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(Davis 2016)

What Is Empathy, and Can Empathy Be Taught? 
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DOI or Website Link:  DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1093/ptj/70.11.707
Publication:  Physical Therapy 
Volume 70 
Issue 11

Authors:   Carol M Davis
Date:   
20 November 2016  
(2016) 70 (11): 707-711. 
Affiliation(s):  
Citation: 

Comments: 
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Abstract:   
Empathy is a commonly used, but poorly understood, concept. It is often confused with related concepts such as sympathy, pity, identification, and self-transposal. The purposes of this article are to clearly distinguish empathy from related terms and to suggest that the act of empathizing cannot be taught. According to Edith Stein, a German phenomenologist, empathy can be facilitated. It also can be interrupted and blocked, but it cannot be forced to occur. 

What makes empathy unique, according to Stein, is that it happens to us; it is indirectly given to us, “nonprimordially.” When empathy occurs, we find ourselves experiencing it, rather than directly causing it to happen. This is the characteristic that makes the act of empathy unteachable.

 Instead, promoting attitudes and behaviors such as self-awareness, nonjudgmental positive regard for others, good listening skills, and self-confidence are suggested as important in the development of clinicians who will demonstrate an empathic willingness.






Quotes: (Any pithy quotes)



Topic Area: (In which field / sector / perspective was this study conducted?)


Definition(How was empathy defined?)


Benefits(Were any benefits of empathy mentioned?)

Criticisms  (Were any criticisms, negative effects or risks of empathy mentioned?)


Methods(What were the methods used to train empathy?)
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Target Group:  (Who participated in this study / training?)


Measurements(About the assessment: How was the change in empathy measured before/after the intervention/method?) 


Result: (What was the result?)


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Notes:  
(Any other relevant information)


References:

 1. Stein E. On the Problem of Empathy. 2nd ed. The Hague, the Netherlands: Martinus NijhoffDr W Junk Publishers; 1970. 

2 Carkhuff RR. Helping and Human Relations: A Primer for Lay and Professional Helpers. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehan and Winston Inc; 1969.

3 Rogers CR. Client-Centered Theram. Boston, Mass: Houghton Mifflin Co; 1951. 

4 Rogers CR. Empathic: an unappreciated way of being. Counseling Psychologist 1975;l:l 

5 Buber M. Between Man and Man. Boston, 
Mass: Beacon Press; 1955. 

6 Friedman MS. Martin Buber: The Li&e of Dialogue.  New York, NY: Harper & Row Publishers  nc; 1960.

7 Schleler M. The Nature of Sympathy. Hamden, Conn: Archer Books; 1970.

8 Wyschogrod E. Empathy and sympathy as tactile encounter. J Med Philos. 1981;6:2543. 

9 Spiegelberg H. Toward a phenomenology of imaginative understanding of others (Putting ourselves in the place of others). In: Proceedings of The Interactional Congres of Philosophy, 1953.

10 Davis CM. A Phenomenological Description of Empathy as It Occurs Within Physical Therapists for Their Patients. Boston, Mass: Boston University; 1982. Doctoral dissertation. 

11 Piaget J. Intellectual evolution from adolescence to adulthood. Human Development. 1972;15:1-12.

12 Perry WG. Forms of Intellectuat and Ethical Development in the College Years. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehan and Winston Inc; 1968.

13 Davis CM. Patient/Practitioner Interaction:  An Expetiential Manual for Developing the Ari of Health Care. Thorofare, NJ: Slack Inc; 1989. 

14 Pence G. Can compassion be taught? J Med Ethics. 1983;9:189-191.  
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