Training: Papers‎ > ‎

(Cotton 1992)*

Title:  Developing Empathy in Children and Youth
DOI or Website Link:  
Publication: School Improvement Research Series
Authors:   Kathleen Cotton
Date:   1992-93

has good annotated reference list.

Moral imagination is the capacity to empathize with others, i.e., not just to feel for oneself, but to feel with and for others. This is something that education ought to cultivate and that citizens ought to bring to politics. --McCollough 1992

This paper is the result of a review of fifty-eight articles, books, and other publications. Thirtyseven of these are reports of research studies or reviews, while twenty-one are writings of a more general nature. These latter include, for example, discussions of the nature, source, and development of empathy in people and descriptions of activities designed to enhance empathy. 

Of the research documents, thirty-two are studies or evaluations, four are reviews or metaanalyses, and one reports results of both a review and evaluation.

 Subjects of the research are
  • preschoolers (six studies), 
  • elementary students (fourteen), 
  • secondary students (four), 
  • elementary and secondary students (six), 
  • university students and
  •  other adults (six), and 
  • the age/grade of students in one study was not specified.

Topic Area: (In which field / sector / perspective was this study conducted?)
  • School children

Definition(How was empathy defined?)
  • "Unfortunately," writes Pecukonis (1990) "the literature has been confounded by definitional controversy. The essence of this disagreement is the extent to which either cognitive processes or affective experiences formulate the empathic response" (p. 60). R

Benefits(Were any benefits of empathy mentioned?)

Criticisms  (Were any criticisms, negative effects or risks of empathy mentioned?)

Methods(What were the methods used to train empathy?)

Target Group:  (Who participated in this study / training?)

Measurements(About the assessment: How was the change in empathy measured before/after the intervention/method?) 

Result: (What was the result?)

Posted By:  Edwin Rutsch

(Any other relevant information)

References of Reviewed Papres:

Barak, A.; Engle, C.; Katzir, L.; and Fisher, W. A. "Increasing the Level of Empathic Understanding by Means of a Game." SIMULATION & GAMES 18/4 (1987): 458-470. 

Reports the results of a study to determine whether participation in an empathy training game would increase participants' empathic understanding. Participants exhibited more empathic understanding than controls.  (COTTON)*

Barnett, M. A.; Howard, J. A.; Melton, E. M.; and Dino, G. A. "Effect of Inducing Sadness about Self or Other on Helping Behavior in High- and Low-empathic Children." CHILD DEVELOPMENT 53/2 (1982): 920-923. 

Compares the altruistic behavior of sixth graders in different experimental conditions. One finding: highly empathic children who were invited to reflect upon a sad incident involving a friend engaged in significantly more helping behavior than children in other cells of the experiment. (COTTON)*

Barnett, M. A.; King, L. M.; Howard, J. A.; and Dino, G. A. "Empathy in Young Children: Relation to Parents' Empathy, Affection, and Emphasis on the Feelings of Others." DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 16/3 (1980): 243-244. 

Examines relationships between the empathy scores/behaviors of parents and the empathy scores of their 4-6-year-old children. A positive relationship was found between parents' and daughters' empathy scores.  (COTTON)*

Barnett, M. A.; Matthews, K. A.; and Howard, J. A. "Relationship Between Competitiveness and Empathy in 6- and 7-Year-Olds." DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 15/2 (1979): 221- 222.

Tests the hypothesis that preparing first graders to play a game in a competitive manner would result in lower empathy scores than orienting them to play a game in a cooperative or neutral manner. No relationships were observed between kind of orientation and level of empathy. (COTTON)*

Black, H., and Phillips, S. "An Intervention Program for the Development of Empathy in Student Teachers." THE JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 112 (1982): 159-168. 

Describes a program designed to increase the empathetic behavior of student teachers and compares the scores of program participants on different aspects of empathy with the scores of nonparticipants. Results were mixed.  (COTTON)*

Bonner, T. D., and Aspy, D. N. "A Study of the Relationship Between Student Empathy and GPA." HUMANISTIC EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT 22/4 (1984): 149- 154. 

