Training: Papers‎ > ‎

(Everhart + 2016)

White Paper Title:  Empathy Activators: Teaching Tools for EnhancingEmpathy Development in Service-Learning Classes 
DOI or Website Link:  
Publication: 
Authors:   
  • Robin Everhart, Virginia Commonwealth University  
  • Katie Elliott,  Virginia Commonwealth University, elliottkl@vcu.edu 
  • Lynn E. Pelco,  Virginia Commonwealth University, lepelco@vcu.edu
  • Deborah Westin, Virginia Commonwealth University
  • Rowena Briones,   Virginia Commonwealth University
  • Emily Peron,    Virginia Commonwealth UniversityHow 
Date:   April 2016
Affiliation(s):  
Citation: 

Abstract:   
On February 5, 2016, 25 educators from Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) and the University of Richmond (UR) gathered in Richmond, Virginia, for an annual service-learning workshop. This year’s workshop featured Robin Everhart, PhD, VCU assistant professor of psychology, as keynote speaker. Jumpstarted by Everhart’s research on student empathy, workshop participants explored the concept of empathy and collaboratively developed strategies for integrating empathy into the service-learning experience. This document grows out of Everhart’s presentation and group discussions during that workshop and represents a collection of ideas generated.



Topic Area:
 (In which field / sector / perspective was this study conducted?)

Definition:
(How was empathy defined?)
"Empathy can be defined as “the ability to walk in another’s shoes” and take the perspective of another person. Along with elements of self-awareness, handling relationships, managing feelings, and motivation, empathy forms one part of Emotional Intelligence (Ionnidou & Konstantikaki, 2008). Empathy contains two distinct components: a cognitive component and an emotional component

Perspective-taking: Empathy’s cognitive component Important to the process of developing empathy is the ability to understand how other people may be affected by a situation, as well as understanding that there may be other perspectives to a situation (Galinksy & Moskowitz, 2000). 

Compassion: Empathy’s emotional component Empathy also has an affective component, in that an individual often feels compassion for another and becomes motivated to understand that person in a new way (Galinksy & Moskowitz, 2000)." 
(Were any benefits of empathy mentioned?)

"Conflict and isolation between individuals and groups negatively impact our societies at local, national and global levels. Empathy can combat this social isolation and conflict by helping people relate to others in ways that promote cooperation and unity (Konrath, O’Brien & Hsing, 2011)"

Methods:
 (What were the methods used to train empathy?)
Target Group:  
(Who participated in this study / training?)

Measurements
(
About the assessment: How was the change in empathy measured before/after the intervention/method?) 

Result: (What was the result?)

"Though we believe that service-learning classes offer a starting point for heightening empathic ability, simply incorporating service into a class is not enough to truly develop students’ empathy skills. Instead, we encourage instructors to consider integrating one or more of the following five strategies to complement the service and community-engagement activities: 
  • Give students experiential opportunities for building empathy. 
  • Incorporate empathy into students’ reflection. 
  • Teach the empathy toolbox. 
  • Assess and reimagine classroom culture and design. 
  • Add empathy to your learning objectives and graded coursework"


Posted By:  
 
Notes: 
(Any other relevant information)



References:

Baker, A. C., Jensen, P. J., & Kolb, D. A. (2002). Conversational learning: An experiential approach to knowledge creation. Westport,
Connecticut: Quorum Books.

Everhart, R. S. (2016, Feb. 5). Teaching tools to improve the development of empathy in service-learning students. [PowerPoint slides].
Retrieved from https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1NVfZZ0AdSzUW4HLFLwlvvmm3kc0JDSMfuuxXLg457N8/edit#slide=id.p4

Everhart, R. S. (In press). Teaching tools to improve the development of empathy in service-learning students. Journal of Higher
Education Outreach and Engagement.

Fraustino, J. D., Briones, R., & Janoske, M. (2015). Can every class be a Twitter chat? Cross-institutional collaboration and experiential
learning in the social media classroom. Journal of Public Relations Education, 1(1), 1-18.

Galinsky, A. D., & Moskowitz, G. B. (2000). Perspective-taking: decreasing stereotype expression, stereotype accessibility, and ingroup
favoritism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 708-724.

Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam.
Ioannidou, F., & Konstantikaki, V. (2008). Empathy and emotional intelligence: What is it really about? International Journal of Caring
Sciences, 1(3):118-123. Retrieved from http://internationaljournalofcaringsciences.org/docs/Vol1_Issue3_03_Ioannidou.pdf

Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

McLeod, S. A. (2012). Zone of Proximal Development. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/Zone-of-Proximal-Development.html
University of Minnesota Center for Community-Engaged Learning. (2011). Reflection in service-learning classes. Retrieved from
http://www.servicelearning.umn.edu/info/reflection.html

Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Press.

Wilson, J. C. (2011). Service-learning and the development of empathy in US college students. Education + Training, 53, 207-217.



Scholarly articles

Bennett, J. M. & Bennett, M. J. (2004). Developing intercultural sensitivity: An integrative approach to global and domestic diversity. InD. Landis, J. M. Bennett, & M. J. Bennett (Eds.), Handbook of Intercultural Training. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Galinsky, A. D., & Moskowitz, G. B. (2000). Perspective-taking: decreasing stereotype expression, stereotype accessibility, and ingroup
favoritism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 708-724.

Hammer, M. R., Bennett, M. J., & Wiseman, R. (2003). Measuring intercultural sensitivity: The intercultural development inventory.
International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 27(4), 421-443.

Hedberg, P. R. (2009). Learning through Reflective Classroom Practice: Applications to educate the reflective manager. Journal of
Management Education, 33(1), 10-36.
Available online: http://jme.sagepub.com/content/33/1/10.abstract

Hunt, R. (2007). Service-Learning: An Eye-Opening Experience that Provokes Emotion and Challenges Stereotypes. Journal of Nursing Education, 46, 277-281.

Konrath, S. H., O'Brien, E. H., & Hsing, C. (2011). Changes in dispositional empathy in American college students over time: a metaanalysis. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 15, 180-198. Available online: http://psr.sagepub.com/content/15/2/180

Lundy, B. (2007). Service Learning in Life-Span Developmental Psychology: Higher Exam Scores and Increased Empathy. Teaching ofPsychology, 34, 23-27.

Mofidi, M., Strauss, R., Pitner, L. L., & Sandler, E. S. (2003). Dental students' reflections on their community-based experiences: the
use of critical incidents. Journal of Dental Education, 67, 515-523.

Vogt, M. A., Chavez, R., & Schaffner, B. (2011). Baccalaureate Nursing Student Experiences at a Camp for Children with Diabetes:
The Impact of a Service-Learning Model. Pediatric Nursing, 37, 69-73.

Wilson, J. C. (2011). Service-learning and the development of empathy in US college students. Education + Training, 53, 207-217.
 

Comments