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(TOUSSAINT + 2005)

J Soc Psychol. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2007 Aug 31.
Published in final edited form as:
J Soc Psychol. 2005 Dec; 145(6): 673–685.doi: 10.3200/SOCP.145.6.673-686

"The broad definition of empathy includes affective and cognitive components (Zahn-Waxler & Radke-Yarrow, 1990). It has been defined “as accurately perceiving the internal frame of reference of another” (Gold & Rogers, 1995, p. 79) and includes nonverbal communication (Katz, 1963). Moore (1990) asserted that empathy is “an organizer and regulator of a variety of behaviors” (p. 75), and Zahn-Waxler and Radke-Yarrow said empathy is central to what it means to be fully human. 

As such, it is critical to moral development and justice, thereby acting as a catalyst for societal cohesion and unity (Hoffman, 1990), because constructive interpersonal relations are contingent upon a willingness to take another’s perspective (Johnson, Cheek, & Smither, 1983)."