Reports on a study comparing the scores of secondary students on measures of empathy with their grade point averages. A significant and positive relationship was found. (COTTON)*

Borden, L. A .; Karr, S. K.; and Caldwell-Colbert, A. T. "Effects of a University Rape Prevention Program on Attitudes and Empathy Toward Rape." JOURNAL OF COLLEGE STUDENT DEVELOPMENT 29/2 (1988): 132-136. 

Studies the relationship between pre- and postparticipation in a rape prevention program on the attitudes toward rape and levels of empathy toward rapists and victims held by male and female students. The only significant correlation was that female students had higher empathy for rape victims than males. (COTTON)*

(BREHM + 1981)Brehm, S. S.; Fletcher, B. L.; and West, V. "Effects of Empathy Instructions on First-Graders' Liking of Other People." CHILD STUDY JOURNAL 11/1 (1981): 1-15. 

Examines, in two experiments, the effects of "empathy instructions" on the attitudes of first graders toward characters in a story tape. Results were mixed. One finding: empathy increased when a story character experienced a negative outcome.  (COTTON)*

(CLARKE 1984)Clarke, P. "What Kind of Discipline is Most Likely to Lead to Empathic Behaviour in Classrooms?" HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE TEACHER 19/4 (1984): 240-241. 

Reviews research on home- and school-based disciplinary practices which are associated with greater and lesser expressions of empathy on the parts of children and older youth. Draws implications for classroom practice based on findings about the efficacy of empathy training.  (COTTON)*

(DIXON 1980)Dixon, D. A. "The Caring Curriculum." SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY 67/4 (1980): 13-15. 

Describes the purpose, activities, and outcomes of The Caring Curriculum, a program intended to foster the development of empathy in elementary students, following its implementation in schools in St. Louis and in the province of Quebec. Several beneficial effects were noted. (COTTON)*

(EISENBERG + 1983)Eisenberg, N.; Lennon, R.; and Roth, K. "Prosocial Development: A Longitudinal Study." DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 19/6 (1983): 846-855.

Looks at relationships among prosocial moral judgment, prohibition-oriented moral  judgment, and maternal child rearing practices with children of different ages. One  finding: supportive, nonpunitive, nonauthoritarian child rearing practices were  positively related to mature moral judgment.  (COTTON)*

(EISENBERG + 1978)Eisenberg-Berg, N., and Mussen, P. "Empathy and Moral Development in Adolescence." DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 14/2 (1978): 185-186. 

Compares the empathy ratings of 72 senior high school students with their ratings on two moral development measures (moral reasoning and helping) and with parental socialization practices. A positive relationship between empathy and moral reasoning were noted for both sexes; and warm, supportive, nonauthoritarian maternal behaviors were positively related with high empathy in boys. (COTTON)*

(HAHN 1980)Hahn, S. L. "Let's Try a Positive Approach." FOREIGN LANGUAGE ANNALS 13/5 (1980):415-417.

Cites research indicating that students' attitudes toward foreign cultures are more positive if classroom activities begin by stressing similarities between the native and foreign culture rather than focusing on differences. Identifies and describes classroom activities that can foster cross-cultural empathy.  (COTTON)*

(HAYNES + 1979)Haynes, L. A., and Avery, A. W. "Training Adolescents in Self-Disclosure and Empathy Skills." JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY 26/6 (1979): 526-530. 

Compares scores on measures of self-disclosure and empathic understanding of high school juniors who participated in a training program in these areas with the scores of those who did not. Experimental students significantly outperformed controls. (COTTON)*

(HERBEK + 1990)Herbek, T. A., and Yammarino, F. J. "Empathy Training for Hospital Staff Nurses." GROUP & ORGANIZATIONAL STUDIES 15/3 (1990): 279-295.

Compares the empathy-scale scores of nurses who participated in an empathy training course with a control group and with their own pre-course scores. Results show that the training enhanced empathy.  (COTTON)*

(HINCHEY + 1982)Hinchey, F. S., and Gavelek, J. R. "Empathic Responding in Children of Battered Mothers." CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT 6/4 (1982): 395-401. 

Compares the empathic responses of preschoolers whose fathers physically abused their mothers with the responses of children from nonabusive homes. Children of nonabusive fathers exhibited greater empathy on three of four measures. (COTTON)*

(Howard + 1981)
Howard, J. A., and Barnett, M. A. "Arousal of Empathy and Subsequent Generosity in Young Children." JOURNAL OF GENETIC PSYCHOLOGY 138/2 (1981): 307-308. 

