Training: Papers‎ > ‎

(Brink 1991)

DOI or Website Link:  
Authors:   Hilla Brink
Date:    July 1991
Affiliation(s):   DXitt. etPhU. RJJ. R M . R.T. RNA R.CMJi. Dept, of Nursing Science University of South Africa

In nursing empathy is generally regarded as an essential component of nurse-patient interaction, but there appears to be a lack of clarity among nurse educators and professional nurses regarding its nature and how it may be taught and measured. This paper focuses on an analysis o f selected theoretical works related to the nature and teaching of empathy, and an attempt is made to identify fundamental issues regarding the phenomenon "empathy'' and its place in clinical nursing practice. 

Topic Area:
 (In which field / sector / perspective was this study conducted?)
  • nursing 

(How was empathy defined?)

(Were any benefits of empathy mentioned?)

 (What were the methods used to train empathy?)

Target Group:  
(Who participated in this study / training?)

About the assessment: How was the change in empathy measured before/after the intervention/method?) 

(What was the result?)

Posted By:  


(Any other relevant information)


ANDERSON, H. & GERRARD, B. 1984. A comprehensive interpersonal skills program for nurses. Journal o f Nursing Education 23 (no. 8): 353-355 

ASPY, D.N. 1975 Empathy: Let’s get the hell on with it. The Counselling Psychologist 5 (no. 2): 10-14 

BARRETT-LENNARD, G.T. 1981. The empathy cycle. Refinement of a nuclear concept. Journal o f counselling Psychology 28 (no. 2): 91-100 

BENNER, P. 1984. From Novice to Expert: Excellence and Power in clinical nursing practice. Reading M.A. Addison-Wesley. 

BRADLEY, J.C. and EDINBERG, M.A. 1986. Communication in the nursing context. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall International 

BRUNT, J.H. 1985. An exploration of the relationship between nurses empathy and technology. Nursing Administration Quarterly 9 (no. 4): 69-78 

CARKHUFF, R.R. 1969. Helping and human relations. A primer for lay and professional helpers. New York: Hall Rinehart & Winston. 

DAGENEIS, F. and MELEIS, A.I. 1982. Professionalism, work ethic and empathy in nursing: The nurse self-description form. Western Journal o f Nursing Research 4: 407-422 

EHMANN, V.E. 1971. Empathy: Its origin, characteristics and process. Perspectives in psychiatric care 9 (no. 2): 72-79 

FARRELL, M. HALEY, M. and MAGNASCO, J. 1977. Teaching interpersonal skills. Nursing Outlook 25: 322-325 

FORSYTH, G.L. 1979. Exploration of empathy in nurse-client interaction. Advances in Nursing Science 1 (no. 2): 53-61 FREUD, S. 1959. Group Psychology and the analysis of the ego (rev ed). New York: Liveright. 

GAGAN, J.M. 1983. Methodological notes on empathy. Advances in Nursing Science. 1 (no. 2): 53-61 

GAZDA, G.M., ASBURY, F.S., BALZER, FJ., CHILDERS, W.C. and WALTERS R.P. 1984. Human Relations development. Boston: Allan & Bacon. GAZDA, G.M., 

CHILDERS, W.C. and BROOKS, D.K. Jnr. 1987. Foundations of Counselling and human services. New York: McGrant-Hill. 

GLADSTEIN, G.A. 1983. Understanding empathy: Integrating counselling, developmental and social psychology perspectives. Journal o f Counselling Psychology 30 (no. 4): 467-482 

GRIFFIN, A.P. 1983. A philosophical analysis of caring in nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing 8: 289-295 

GRUEN, R.J. and MENDELSOHN, G. 1986. Emotional responses to affective displays in others. The distinction between empathy and sympathy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 33: 307-316 

HENDERSON, V. 1964. The nature of nursing. American Journal of Nursing 64 (no. 8): 62-68 HOGAN, R. 1975. Empathy: A conceptual and psychometric analysis. The Counselling Psychologist 5 (no. 2): 14-18

