudis, O. (2002). The influence of empathy in mock jury criminal cases: Adding to the affect control model. Western Criminology Review, 4(1), 55–67.Google Scholar
  59. Wegener, S. T. (1999). The rehabilitation and ethic ethics. In R. P. Marinelli & A. E. Dell Otto (Eds.), The psychosocial impact of disability (pp. 43–54). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  60. Yeo, L., Ang, R. P., Loh, S., Fu, K. J., & Karre, J. K. (2011). The role of affective and cognitive empathy in physical, verbal, and indirect aggression of a Singaporean sample of boys. Journal of Psychology, 145(4), 313–330. doi:10.1080/00223980.2011.568986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Comments