1983 Davis

"In contrast to the relatively specific conceptualizations of Hoffman, Eisenberg, and Batson, the most inclusive approach to empathy in contemporary research is that of Mark H. Davis (e.g., Davis, 1983; Davis, Conklin, Smith, & Luce, 1996; Davis, Hull, Young, & Warren, 1987; Davis, Luce, & Kraus, 1994; for a review, see Davis, 1996). 

Davis views empathy explicitly as a multidimensional phenomenon and has analyzed it in four separate but related self-report subscales - perspective taking, fantasy, empathic concern, and personal distress (Davis, 1983) and has proposed (Davis, 1996) an organizational model of the empathy construct"