 JAN ZEN, S.A. 1984. Empathic nurse's non-verbal communication. Doctoral Dissertation: University of Illinois 

KALISCH, B J. 1971. An experiment in the development of empathy in nursing students. Nursing Research 20: 202-211 

KALISCH, B.J. 1971. Strategies for developing nurse empathy. Nursing Outlook 19 (no. 11): 714-718

 KALISCH, B J. 1973. What is empathy. American Journal of Nursing 73: 1548-1522 KATZ, R.L. 1963. Empathy: Its nature and uses. Glencoe: Free Press 

KUNST-WILSON, W , CARPENTER, L. POSER, A. VENOHR, I. and KUSHNER, K. 1981. Empathic perceptions of nursing students: Self-reported and actual ability. Research in Nursing and Health 4: 283-293 

LA MONICA, E.L. 1979. Empathy in nursing practice. Issues in Mental Health Nursing 2:1-13 LA 

MONICA, E.L. 1981. Construct validity of an empathic instrument. Research in Nursing and Health 4: 389-400 

LA MONICA, E.L., 1983. Empathy can be learned. Nursing Education 8 (no. 2): 19-23 LA MONICA, E.L., 

MADEA, A.R. and OBEST, M.T. 1987. Empathy and Nursing care outcomes. Scholarly inquiry for nursing practice: An International Journal 1 (no. 3): 197-213 

LAYTON, J.M. 1979. The use of modeling to teach empathy to nursing students. Research in Nursing and Health 2: 163-176 

LAYTON, J.M. and WYKLE, M.H. 1990. A validity study of four empathy instruments. Research in nursing and health 13: 319-325

LEININGER, M. 1978. Transcultural nursing: Concepts, theories and practices. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 

LUDEMANN, R.S. 1968. Empathy - a component of therapeutic nursing. Nursing , Forum 7: 276-288 

MACKAY, R.C., HUGHES, J R. and CARVER, E.J. (ed). Empathy in the helping relationship, New York: Springer Publishing Company 

MANSFIELD, E. 1973. Empathy: Concept and identified psychiatric nursing behaviour. Nursing Research 22: 525-529 

MEHRABIAN, A. and EPSTEIN, N. 1972. A measure of emotional empathy: Journal of Personality. 40: 525-543 

PEPLAU, H.E. 1952. Interpersonal relations in nursing. New York: Putnam 

RAWNSLEY, M.M. 1980. Toward a conceptual base for affective nursing. Nursing Outlook 28: 244-247 ROGERS, C.R. 1957. The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic person­ ality change. Journal o f Consulting Psychology 21: 95-103 

SCHWARTZ, S. KOGLER HILL, S. and PERLOFF, R. 1983. Interpersonal Empathy. Eric document 229824. April 1983 

SPEROFF, B.J. 1956. Empathy is important in nursing. Nursing Outlook. 4 (no. 6): 326-328 

STOTLAND, E. MATHEWS, K.E.L. SHER-MAN, S.E. HANSSON, R.O. and RICHARDSON, B.Z. 1978. Empathy, Fantasy and helping. Beverley Hills. Sage and reference (p.42)

TRAVELBEE, J. 1964. What’s wrong with sympathy? American Journal o f Nursing 64: 68-71 

TRAVELBEE, J. 1966. Interpersonal aspects o f nursing. Philadelphia: F.A. Davies 

TRUAX, C.B. and CARKHUFF, R.R. 1967. Toward effective counselling and psychotherapy: Training and practice. Chicago: Aldine. 

TYNER, R. 1985. Elements of empathetic care for dying patients and their families. Nursing Clinics o f Northern America 20: 393-401 Universal Readers Digest Dictionary 1987 

WATSON, J. 1979. Nursing: The philosophy and science o f caring. Boston: Little-Brown 

ZDERAD, L. 1969 Empathic nursing. Nursing Clinics of Northern America 4: 655-662