Compares the altruistic behavior of children in preschool through second grade in two experimental groups--those who were encouraged to think about the feelings of other, needy children and those to whom the other children's feelings were not mentioned. Children who were encouraged to think about feelings were significantly more generous. (COTTON)*

(HUGHES + 1981)Hughes, R., Jr.; Tingle, B. A.; and Sawin, D. B. "Development of Empathic Understanding in Children." CHILD DEVELOPMENT 52/1 (1981): 122-128. 

Compared kindergarten children with second graders in terms of their responses to slide stories of children in emotion-provoking situations. One finding: younger children's understanding of the story-children's emotions was improved if they were first encouraged to focus on their own emotional responses. (COTTON)*

(IANNOTTI 1978)Iannotti, R. J. "Effect of Role-Taking Experiences on Role Taking, Empathy, Altruism, and Aggression." DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 14/2 (1978): 119-124.

Examines the effects of role-taking experiences on future role taking, empathy, altruism, and aggression among boys 6 and 9 years of age. The experiences improved the role-taking ability of boys in both age groups. Altruism was increased with the 6-year-olds. Neither aggressive nor empathic behaviors was affected for any of the subjects.  (COTTON)*

(JOHNSON + 1983)Johnson, D. S.; Johnson, R.; and Anderson, D. "Social Interdependence and Classroom Climate." THE JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 114 (1983): 135-142. 

Compares (1) amounts of student participation in cooperative learning activities and (2) their attitudes toward these activities with their ratings on measures of classroom climate, including perceptions about support and caring from  teachers and fellow students.  (COTTON)*

(KALLIOPUSKA + 1983)Kalliopuska, M. EMPATHY IN SCHOOL STUDENTS. Helsinki, Finland: Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki, 1983. (ED 240 423) 

Compares outcomes on measures of empathy of three experimental groups and a control group of Finnish students, ages 11-18. The students exhibiting the greatest empathy were those who participated in the most intensive of three kinds of "empathy campaigns." (COTTON)*

(KAPLAN + 1985)Kaplan, P. J., and Arbuthnot, J. "Affective Empathy and Cognitive Role-Taking in Delinquent and Nondelinquent Youth." ADOLESCENCE 20/78 (1985): 323- 333. 

Compared adolescent, delinquent boys and girls with nondelinquent boys and girls in terms of their scores on three empathy measures. Nondelinquents outscored delinquents on one of the measures; no differences were noted on the other two.  (COTTON)*

(KESTENBAUM + 1989)Kestenbaum, R.; Farber, E. A.; and Sroufe, L. A. "Individual Differences in Empathy Among Preschoolers: Relation to Attachment History." In EMPATHY AND RELATED EMOTIONAL RESPONSES. No. 44 in New Directions for Child Development series, edited by N. Eisenberg. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc., 1989.

Looks at the responses of preschool children to classmates in distress in relation to "attachment" profiles of those children when they were infants. Children who were most securely attached to their mothers as infants later exhibited the greatest amounts of empathy toward peers. (COTTON)*

(KOHN 1991)Kohn, A. "Caring Kids: The Role of the Schools." PHI DELTA KAPPAN 72/7 (1991): 496-506.

Draws upon psychological and classroom research to support the contention that prosocial traits are as basic to human nature as are selfish or antisocial traits, and that prosocial classroom management and learning activities are beneficial to individuals and to society. (COTTON)*

(KREMER + 1991)Kremer, J. F., and Dietzen, L. L. "Two Approaches to Teaching Accurate Empathy to Undergraduates: Teacher-Intensive and Self-Directed." JOURNAL OF COLLEGE STUDENT DEVELOPMENT 32 (1991): 69- 75.
Compares the "appropriate empathy" ratings of students receiving training in empathy with the ratings of controls; also compared self-directed training using programmed materials with teacher-directed training. Experimentals outperformed controls on both immediate and long-term assessments; training methods were equally effective. (COTTON)*

(LADD + 1983)Ladd, G. W.; Lange, G.; and Stremmel, A. "Personal and Situational Influences on Children's Helping Behavior: Factors That Mediate Compliant Helping." CHILD DEVELOPMENT 54/2 (1983): 488-501.

