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(Daniels + 1988)

Title:   Using microcounseling to teach RN students skills of therapeutic communication.
DOI or Website Link:  
Publication: J Nurs Ed. 1988;27(6):246–52.
Authors:   Daniels T, Denny A, Andrews D. 
Daniels T, Denny A, Andrews D. Using microcounseling to teach RN students skills of therapeutic communication. J Nurs Ed. 1988;27(6):246–52.

Daniels, T. G., Denny, A., & Andrews, D. (1988). Using microcounseling to teach RN nursing students skills of therapeutic communication. The Journal of Nursing Education, 27, 246–252. 


This study assessed the degree to which nursing students acquired and retained six generic skills of communication. Fifty-three second year female RN students were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (E-group) which received microtraining, or a nonattention control group (C-group). All subjects completed both the Carkhuff Indices of Communication and Discrimination as pretests. The E-group then had approximately 25 hours of microtraining in six basic communication skills. Following training, each subject completed the Carkhuff Indices again, the Empathy Construct Rating Scale, and a 10- to 15 minute audiotaped interview in which she assumed the role of a helping nurse

.Multivariate analysis of covariance indicated a significant main effect suggesting that the ?-group performed better than the C-group when all the measures were combined together. As well, the experimental trainees performed significantly better than the control trainees on empathy, reflection of feeling, and summarizing. The Egroup made fewer communication errors, asked fewer closed-questions, made more Good responses, and showed a significant increase in empathy over training.

At the nine-month follow-up, while there were no statistically significant differences between the groups on any dependent measure, the ?-group outperformed the C-group on all dependent measures.

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Definition(How was empathy defined?)

Benefits(Were any benefits of empathy mentioned?)

Criticisms  (Were any criticisms, negative effects or risks of empathy mentioned?)

Methods(What were the methods used to train empathy?)

Target Group:  (Who participated in this study / training?)

Measurements(About the assessment: How was the change in empathy measured before/after the intervention/method?) 

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