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HES (Hogan) 1969




 Defines empathy as ‘‘the intellectual or imaginative apprehension of another’s condition or state of mind (Hogan, 1969).’’ 

64-item scale composed of 31 items selected from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI; Hathaway & McKinley, 1943), 25 items selected from the California Psychological Inventory (CPI; Gough, 1964) and 8 items created by Hogan and colleagues. 




ROBERT PAUL BUTTERS (2010)
"The most frequently used self-report empathy scales are




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