Explores, in three experiments, relationships among several variables--age and sex of subjects, different kinds of need for help, recognition of need for help, knowledge of how to help, adult exhortations to help, etc. One finding: adult encouragement to help increased helping behavior. (COTTON)*

(MCDEVITT + 1991)McDevitt, T. M.; Lennon, R.; and Kopriva, R. J. "Adolescents' Perceptions of Mothers' and Fathers' Prosocial Actions and Empathic Responses." YOUTH AND SOCIETY 22/3 (1991):

Looks at adolescents' views regarding their parents' encouragement of prosocial and empathic behavior in relation to those adolescents' scores on measures of prosocial behavior and empathy. Children of highly prosocial/empathic parents were themselves more prosocial/empathic than other adolescents. (COTTON)*

(MILLS + 1989)Mills, R. S., and Grusec, J. E. "Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Consequences of Praising  Altruism." MERRILL-PALMER QUARTERLY 35/3 (1989): 299-326.

Investigates the effects of dispositional praise (attributing behavior to a positive trait), nondispositional praise, and no praise on the sharing and self-perceptions of 8- and 9-year-olds. Dispositional praise positively affected cognitive, affective and behavioral outcomes; other conditions did not. Girls were more generous than boys.  (COTTON)*

(MORGAN 1983)Morgan, S. R. "Development of Empathy in Emotionally Disturbed Children." HUMANISTIC EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT 22/2 (1983): 70-79. 

Compares the behavior of elementary-level emotionally disturbed children in classrooms utilizing a humanistic/psychoeducational model with the behavior of those in classrooms utilizing a behavioral/learning model. Children in the former exhibited significantly greater empathy, responsibility, and self-control. (COTTON)*

(PECUKONIS 1990)Pecukonis, E. V. "A Cognitive/Affective Empathy Training Program as a Function of Ego Development in Aggressive Adolescent Females." ADOLESCENCE 25/97 (1990): 59-76. 

Examines the relationship between the ego development and empathy in aggressive adolescent girls, then reports the effects of an empathy training program on these girls' levels of empathy.  (COTTON)*

(PERRY + 1981)Perry, D. G.; Bussey, K.; and Freiberg, K. "Impact of Adults' Appeals for Sharing on the Development of Altruistic Dispositions in Children." JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY 32/1 (1981): 127-138.

Compares the sharing behavior of second and third graders after three different kinds of appeal: a "power-assertive" appeal emphasizing punitive consequences, an "inductive" appeal emphasizing the good feelings one gets from sharing, and a neutral appeal to share with no further commentary. The inductive appeal produced the greatest amount of sharing. (COTTON)*

(SIEGAL 1985)Siegal, M. "Mother-Child Relations and the Development of Empathy: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study." CHILD PSYCHIATRY AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 16/2 (1985): 77-86.

Examines relationships among gender constancy (awareness that one's gender is unchanging throughout life), gender identification, and empathy among children in first grade at two points in time. A positive correlation was noted between identification with one's mother at Time 1 and empathy score at Time 2 for both boys and girls. (COTTON)*

(SLAVIN 1985)Slavin, R. E. "Cooperative Learning: Applying Contact Theory in Desegregated Schools." JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES 41/3 (1985): 45-62.

Reviews research on effects of cooperative learning on cross-racial friendships and discusses findings in relation to Gordon Allport's "contact theory," a set of principles detailing when interracial contact leads to improved relationships and when it does not. Cooperative learning has been found to enhance crossracial friendships. (COTTON)*

(STEIBE + 1979)Steibe, S. C.; Bolet, D. B.; and Lee, D. C. "Trainee Trait Empathy, Age, Trainer Functioning, Client Age and Training Time as Discriminators of Successful Empathy Training." CANADIAN COUNSELLOR 14/1 (1979): 41-45. 

Examines relationships among "trait" empathy, age, and other variables in a study involving Roman Catholic nuns taking part in empathy training. Younger trainees exhibited greater empathy than older ones, and trainees with greater natural empathy achieved higher scores than those with less.  (COTTON)*

(UNDERWOOD + 1982)Underwood, B., and Moore, B. "Perspective-Taking and Altruism." PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN 91/1 (1982): 143- 173. 

Presents the details and results of a meta-analysis of the research relating perspective-taking (perceptual, social, empathic, and moral) to altruism in children. Overall, a moderate but reliable positive relationship was noted. (COTTON)*

(YOGEV + 1982)Yogev, A., and Ronen, R. "Cross-Age Tutoring: Effects on Tutors' Attributes." JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH 75/5 (1982): 261-268.

Compares the scores on measures of empathy, altruism, and self-esteem of senior high Israeli students who served as tutors of junior high students with their own pretutoring scores and with the scores of nonparticipating schoolmates. Experienced tutors significantly outscored both their own previous levels and the nontutors on all measures.  (COTTON)*

(ZAHN-WAXLER + 1979)Zahn-Waxler, C.; Radke-Yarrow, M.; and King, R. A. "Child Rearing and Children's Prosocial 

Initiations toward Victims of Distress." CHILD DEVELOPMENT 50/2 (1979): 319-330. Investigates the behavior of small children in circumstances where they were either an observer or the cause of others' distress in relation the behaviors of their mothers in similar circumstances. Empathic parenting was positively related to altruistic and conciliatory behavior by children. (COTTON)*

(review this)

Batson, C. D. "How Social An Animal? The Human Capacity for Caring." AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST 45/3 (1990): 336-346. 

Discusses the notion underlying much psychological thinking and writing that no human behavior is ever truly selfless and altruistic. Describes a series of experiments that contradict this notion by demonstrating helping behavior in situations where subjects have nothing to gain by being altruistic.   (COTTON)*

Blesius, R. "The Concept of Empathy." PSYCHOLOGY 26/4 (1989): 10-15.

 Discusses the general concept of empathy, various definitions, and the importance of empathy in therapeutic relationships. Provides scenarios illustrating empathic and nonempathic caregiving.   (COTTON)*

Broome, B. J. "Building Shared Meaning: Implications of a Relational Approach to Empathy for Teaching Intercultural Communication." COMMUNICATION EDUCATION 40/3 (1991): 235-249. 

Discusses the inappropriateness of applying common concepts of empathy to intercultural communications. Promotes instead the concept of "relational empathy," which allows cross-cultural communicators to develop meaning and significance together rather than seeking to understand one another's feelings and point of view.  (COTTON)*

Eisenberg, N. (ed.). EMPATHY AND RELATED EMOTIONAL RESPONSES. No. 44 in New Directions for Child Development series. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc., 1989. 

Provides a collection of research articles on the nature and development of empathy and other prosocial qualities in young children.   (COTTON)*

Eisenberg, N., and Strayer, J. (eds.). EMPATHY AND ITS DEVELOPMENT. Cambridge: Cam-bridge University Press, 1987. 

Presents a series of essays dealing with different aspects of empathy: definitions, historical perspectives, development throughout life, empirical research findings, issues related to measurement, and other topics.   (COTTON)*

Ellis, P. L. "Empathy: A Factor in Antisocial Behavior." JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY 10/1 (1982): 123-134.

Compares three subcategories of delinquent male teenagers with each other and with a control group to identify relationships among delinquency, nondelinquency, and empathy. Several correlations were identified.   (COTTON)*

Gallo, D. "Educating for Empathy, Reason and Imagination." THE JOURNAL OF CREATIVE BEHAVIOR 23/2 (1989): 98-115. 

Argues that, although empathy is sometimes thought to be an emotional response that is unrelated or possibly detrimental to reasoning, empathy in fact fosters both creative and critical thinking, and thus developing it should be adopted as an important educational goal.    (COTTON)*

Grauerholz, E., and Scuteri, G. M. "Learning to RoleTake: A Teaching Technique to Enhance Awareness of the Other'." TEACHING SOCIOLOGY 17/4 (1989): 480-483. 

Draws upon research supporting the effectiveness of journal writing in a role-taking mode for increasing empathy to develop and describe the activities and benefits of such activities with sociology students.  (COTTON)*

Goldstein, A. P., and Michaels, G. Y. EMPATHY: DEVELOPMENT, TRAINING, AND CONSEQUENCES. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1985. 

Discusses various definitions of empathy, outlines its development within people, identifies its component parts, and discusses its role and effects in parentchild and teacher-student relationships. Discusses training approaches to increase subjects' levels of empathy.  (COTTON)*

Jacobs, D. "Successful Empathy Training." JOURNAL OF HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY 21/4 (1981): 39-56. 

Reports the results of a study designed to test the author's conviction that the failure of many short-term empathy training programs to produce desirable increases in "empathic understanding" is largely a result of the way that subjects are oriented to the requirements of tasks in the studies.  (COTTON)*

Jones, B. F. "The New Definition of Learning: The First Step to School Reform." RESTRUCTURING TO PROMOTE LEARNING IN AMERICA'S SCHOOLS. A  GUIDEBOOK. Elmhurst, IL: North Central Regional Educational Laboratory, 1990. 

Provides a research-based definition of the successful learner as one whose major attributes include being knowledgeable, self-determined, strategic, and empathetic.  (COTTON)*

Kaslow, F. W. "On the Nature of Empathy." INTELLECT 105 (1977): 273-277. 

Discusses differing views of empathy--in biological, sociological, and psychoanalytic theory. The role of empathy in therapeutic practice is discussed, drawing from the work of many theorists and practitioners.   (COTTON)*

McCollough, T. E. TRUTH AND ETHICS IN SCHOOL REFORM. Washington, DC: Council for Educational Development and Research, 1992. 

Argues that discussions of school reform and restructuring need to include attention to the moral and ethical dimensions of schooling and of life in general, in order to educate young people to be caring, contributing citizens.  (COTTON)*

Noddings, N. "Do We Really Want to Produce Good People?" JOURNAL OF MORAL EDUCATION 16/3 (1987): 177- 188. 

Discusses differences between traditional male and female beliefs about goodness, arguing that feminine viewpoints have been underrepresented in our cultural understanding of moral issues. Calls for increased attention to these viewpoints and identifies implications for education.  (COTTON)*

Noddings, N. THE CHALLENGE TO CARE IN SCHOOLS: AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO EDUCATION. Advances in Contemporary Educational Thought, Volume 8. New York: Teachers College Press, 1992. 

Criticizes the American approach to public education, particularly what the author believes to be its excessive focus on developing verbal and mathematical linear abilities. Calls for a restructuring of education focused on caring at all levels--from caring for the self to caring for other people, other species, the planet, and intangibles such as enobling ideas.  (COTTON)*

Robinson, M. G. "Awareness Program Helps Children Understand Special Needs." EDUCATION UNLIMITED 1/2 (1979): 25-27. 

Describes a program designed to increase understanding of and empathy with handicapped children on the part of nonhandicapped children. Experiential activities which approximate handicapping conditions, exposure to appliances used by the handicapped, and opportunities to meet and interact with handicapped adults are featured.  (COTTON)*

Roe, K. V. "Early Empathy Development in Children and the Subsequent Internalization of Moral Values." THE JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 110 (1980): 147-148.

Explores the relationship between children's scores on an empathy measure and their scores on a measure of internalization of moral values three years later. A significant correlation was found between high empathy and high internalization scores. (COTTON)*

Stiff, J. B.; Dillard, J. P.; Somera, L.; Kim, H.; and Sleight, C. "Empathy, Communication, and Prosocial Behavior." COMMUNICATION MONOGRAPHS 55/2 (1988): 198- 213.

Presents results of two experiments conducted to test a model of the relationship among several cognitive and affective qualities related to empathy and prosocial behavior. Results indicated that concern for others-- rather than for oneself-- motivates empathic concern and prosocial behavior. (COTTON)*

Thomson, G. O. B. "Educating for Responsibility: Some Developmental Considerations."

Draws upon the work of several theorists who have written about the nature of moral development and focuses on the educational implications of their work. Devotes considerable attention to the development of empathy. (COTTON)*

Vaughn, S. "TLC--Teaching, Learning, and Caring: Teaching Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills to Behaviorally Disordered Adolescents." THE POINTER 31/2 (1987): 25-30. 

Describes a program for behaviorally disordered senior high school students which teaches problem solving skills as a means of increasing their social competence. Learning to develop and express a sense of empathy is a key component of the  program. (COTTON)*